Primary-Controlled High-PF Flyback Converters Deliver Constant Dc Output Current

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Primary-Controlled High-PF Flyback Converters Deliver Constant Dc Output Current"

Transcription

1 Primary-Conrolled High-PF Flyback Converers eliver Consan c Oupu Curren Claudio Adragna SMicroelecronics Via C. Olivei, 2 Agrae Brianza (MB), Ialy el.: +39 / (39) Fax: +39 / (39) URL: hp:// Keywords «Converer conrol», «Power facor correcion», «Lighing» Absrac his paper describes a conrol mehod of high-power-facor flyback converers for regulaing heir dc oupu curren using only quaniies available on he primary side. he purpose is o achieve opo-less consan-curren regulaion in isolaed offline drivers of LE lamps for bulb replacemen where a power facor >.9 is required. Inroducion Offline drivers of LE-based lamps for bulb replacemen are ofen required o achieve a power facor greaer han.9 and o provide safey isolaion; a he same ime, for cos reasons, i is desirable o regulae he oupu dc curren required for a proper LE driving wihou closing a feedback loop. In his way, he curren sensing elemen, he volage reference and he error amplifier on he secondary side, as well as he opocoupler ha ransfers he error signal o he conrol circui locaed on he primary side are no longer needed (opo-less regulaion). he high-power-facor (high-pf) flyback converer, whose principle schemaic is shown on he lefhand side of figure 1, is a opology ha mees he requiremens on power facor and isolaion wih a simple and inexpensive power sage. In his converer, like in any high-pf opology, here is no an energy reservoir capacior direcly conneced o he inpu recifier bridge, so ha he volage applied o he power sage is a recified sinusoid. o achieve high-pf, he inpu curren mus rack he inpu volage, hus originaing a ime-dependen inpu-o-oupu power flow. As a resul, he oupu curren ineviably conains a large ac componen a wice he mains frequency. Vac R1 R2 Vin Cf Vou LOA Iou Secondary curren peak envelope I pks ( θ ) Secondary recifier curren Primary curren peak envelope I pkp ( θ ) RZC Primary swich curren I p (,θ ) c oupu curren I ou CONROL EVICE SW Cycle-by-cycle average primary curren C Rs SWICH ON OFF Fig. 1: High-PF flyback converer: principle schemaic (lef) and key curren waveforms (righ)

2 As of oday, conrol algorihms able o regulae he dc oupu curren of a flyback converer using only quaniies available on is primary side (opo-less consan-curren regulaion) are known in he paen lieraure ([1]-[12]) only when i is operaed wih a subsanially dc inpu volage and oupus a subsanially dc oupu curren. he mehod given in [1] and deeply discussed in [2] is considered he preferred one. All hese mehods, however, do no correcly apply o he high-pf flyback converer, where he inpu volage is a full-wave recified sinusoid and he oupu curren, as previously said, mus have a large ac componen. his paper presens a novel primary conrol mehod able o regulae he dc value of he oupu curren in a high-power-facor flyback converer, hus enabling opo-less consan-curren regulaion in his converer as well. he heory of operaion of he high-power-facor flyback converer is no reaed and he equaions relaed o is operaion are provided direcly. Please refer o [13] for a deailed descripion and explanaion. he same symbolism used in [13] is used whenever possible. o simplify he noaion, all he quaniies depending on he insananeous line volage will be considered as a funcion of he phase angle θ = 2 f L. ime is explicily considered in quaniies varying in a swiching cycle. efiniion of he conrol objecive he primary and secondary currens of a high-power-facor flyback converer conrolled according o he scheme considered in [13] are skeched on he righ-hand side of figure 1 along wih he conducion saus of he primary swich. Assuming θ (, ), according o ha conrol scheme he peak envelope of he primary curren I p (,θ) is given by: = I sin θ I pkp PKp. (1) he inpu curren I in (θ), cycle-by-cycle average of I p (,θ), has a sinusoidal-like shape (see fig. 1), hus a high power facor is achieved. he same preliminary assumpions done in [13] are considered here, excep assumpion 4. We assume valley swiching operaion and in a swiching cycle disinguish he ime (θ) during which curren circulaes on he secondary side and he ime R during which he volage across he primary swich rings (saring jus afer (θ), as he secondary curren has gone o zero), unil he valley of he ringing is reached. he swiching period (θ) is herefore given by: ( ) = ON + R θ +. (2) I is worh reminding ha his scheme resuls in a consan ON-ime of he power swich, ON. he peak envelope of he secondary curren is given by: = n I = I sin θ I pks pkp PKs, (3) where n is he primary-o-secondary ransformer urn raio N 1 /N 2. From (3) and (1) we derive: I PKs = n I PKp. (4) Since he cycle-by-cycle secondary curren, I s (,θ), is he series of ligh blue riangles shown in figure 1, is average value in a swiching cycle is: I o 1 2 = I pks = 1 2 I PKs he dc oupu curren I ou is he average of I o (θ) over a line half-cycle: sin θ. (5) 1 I ou = I o = I PKs sin θ dθ. (6) 2 he conrol objecive is o regulae I ou, (i.e., o make he quaniy on he righ-hand side of (6) consan, independen of he oupu volage V ou, he rms inpu volage V in as well as he swiching frequency f sw (θ) = 1/(θ)), while sinusoidally shaping he envelope of he peak primary curren as per (1) o achieve high power facor and low harmonic disorion of he inpu curren.

