Low-Power Pipelined ADC Design for Wireless LANs

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1 Low-Power Pipelined ADC Design for Wireless LANs J. Arias, D. Bisbal, J. San Pablo, L. Quintanilla, L. Enriquez, J. Vicente, J. Barbolla Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Univ. de Valladolid, Spain. V. Boccuzzi, M. Banu Agere Systems, 555 Union Boulevard, Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1819, USA

2 INDEX Design Functional Blocks Simulation Experimental Results Architecture Operational Amplifiers Monte Carlo Nonlinearity measurements Single Stage Flash ADCs Spectre SNR & SNDR measurements DACs EVM measurements Digital logic

3 Block Diagram of the ADC Digital Delay & Correction Logic Analog Input Even Samples Odd samples Stage Stage Stage Stage #1 #2 #8 #9 Stage Stage Stage Stage #1 #2 #8 #9 MUX Digital Output Digital Delay & Correction Logic

4 Simplified Pipeline Stage SHA Transfer function Vin +Vref/4 Φ1 Φ1 C2 C1 (Cs) (Cs) Φ1 Vres +Vref +Vref Vref/4 Digital Output 1.5 bit Flash ADC +Vref Vref 1.5 bit DAC + Vref 2 Vref Vref Vref 4 +Vref 4 +Vref

5 Operational Amplifiers VDD First stage is a telescopic cascode: Vo+ Cc1 Cc2 Vi+ SC OUTER CMFB Vbpc CT INNER CMFB Vbnc Vbn GND Cc1 Cc2 Vi Vo Large DC gain: Short channel devices are OK Low Parasitics 2 cascode nodes available for compensation: Split Compensation Capacitors give more Gain Bandwidth or Phase Margin Two Common Mode Feedback loops: Good stability Outer loop is a SC circuit due to linearity requirements. Main Specs: Slew rate: 166 V/µ s Gain Bandwidth: 2 MHz

6 1.5 Bit, Flash, sub ADC Vi+ Vi Vref/4 Vref/4+ Φ1 Φ1 Φ1 Φ1 Cs Vcm Cs Cs Vcm bit 1 /bit 1 bit /bit Thermometer output Cs No charge pumping. Low Power Sensitive to charge injection from switches, but: Charge injection generate offsets Offsets are removed through digital correction

7 Comparator VDD M3 M4 CLK m11 Low gain Preamplifier Isolates input from kick back noise M7 M9 fast settling Out+ Full Swing Latch Fast regeneration. No metastability Out Rail to rail output Vi+ M1 M2 Vi M6 M8 Clocked output Avoids non CMOS levels Vbn M5 /CLK M1

8 1.5 Bit sub DAC Sb Thermometer input Ι I1 /I /I1 /φ2 a b c Switch control +Vref Vcm Vref Sc Sa Sa Sc +Dac Dac Sb High impedance output during phase 1. This saves 2 series switches in the S&H circuit High linearity thanks to wire crossing inversion

9 Digital Delay and Correction Circuit p2 p1 Analog Pipeline p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 D9 p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 p1 p2 d1 stage 1 d d1 stage 2 d d1 stage 3 d d1 stage 4 d d1 stage 5 d d1 stage 6 d d1 stage 7 d d1 stage 8 d c Σ s c Σ s c Σ s c Σ s c Σ s c Σ s c Σ s D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 p1 d1 stage 9 d D1 D (no amps)

10 System level Simulation Single INL run Monte Carlo INL DNL.2 4 INL (LSB) Counts ADC code Max. nonlinearity Effects simulated: Capacitor mismatch Comparator offset Finite opamp gain Digital correction logic.

11 Transistor level Simulation (Spectre) Ampl. (db) Freq. (MHz) Simulated from extracted circuit Distortion < 6 db Power: 11.5 mw Analog: 9.75 mw Digital: 1.75 mw Effects not included: Mismatch Circuit noise

12 Area: 15 x 88 µm 2, including pads. Chip photograph

13 Measurements

14 Measured Nonlinearity Graphs DNL (LSB) DNL (LSB) ADC code ADC code INL (LSB) INL (LSB) ADC code ADC code - Code density measurement with sinusoidal input.

15 Frequency-domain measurements MHz, CT 13.3 MHz, CT 13.3 MHz, sampled 19.3 MHz, sampled, INL corr. Amplitude (db) SNDR (db) Frequency (MHz) Input amplitude (db) - Single and two-tone tests - Continuous time and sampled sinusoids.

16 EVM measurements with real OFDM signals IQ constellation DUT E1439A -1 EVM (percent, rms) Input amplitude (db) - 54-Mbit/s OFDM signal (IEEE 82.11a/g). 1 MHz carrier. - Agilent s EVM test equipment & software.

17 Performance summary Resolution Sampling Rate Power consumption 1 bits 4 MHz ADC: 11.7 mw Pin drivers: 1.3 mw (C L 4.5 pf) 2.5-V,.25-µm, CMOS (MOM cap.) Technology Chip Area (w. pads) mm 2 (wo. pads) mm 2 Nonlinearity DNL:.77 LSB (max) SNR SNDR ENOB INL: 1.15 LSB 61.3 db 57.6 db 9.3 bit

18 Low-Power Pipelined ADC Design for Wireless LANs J. Arias, D. Bisbal, J. San Pablo, L. Quintanilla, L. Enriquez, J. Vicente, J. Barbolla Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Univ. de Valladolid, Spain. V. Boccuzzi, M. Banu Agere Systems, 555 Union Boulevard, Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1819, USA

19 Operational Amplifiers Inner CMFB Outer CMFB Circuit Circuit Φ1 VDD Vcm Vo+ Vo Φ1 Φ1 Φ1 Φ1 CMFB Vo+ Vo Φ1 Φ1 Vbn GND CMFB Continuous time Diff. pair + level shifter Small differential input range Discrete time Highly linear. Large input range Two circuits operate on alternate clock phases

20 Performance summary Resolution Sampling Rate Power consumption 1 bits 4 MHz ADC: 11.7 mw Pin drivers: 1.3 mw (C L 4.5 pf) 2.5-V,.25-µm, CMOS (MOM cap.) Technology Chip Area (w. pads) mm 2 (wo. pads) mm 2 Nonlinearity DNL:.77 LSB SNR (max) SNDR (max) ENOB (max) INL: 1.15 LSB MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz Notes: Sampled input. Sampled input and static INL correction.

21 OFDM modulation Large number of subcarriers per channel. Orthogonality = No interference bw. subcarriers. T s A i cos ω i t ϕ i A j cos ω j t ϕ j dt OFDM modulation and demodulation are done via Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT).

22 OFDM (standard IEEE 82.11a/g) OFDM channel spectrum 64 sub carriers, but No DC carrier (f= Hz) No carriers close to adjadcent channels 1 MHz +1 MHz 54 used subcarriers. 64 QAM subcarrier im 48 carriers for data. Subcarrier modulation: QAM QAM constellations: 64 (54 mb/s), 16 or 4 points. re Symbol time (4 us) 288 bits FFT time (3.2 us)

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