3 he novel conrol mehod he block diagram shown in figure 2 illusraes he basic peak curren conrol loop ha mees he conrol objecive defined in he previous secion. he conrol core is he porion, encircled in he doed box, ha generaes he reference Vcs REF (θ) for he signal Vcs(,θ) represening he primary curren sensed hrough he sense resisor Rs: (, θ ) = Rs I (, θ) Vcs p. (7) he remaining par is a sandard quasi-resonan peak-curren-mode conrol block, where ransformer s demagneizaion (sensed via he R ZC resisor in fig. 1) deermines he urn-on of he power swich (wih an appropriae delay R o achieve valley swiching), while he urn-off is deermined by he curren sense signal Vcs(,θ) reaching he programmed value Vcs REF (θ). Inpu volage sensing ransformer s demag sensing o ransformer s primary winding I CH (θ) ZC ivider A/B Vcs REF(θ) - + elay R S R Q Gae river SW R C Vcs(, θ) I p (, θ) Rs Fig. 2: Block diagram implemening he novel conrol mehod. Figure 3 shows a couple of iming diagrams (a a swiching cycle ime scale on he lef-hand side, a a line cycle ime scale on he righ-hand side) ha help clarify how he circui in figure 2 operaes. Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) Vcs REF (θ)/rs S ON (θ) R B R Vcs REF (θ) Q Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) I ou Fig. 3: iming diagrams (swiching cycle ime-base on he lef-hand side, line cycle ime-base on he righ-hand side) explaining he operaion of he circui in figure 2. he peak primary curren is programmed by he signal Vcs REF (θ) generaed by he divider block A/B ha, on is firs inpu, receives he signal A = K V sinθ P in, pk. (8)

4 is a porion of he recified inpu volage, whose peak is V in,pk = 2 V in, ypically obained wih a resisor divider (he resisors R 1 and R 2 in fig. 1; K P = R 2 /(R 1 +R 2 ) is he divider raio). On he second inpu, he divider block receives he signal, i.e. he slowly varying dc volage developed across he capacior C by means of is charge/discharge mechanism ha comprises a curren generaor I CH (θ) acive only while curren is circulaing on he secondary side, i.e. during he ime (θ) in which he signal is high, and a resisor R in parallel o C. he curren generaor sources a curren proporional o he signal : = G A = G K V sinθ ICH M M P in, pk. (9) Under seady-sae operaing condiions, he following charge balance holds for C : B R = I CH Solving (1) for and subsiuing (9) yields: B. (1) = GM R KP Vin,pk sinθ. (11) he capacior C is assumed o be large enough so ha he ac componen (a wice he line frequency f L ) of is negligible wih respec o is dc componen B, which is defined as: B GM R KP Vin,pk = B = sin θ d θ. (12) A foriori, he ac componen of a he swiching frequency f sw (θ) caused by he cycle-by-cycle charge/discharge mechanism of C is negligible oo. As a resul, he curren programming reference Vcs REF (θ) is given by: Vcs REF = K A B K A B = K G M R Noe ha he divider gain K is dimensionally a volage. sin θ dθ sin θ. (13) he peak envelope of he primary curren, defined by Vcs REF (θ) / Rs, is herefore sinusoidal, similarly o wha obained wih he conrol scheme considered in [13], and a high power facor is achieved. Combining (13) wih (7), (1) and (4), i is possible o derive: I PKs = n K. (14) Rs GM R sin θ dθ Finally, subsiuing his expression in (6), we find: I n K ou =. (15) 2 Rs GM R his equaion saes ha wih he conrol mehod depiced by he block diagram in figure 2, he dc oupu curren I ou depends only on exernal, user-selecable parameers (n, Rs) and on inernally fixed parameers (G M, R, K ) and does no depend on he oupu volage V ou, nor on he rms inpu volage V in or he swiching frequency f sw (θ) = 1/(θ). herefore, i is possible o conclude ha he proposed mehod, in addiion o providing high power facor and low harmonic disorion of he inpu curren, mees he conrol objecive of providing a regulaed I ou as well.

5 iscussion of he novel conrol mehod he resul summarized in (15) has been found under some simplifying assumpions. I is expeced ha non-idealiies affecing he real-world operaion cause he acual I ou o deviae from he heoreical value given by (15) and cause dependency on V ou, V in and f sw. heir impac needs o be analyzed. Effec of non-idealiies in he power circui In [2] i is highlighed ha ransformer s imperfec coupling has a major impac on he acual I ou sepoin: due o he leakage inducance, he I pks / I pkp raio - see (4) is lower han he physical urn raio n = N 1 /N 2 and dependen on he operaing condiions. In addiion, here are some oher nonidealiies due o he high-pf naure of he opology. hese effecs are well documened in boos opology [14]-[15] bu no as much in flyback opology, hen hey are addressed here in deails. As wih any high-pf opology, a small region exiss in he converer inpu curren around he line volage zero-crossing where his curren is essenially zero (crossover disorion). Consequenly, such a dead-zone mus exis also for he secondary curren and his secondary dead-zone migh be larger han he primary one. Obviously, hese dead-zones end o lower I ou wih respec o he arge (15). he dead-zone in he primary curren is caused by he absence of ne energy ransiion from he inpu source. In fac, also wih flyback, he primary curren I p (, θ) is negaive during he iniial porion of he swiching period as illusraed in [14] for he boos converer, wih he negaive peak comparable o if no larger han he posiive peak. As a resul, he average curren in hose cycles is essenially zero: energy goes back and forh from he filer capacior C f siuaed jus afer he bridge recifier o he ransformer and vice versa. hus, C f reains a residual volage ha reverse biases he inpu bridge recifier. Addiionally, in his region he demagneizaion signal is so small ha he demagneizaion sensing circui may no properly work, so ha swiching may be sopped. he dead-zone in he secondary curren is caused by he lack of primary-o-secondary energy ransfer near he line volage zero-crossings. I is worh reminding ha a urn-off he energy sored in he ransformer s primary inducance is iniially ransferred o he drain parasiic capaciance unil is volage exceeds V in (θ) + V R and ha curren sars flowing on he secondary side from ha momen on. Around zero-crossings, he peak curren is so low ha he energy sored in he primary inducance a urn-off is no sufficien o charge he parasiic drain capaciance up o and above V in (θ) + V R. he consequence is ha he secondary side does no conduc curren in ha region, and his reducion in he conducion angle of he secondary curren lowers he resuling dc value, as previously said. he lack of primary-o-secondary energy ransfer is expeced o lessen as V ou is reduced and a high line volage. In fac, a lower V ou means a lower V R, and hen less energy is needed o sar conducion on he secondary side. Furher, reducing he inpu curren (which a higher inpu volage and a lower V ou conribue o) he residual volage across C f increases. his enlarges he primary dead-zone bu provides some residual volage o charge he ransformer s primary inducance and make he demagneizaion sensing circui operae properly. Ulimaely, hese phenomena should cause a sligh increase of I ou as he number of LEs is reduced and as V in is increased. Effec of non-idealiies in he conrol circui he circui in figure 2 is supposed o be inegraed in a conrol IC (he CONROL EVICE shown in fig. 1), excep Rs and C : he former because is o be seleced o se I ou a he desired level, he laer because he values required for proper operaion (in he µf) are oo large for inegraion. Some of hese non-idealiies are already exhausively reaed in [2] and are here jus briefly reminded: Propagaion delay in he curren sense circui: during he ime ha elapses from he insan when Vcs(,θ) = Vcs REF (θ) o he insan when he swich SW is urned off he primary curren sill ramps up, so ha i is always I p (, θ) > Vcs REF (θ)/rs emagneizaion deecion delay: any delay in he demagneizaion deecion causes B o increase, hus programming a lower Vcs REF (θ). Addiionally, I ou depends also on he inernal parameers G M, R, K. As o R and G M, he former is an inegraed resisor while he laer is relaed o he value of an inegraed resisor (precisely, i is he

6 reciprocal of a resisor value). As such, heir individual spread due o producion olerance is high (± 25%) bu he mismach in heir produc can be kep exremely low (< 1%) wih some care in lay ouing he conrol chip. K, he gain of he divider block, is poenially he larges source of error. Is olerance, anyway, can be kep wihin accepable levels wih any of he numerous mehods available o IC echnology. Going ino he deails of his maer is beyond he scope of his paper. esign example and simulaion resuls he proposed conrol mehod has been esed and validaed wih PSIM simulaions on a high-pf flyback designed o mee he specificaion of a ypical low-power driver for high brighness LE. able I summarizes he mos significan elecrical specificaion of he design, able II he significan parameers of he conrol circui used in he simulaion, able III he main elecrical parameers of he power circui deermined using he procedure oulined in [13]. Equaion (15) has been used o deermine he sense resisor Rs. A linearized model has been used for he LE load (see able III). able I: elecrical specificaion of a wide-range-mains, 8.4W high-pf flyback converer Parameer Symbol Value Uni Mains volage range V in,min - V in,max V rms Mains frequency f L 5 Hz Regulaed dc oupu curren I ou 7 ma Maximum oupu volage V ou,max 12 V Max. pk-pk oupu curren ripple a 2f L ou,max ) I ou, pk-pk 4 ma Expeced efficiency V in,min, V ou,max ) η 8 % Minimum swiching frequency V in,min, V ou,max ) f sw,min 6 khz Refleced volage ou,max ) V R 12 V Secondary recifier volage drop V f.5 V able II: conrol circui parameers Parameer Symbol Value Uni Inpu volage sensing divider raio K P ivider block gain K 1 V Charge generaor ransconducance G M 5 µs ischarge resisor R 1 kω Conrol volage buffer capacior C 2.2 µf Maximum curren reference volage Vcs REF,max 1 V Curren sense resisor Rs 1.3 Ω able III: main power circui parameers Parameer Symbol Value Uni ransformer s primary inducance L p 1.5 mh ransformer s primary leakage inducance L p,lk 45 µh ransformer s primary-o-secondary urn raio n ransformer s primary-o-auxiliary urn raio n aux Secondary recifier forward drop V F.5 V Oupu capacior C ou 2x22 µf LE hreshold volage (x LE) V Fh 3.3 V LE dynamic resisance (x LE) R.5 Ω

7 he diagrams in figures 4 o 6 show he simulaion resuls under differen line and load condiions. Iin(θ) Iin(θ) Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) / 1 Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) / 1 Iou Iou Fig. 4: Simulaion resuls wih 3 LEs (V ou = 1.9 Vac Vac (righ). races (op-down): inpu curren,,, primary and secondary currens, oupu curren. Iin(θ) Iin(θ) Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) / 1 Ip(,θ) Is(,θ) / 1 Iou Iou Fig. 5: Simulaion resuls wih 1 LE (V ou = 3.6 Vac Vac (righ). races (opdown): inpu curren,,, primary and secondary currens, oupu curren. 115 Vac 23 Vac 115 Vac 23 Vac.7 1 LE 1 Iou LEs 3 LEs PF LE 3 LEs LEs Vou Fig. 6: Oupu regulaion characerisic (lef) and PF vs. operaing condiions (righ) In he end, he simulaion has confirmed he viabiliy of he proposed conrol mehod: he resuls are essenially in line wih he heoreical predicions. Also he effecs of non-idealiies have been confirmed, especially hose relaed o he energy ransfer defici near line volage zero-crossings. Low-frequency oupu curren ripple Curren ripple is a concern when supplying LEs. In paricular, a low-frequency ripple, such as ha a 2f L affecing he curren delivered by he high-pf flyback converer, causes a corresponding ripple in he luminous flux ha would be annoying if visible. herefore, he ac componen of he oupu curren I o (θ) superimposed on he regulaed dc value I ou is worh a closer examinaion o undersand how o conrol i. his ac componen is spli beween he oupu capacior and he LE sring, as shown in he circui on he lef-hand side of fig. 7. As apparen in he iming diagrams of fig. 4 and 5, he swiching frequency ripple is, insead, of no concern and his will be confirmed by he following analysis. Vou

8 V in (θ) I o (θ) I ou + I ou (θ) I in (θ) P in (θ) P ou (θ) P in = P ou C ou I Cou (θ) LE sring m R d m V Fh V ou I o (θ) I ou (θ) V ou (θ) I ou Fig. 7: Equivalen schemaic of he secondary-side of a High-PF flyback regulaor driving a sring of m LEs (lef); idealized key waveforms explaining inpu-o-oupu power balance (righ) I is possible o sae a basic fac: a significan ac componen I o (θ) a 2f L in I o (θ) is unavoidable in a opology wihou inernal energy sorage like he high-pf flyback under consideraion. o jusify his saemen i is useful o refer o he waveforms shown on he righ-hand side of fig. 7. In a high-pf flyback converer, like in all basic opologies operaed wih high PF, here is no means o sore significan energy on a ime scale relevan o a line cycle (he energy sored in he ransformer is significan wihin a swiching cycle bu negligible in a line cycle). herefore, under he simplifying assumpion of 1% efficiency, i is possible o sae ha a a line cycle ime scale he insananeous oupu power P ou (θ) provided o C ou and he load equals he insananeous power P in (θ) drawn from he line. Noe ha in case here was energy sorage he average oupu power P ou would equal he average inpu power P in bu he insananeous values would no. Assuming PF = 1 for simpliciy, he line volage and curren are in-phase sine waves, hus wih obvious symbolism: P in 2 2 = P = V I sin θ = 2 P sin = P ( 1 cos2θ) = P ( 1 cos2θ) ou in,pk in,pk in in ou, (16) i.e. he insananeous value of he oupu power P ou (θ) swings from zero o wice he average value P ou = P in a a frequency 2f L. he oupu capacior C ou is normally large enough o have a subsanially dc oupu volage V ou. As a consequence, he oupu curren I o (θ) is almos proporional o he insananeous oupu power and, hen, pulsaes in he same way a 2f L. Following he same approach used in [13], he fundamenal harmonic of I o (θ) a 2f L is considered. Expanding (5) in Fourier series, i is found ha is peak ampliude is: ( Kv ) ( K ) H 2 Io,pk = 2 Iou, (17) F2 v wih K v = V in,pk / V R, where V R = n (V ou + V F ). he funcions H2(K v ) and F2(K v ) are defined in [13] and heir raio as a funcion of K v is illusraed in fig. 8. his graph shows ha I o,pk ends o slighly decrease a high inpu volage and as he oupu volage (i.e. he number m of LEs) is reduced. Fig. 8: iagram showing he raio H2(K v ) / F2(K v ) as a funcion of K v.

9 he dc componen of I o (θ), I ou, flows hrough he LE sring only and concurs o deermine he acual dc oupu volage V ou. Assuming he m LEs are all idenical o one anoher: ou ( R I ) V = m V +. (18) Fh ou he ac componen I o (θ) is spli beween he LE sring ( I ou (θ)) and C ou, according o he divider raio of heir admiances 1 / (m R ) and j 4 f L C ou. herefore he peak-o-peak ampliude of I ou (θ) is: ( 4 f m R C ) ( Kv ) Iou ( K ) ( ) 2 Io, pk H 2 Iou, pk pk = 2 = 4. (19) 1+ 2 F2 v 1+ 4 f m R C L ou Equaion (19) shows ha he 2f L ripple curren injeced ino he LE depends on he inpu volage (K v ), he number of LEs (m, K v ), heir characerisics (R ), and he oupu capaciance C ou. Normally, o mee he requiremen on he low frequency ripple curren, C ou is so large (see able III) ha also is ESR is so low ha boh he capaciive and he resisive high frequency ripple are negligible. Operaion wih a chopped ac inpu volage (riac dimming compaibiliy) he conrol circui in fig. 2 makes he flyback converer work as a curren source. herefore, even wih a chopped ac inpu volage which happens in case he converer is operaed hrough a riac dimmer he converer forces he prese dc oupu curren o he load. In ha case, however i would be desirable o reduce he regulaion sepoin depending on he riac firing angle α: he larger α is, he lower he curren sepoin should be. his can be realized by modifying he circui in he doed box in fig. 2 as shown in fig. 9. L ou I CH (θ) Inpu volage sensing o ivider A/B R C Inpu volage sensing + Vh - elay ML EN EN = freezes SW saus Fig. 9: Modificaion of he circui in he doed box in fig. 2 o reduce I ou sepoin proporionally o he firing angle of a riac ha provides a chopped ac inpu volage. he sensed inpu volage is compared o a hreshold V h and, if i says below he hreshold for a ime longer han ML, i is assumed ha he line volage is missing (because he riac is open) and he EN signal goes low. his freezes he sae of he power swich SW (possibly in he ON-sae o help provide he laching curren for he riac when his is fired) and disconnecs boh he curren generaor I CH (θ) and he discharge resisor R. In his way he volage across C is frozen a he value in he insan when he inpu volage goes o zero. he delay ML is needed o preven he circui from being improperly acivaed near he zero-crossings of he line volage when his is no chopped. Noe also ha his delay is unidirecional: as he sensed volage exceeds V h he enable signal EN goes high immediaely. he ne effec of sopping he charge/discharge aciviy of C can be regarded as an average increase of he discharge resisor R and his, according o (15) leads o a reducion of he prese oupu curren I ou. he diagrams of fig. 1 show he simulaion resuls for differen firing angles.

10 115 Vac 23 Vac 115 Vac 23 Vac 115 Vac 23 Vac.7 Iou α = 45 { α = 9 { α = 135 {.1 1 LE 2 LEs 3 LEs Fig. 1: Regulaion characerisic of he converer defined in ables I-III for differen riac firing angles Conclusion A conrol mehod of high-power-facor flyback converers for regulaing heir dc oupu curren using only quaniies available on he primary side has been proposed. Afer defining he conrol objecive, he circui able o mee his objecive has been provided, is operaing principle explained and is equaions provided. he proposed conrol mehod has been esed and validaed wih PSIM simulaions on a high-pf flyback designed o mee he specificaion of a low-power driver for high brighness LE. he simulaions have confirmed he heoreical predicions and he viabiliy of he mehod. A sligh variaion of he basic conrol circui ha makes he conrol mehod compaible wih riac dimming has been provided. References [1] A. Pavlin, Swiched Curren Regulaor wih Improved Power Swich Conrol Mechanism, US paen # [2] A. Bailly, Consan Oupu Curren for Flyback Converers wih Viper31, SMicroelecronics, AN173. [3] M. Weirich, Primary side regulaed power supply sysem wih consan curren oupu, US paen # [4] K.J. Williams, On-ime conrol for consan curren mode in a flyback converer, US paen # [5] S. Huynh e alii, Primary side consan oupu curren conroller, US paen # [6]. Yang e alii, Primary-side conrolled flyback power converer, US paen # [7]. Yang e alii, PWM conroller regulaing oupu volage and oupu curren in primary side, US Paen # [8] A. Ball, Primary side sensing circui for producing a secondary side consan curren, consan volage oupu, US paen # [9]. Lin, Apparaus and mehod for regulaing consan oupu volage and curren on primary side in a flyback converer, US paen applicaion # [1] Y. Li e alii, Sysem And Mehod For Conrolling A Curren Limi Wih Primary Side Sensing Using A Hybrid PWM and PFM Conrol, US paen applicaion # [11] M. Gran, Regulaing oupu curren from a primary side power converer by clamping an error signal, Us paen applicaion # [12] B. Balakrishnan e alii, Mehods and apparaus for mainaining an approximae consan curren oupu characerisic in a swiched mode power supply, US paen applicaion # [13] C. Adragna, esign Equaions of High-Power-Facor Flyback Converers based on he L6561, SMicroelecronics Applicaion Noe, AN159. [14] L. Huber, B.. Irving, M.M Jovanović, Effec of Valley Swiching and Swiching-Frequency Limiaion on Line-Curren isorions of CM/CCM Boundary Boos PFC Converers, IEEE ransacions on Power Elecronics, Vol. 24, No. 2, February 29, Pages [15] C. Adragna, H-opimizer circuis for PFC pre-regulaors, SMicroelecronics Applicaion Noe, AN1616. Vou

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits 4/5/011 secion 4_5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuis 1/ 4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuis eading Assignmen: 8086 Now le s examine how we C bias MOSFETs amplifiers! f we don bias properly, disorion can

More information

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors 8 Explanaion of Maximum Raings and Characerisics for Thyrisors Inroducion Daa shees for s and riacs give vial informaion regarding maximum raings and characerisics of hyrisors. If he maximum raings of

More information

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER INTRODUCTION: Being able o ransmi a radio frequency carrier across space is of no use unless we can place informaion or inelligence upon i. This las ransmier

More information

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester Memorandum on Impulse Winding Teser. Esimaion of Inducance by Impulse Response When he volage response is observed afer connecing an elecric charge sored up in he capaciy C o he coil L (including he inside

More information

A Control Technique for 120Hz DC Output Ripple-Voltage Suppression Using BIFRED with a Small-Sized Energy Storage Capacitor

A Control Technique for 120Hz DC Output Ripple-Voltage Suppression Using BIFRED with a Small-Sized Energy Storage Capacitor 90 Journal of Power Elecronics, Vol. 5, No. 3, July 005 JPE 5-3-3 A Conrol Technique for 0Hz DC Oupu Ripple-Volage Suppression Using BIFRED wih a Small-Sized Energy Sorage Capacior Jung-Bum Kim, Nam-Ju

More information

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter.

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter. Inroducion Oupu Volage ipple in Sep-Down and Sep-Up Swiching egulaors Oupu volage ripple is always an imporan performance parameer wih DC-DC converers. For inducor-based swiching regulaors, several key

More information

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering COMM 704: Communicaion Lecure : Analog Mulipliers Dr Mohamed Abd El Ghany Dr. Mohamed Abd El Ghany, Mohamed.abdel-ghany@guc.edu.eg nroducion Nonlinear operaions on coninuous-valued analog signals are ofen

More information

Power Efficient Battery Charger by Using Constant Current/Constant Voltage Controller

Power Efficient Battery Charger by Using Constant Current/Constant Voltage Controller Circuis and Sysems, 01, 3, 180-186 hp://dx.doi.org/10.436/cs.01.304 Published Online April 01 (hp://www.scirp.org/journal/cs) Power Efficien Baery Charger by Using Consan Curren/Consan olage Conroller

More information

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation APPLICATION NOTE AN:002 M and V Parallel Array Operaion Joe Aguilar VI Chip Applicaions Engineering Conens Page Inroducion 1 High-Level Guidelines 1 Sizing he Resisor 4 Arrays of Six or More Ms 5 Sysem

More information

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit Elecronicsab.nb 1. he Series esisor and Inducor Circui Inroducion he las laboraory involved a resisor, and capacior, C in series wih a baery swich on or off. I was simpler, as a pracical maer, o replace

More information

Programmable DC Electronic Load 8600 Series

Programmable DC Electronic Load 8600 Series Daa Shee Programmable DC Elecronic Load The programmable DC elecronic loads provide he performance of modular sysem DC elecronic loads in a compac benchop form facor. Wih fas ransien operaion speeds and

More information

VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS

VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS Raphael A. da Câmara, Ranoyca N. A. L. Silva, Gusavo A. L. Henn, Paulo P. Praça, Cícero M. T. Cruz, René P. Torrico-Bascopé

More information

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications Because of he grea number of indusrial buses now available he majoriy of indusrial measuremen echnology applicaions sill calls for he sandard analog curren nework. The reason for his lies in he fac ha

More information

Solid State Modulators for PIII Applications

Solid State Modulators for PIII Applications Solid Sae Modulaors for P Applicaions Dr. Marcel P.J. Gaudreau, P.E., Dr. Jeffrey A. Casey, Timohy J. Hawkey, Michael A. Kempkes, J. Michael Mulvaney; Diversified Technologies, nc. Absrac One of he key

More information

Three-Level TAIPEI Rectifier

Three-Level TAIPEI Rectifier Three-Level TAIPEI Recifier Yungaek Jang, Milan M. Jovanović, and Juan M. Ruiz Power Elecronics Laboraory Dela Producs Corporaion 5101 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, C, USA Absrac A new low-cos,

More information

PROFET BTS 736 L2. Smart High-Side Power Switch Two Channels: 2 x 40mΩ Status Feedback

PROFET BTS 736 L2. Smart High-Side Power Switch Two Channels: 2 x 40mΩ Status Feedback PROFET BTS 736 2 Smar igh-side Power Swich Two Channels: 2 x 40mΩ Saus Feedback Produc Summary Package Operaing olage bb(on) 4.75...41 Acive channels one wo parallel On-sae Resisance R ON 40mΩ 20mΩ Nominal

More information

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009 ECMA-373 2 nd Ediion / June 2012 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Reference number ECMA-123:2009 Ecma Inernaional 2009 COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT Ecma Inernaional 2012 Conens Page 1 Scope...

More information

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release Whie paper (ype B) residual-curren release (ype B) residual curren release Index 1. Generals... 2 2. Applicaion descripion... 3 2.1 Applicaions...3 2.2 Applicaion examples...4 2.3 How does an operae?...6

More information

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s) DUAL SWITCH-MODE SOLENOID DRIER HIGH CURRENT CAPABILITY (up o.5a per channel) HIGH OLTAGE OPERATI (up o 46 for power sage) HIGH EFFICIENCY SWITCHMODE OPERATI REGULATED OUTPUT CURRENT (adjusable) FEW EXTERNAL

More information

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones DATA BULLETIN MX629 DELTA MODULATION CODEC mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Feaures Mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Single Chip Full Duplex CVSD CODEC On-chip Inpu and Oupu Filers Programmable Sampling Clocks 3- or 4-bi Companding

More information

Electric amplifiers. Table of contents. Features. RE 30095/04.11 Replaces: Types VT 5005 to VT Component series 1X 1/8

Electric amplifiers. Table of contents. Features. RE 30095/04.11 Replaces: Types VT 5005 to VT Component series 1X 1/8 Elecric amplifiers RE 30095/04. Replaces: 05.0 /8 Types VT 5005 o VT 5008 Componen series X 558_d Table of conens Conens Page eaures Ordering code uncional descripion Block diagram / pinou: VT 5005 and

More information

The Single-Stage TAIPEI Rectifier

The Single-Stage TAIPEI Rectifier The Single-Sage TAIPEI Recifier Yungaek Jang, Milan M. Jovanović, and Juan M. Ruiz Power Elecronics Laboraory Dela Producs Corporaion 5101 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, C, USA Absrac A new hree-phase,

More information

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller IDL - Inernaional Digial Library Of Available a:www.dbpublicaions.org 8 h Naional Conference on Advanced Techniques in Elecrical and Elecronics Engineering Inernaional e-journal For Technology And Research-2017

More information

Step Down Voltage Regulator with Reset TLE 6365

Step Down Voltage Regulator with Reset TLE 6365 Sep Down Volage Regulaor wih Rese TLE 6365 Feaures Sep down converer Supply Over- and Under-Volage-Lockou Low Oupu volage olerance Oupu Overvolage Lockou Oupu Under-Volage-Rese wih delay Overemperaure

More information

High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter using a Center-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Rectifier

High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter using a Center-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Rectifier , pp.267-278 hp://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijca.2014.7.4.23 High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converer using a Cener-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Recifier Min-Gi Kim, Geun-Yong Park, Doo-HeeYoo and Gang-YoulJeong

More information

Protection Strategies for IGBT Current Source Inverters

Protection Strategies for IGBT Current Source Inverters Proecion Sraegies for IGBT Curren Source Inverers M. Haberberger 1, F. W. Fuchs 2 1 2 Power Elecronics and Elecrical Drives Chrisian-Albrechs-Universiy Kiel, Germany E-Mail: 1 mkh@f.uni-kiel.de, 2 fwf@f.uni-kiel.de

More information

Electrical amplifiers

Electrical amplifiers Elecrical amplifiers RE 30/0.0 Replaces: 09.05 / Type VT-VSPA- and VT-VSPAK- Componen series X H589_d Table of conens Conens Page Feaures Ordering code Funcional descripion and 3 Block circui diagram /

More information

Negative frequency communication

Negative frequency communication Negaive frequency communicaion Fanping DU Email: dufanping@homail.com Qing Huo Liu arxiv:2.43v5 [cs.it] 26 Sep 2 Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Duke Universiy Email: Qing.Liu@duke.edu Absrac

More information

Introduction to Soft Switching

Introduction to Soft Switching Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov, Fundamenals of PWM Converer [NL_11 1] Inroducion o Sof Swiching Why sof swiching Types of sof swiching Examples Prof. S. Ben-Yaakov, Fundamenals of PWM Converer [NL_11 2] Why Sof Swiching?

More information

Application Note AN-1083

Application Note AN-1083 Applicaion Noe AN-1083 Feaures of he Low-Side Family IPS10xx By Fabio Necco, Inernaional Recifier Table of Conens Page Inroducion...1 Diagnosis...1 Inpu Curren vs. Temperaure...1 Selecion of he Resisor

More information

Reliability Improvement of FB inverter in HID Lamp Ballast using UniFET II MOSFET family

Reliability Improvement of FB inverter in HID Lamp Ballast using UniFET II MOSFET family Reliabiliy Improvemen of FB inverer in HID Lamp Ballas using UniFET II MOSFET family Won-Seok Kang Sysem & Applicaion Group Fairchild Semiconducor Bucheon, Korea wonseok.kang@fairchildsemi.com Jae-Eul

More information

Figure 1. Active Resonant Commutated Pole Converter (ARCP) Figure 2. Equivalent ARCP Circuit

Figure 1. Active Resonant Commutated Pole Converter (ARCP) Figure 2. Equivalent ARCP Circuit Achieving ZVS in a Two Quadran Converer Using a Simplified Auxiliary Circui wih Novel Conrol Doudousakis, T. and Sirio, C. Lee P.E. TDK-Lambda, Low Power Division Absrac- This paper proposes a new sof-swiching

More information

OPERATION MANUAL. Indoor unit for air to water heat pump system and options EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1

OPERATION MANUAL. Indoor unit for air to water heat pump system and options EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1 OPERAION MANUAL Indoor uni for air o waer hea pump sysem and opions EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1 EKHBRD011ADY1 EKHBRD014ADY1 EKHBRD016ADY1 EKHBRD011ADV1+Y1 EKHBRD014ADV1+Y1 EKHBRD016ADV1+Y1

More information

DATA SHEET. 1N914; 1N916 High-speed diodes DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS Sep 03

DATA SHEET. 1N914; 1N916 High-speed diodes DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS Sep 03 DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET M3D176 Supersedes daa of April 1996 File under Discree Semiconducors, SC01 1996 Sep 03 FEATURES Hermeically sealed leaded glass SOD27 (DO-35) package High swiching speed:

More information

Aleksandrs Andreiciks, Riga Technical University, Ingars Steiks, Riga Technical University, Oskars Krievs, Riga Technical University

Aleksandrs Andreiciks, Riga Technical University, Ingars Steiks, Riga Technical University, Oskars Krievs, Riga Technical University Scienific Journal of Riga Technical Universiy Power and Elecrical Engineering Curren-fed Sep-up DC/DC Converer for Fuel Cell Applicaions wih Acive Overvolage Clamping Aleksandrs Andreiciks, Riga Technical

More information

SiC MOSFETs: Gate Drive Optimization

SiC MOSFETs: Gate Drive Optimization TND6237/D Rev. 0, SEPTEMBER 2017 SiC MOSFETs: Gae Drive Opimizaion Semiconducor Componens Indusries, LLC, 2017 Sepember, 2017 Rev. 0 1 Publicaion Order Number: TND6237/D SiC MOSFETs: Gae Drive Opimizaion

More information

A New Measurement Method of the Dynamic Contact Resistance of HV Circuit Breakers

A New Measurement Method of the Dynamic Contact Resistance of HV Circuit Breakers A New Measuremen Mehod of he Dynamic Conac Resisance of HV Circui Breakers M. Landry*, A. Mercier, G. Ouelle, C. Rajoe, J. Caron, M. Roy Hydro-Québec Fouad Brikci Zensol Auomaion Inc. (CANADA) Inroducion

More information

N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g.

N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g. Version 2.1, 30 Aug 2011 N e v e r s o p h i n k i n g. Revision Hisory: 2011-8-30 Daashee Previous Version: V2.0 Page Subjecs (major changes since las revision) 27 revised ouline dimension for PG-DIP-7

More information

COMP VFF TIME OUT OFF2 LOW CLAMP & DISABLE LINE VOLTAGE FEEDFORWARD. Ref erence voltages Internal supply. Vth. 400 ua 5.7V BURST-MODE R Q S

COMP VFF TIME OUT OFF2 LOW CLAMP & DISABLE LINE VOLTAGE FEEDFORWARD. Ref erence voltages Internal supply. Vth. 400 ua 5.7V BURST-MODE R Q S Mulimode conroller for SMPS Daashee producion daa Feaures Selecable mulimode operaion: fixed frequency or quasi-resonan On-board 840 V high volage sarup Advanced ligh load managemen Low quiescen curren

More information

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras ECEN 44 Communicaion Theory Chaper Summary: Coninuous-Wave Modulaion.1 Modulaion Modulaion is a process in which a parameer of a carrier waveform is varied in accordance wih a given message (baseband)

More information

Demodulation Based Testing of Off Chip Driver Performance

Demodulation Based Testing of Off Chip Driver Performance Demodulaion Based Tesing of Off Driver Performance Wilfried Daehn Hochschule Magdeburg-Sendahl Fachbereich Elekroechnik Posfach 368 39 Magdeburg Phone: ++49 39 886 4673 Fa: ++49 39 886 426 Email: wilfried.daehn@compuer.org

More information

ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Continuous-Time Signals

ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Continuous-Time Signals Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering Universiy of Arkansas ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Coninuous-Time Signals Dr. Jingxian Wu wuj@uark.edu OUTLINE 2 Inroducion: wha are signals and sysems? Signals

More information

IR Receiver for High Data Rate PCM at 455 khz Description

IR Receiver for High Data Rate PCM at 455 khz Description IR Receiver for High Daa Rae PCM a 455 khz Descripion The is a miniaurized receiver for infrared remoe conrol and IR daa ransmission. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, he epoxy package

More information

Interconnection of PV Modules to the Utility Grid Using an Electronic Inverter Circuit

Interconnection of PV Modules to the Utility Grid Using an Electronic Inverter Circuit Inerconnecion of PV Modules o he Uiliy Grid Using an Elecronic Inverer Circui DENIZAR CRUZ MARTINS & ROGERS DEMONTI Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering Power Elecronics Insiue Federal Universiy of Sana Caarina

More information

P r e l i m i n a r y D a t a ICE2AS01. Off-Line SMPS Current Mode Controller. Power Management & Supply. Datasheet, Version 2.

P r e l i m i n a r y D a t a ICE2AS01. Off-Line SMPS Current Mode Controller. Power Management & Supply. Datasheet, Version 2. Daashee, Version 2.1, February 2001 Off-Line SMPS Curren Mode Conroller Power Managemen & Supply P r e l i m i n a r y D a a Never sop hinking. Revision Hisory: 2001-02-28 Daashee Previous Version: Firs

More information

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.)

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.) The Mah Projecs Journal Page 1 PROJECT MISSION o MArs inroducion Many sae mah sandards and mos curricula involving quadraic equaions require sudens o solve "falling objec" or "projecile" problems, which

More information

AN UVLO (Under Voltage Lock Out) FUNCTION Calculation of Minimum Value of IGBT external Gate Resistance RG. Table 2-1.

AN UVLO (Under Voltage Lock Out) FUNCTION Calculation of Minimum Value of IGBT external Gate Resistance RG. Table 2-1. A p p l i c a i o n Noe AN318 IGBT/Power MOSFET Gae Drive Phoocoupler Technical Markeing Deparmen Compound Semiconducor Devices Business Division Analog & Power Devices Business Uni Renesas Elecronics

More information

Signal Characteristics

Signal Characteristics Signal Characerisics Analog Signals Analog signals are always coninuous (here are no ime gaps). The signal is of infinie resoluion. Discree Time Signals SignalCharacerisics.docx 8/28/08 10:41 AM Page 1

More information

Communications II Lecture 5: Effects of Noise on FM. Professor Kin K. Leung EEE and Computing Departments Imperial College London Copyright reserved

Communications II Lecture 5: Effects of Noise on FM. Professor Kin K. Leung EEE and Computing Departments Imperial College London Copyright reserved Communicaions II Lecure 5: Eecs o Noise on FM Proessor Kin K. Leung EEE and Compuing Deparmens Imperial College London Copyrigh reserved Ouline Recap o FM FM sysem model in noise Derivaion o oupu SNR Pre/de-emphasis

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems MECHANICAL DATA Pinning for : 1 = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S 1926 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Opimized for Sony and

More information

SLA7075M, SLA7076M, SLA7077M, and SLA7078M. Motor Driver IC Family. Motor Drivers. Sanken Power Devices from Allegro MicroSystems.

SLA7075M, SLA7076M, SLA7077M, and SLA7078M. Motor Driver IC Family. Motor Drivers. Sanken Power Devices from Allegro MicroSystems. Moor SLA7075M, SLA7076M, Daa Shee 28210.05B Moor Driver IC Family The SLA7075M, SLA7076M, moor driver ICs feaure 2-phase sepper unipolar drivers. The clock-in ype inpu inerface allows simplified conrol

More information

The ramp is normally enabled but can be selectively disabled by suitable wiring to an external switch.

The ramp is normally enabled but can be selectively disabled by suitable wiring to an external switch. Vickers Amplifier Cards Power Amplifiers for Proporional Valves EEA-PAM-56*-A-14 Design EEA-PAM-561-A-14 for use wih valve ypes: KDG5V-5, * and KDG5V-7, 1* series EEA-PAM-568-A-14 for use wih valve ypes:

More information

Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarisation filter. Dimensioned drawing. Teach button Optical axis Indicator diode

Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarisation filter. Dimensioned drawing. Teach button Optical axis Indicator diode Specificaions and descripion Leuze elecronic Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarisaion filer Dimensioned drawing Par No. 501 06860 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC Polarised, laser rero-reflecive phooelecric

More information

AK8779A Hall Effect IC for Pulse Encoders

AK8779A Hall Effect IC for Pulse Encoders AK8779A Hall Effec IC for Pulse Encoders 1. General Descripion The AK8779A is a Hall effec lach which deecs boh verical magneic field and horizonal magneic field (perpendicular and parallel o he marked

More information

Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Laser retro-reflective photoelectric sensor with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing Specificaions and descripion PRKL 3B Laser rero-reflecive phooelecric sensor wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 09-2012/06 50105363 2 khz 0 3m 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRKL3B622_en_50105363.fm

More information

TESTING CREEPING DISCHARGE BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATORS FOR ISOLATED LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEMS

TESTING CREEPING DISCHARGE BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATORS FOR ISOLATED LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEMS IX Inernaional Symposium on Lighning Proecion 26 h -3 h November 27 Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil TESTING CREEPING DISCHARGE BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATORS FOR ISOLATED LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEMS Beierl, Omar Brocke,

More information

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION SHEET ELECTRON TUBE, RECEIVING TYPE 8233

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION SHEET ELECTRON TUBE, RECEIVING TYPE 8233 INCH-POUND MIL-PRF-1/1593E 15 Augus 2012 SUPERSEDING MIL-PRF-1/1593D 17 Augus 2004 DESCRIPTION: Penode, sharp cuoff. Ouline: See figure 1. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION SHEET ELECTRON TUBE, RECEIVING TYPE

More information

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1 How o Shoren Firs Order Uni Tesing Time Pior Mróz 1 1 Universiy of Zielona Góra, Faculy of Elecrical Engineering, Compuer Science and Telecommunicaions, ul. Podgórna 5, 65-246, Zielona Góra, Poland, phone

More information

Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797

Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797 Lecure 1: Augus 27, 2012 Inroducion o Power Elecronics ECEN 4797/5797 Rober W. Erickson Universiy of Colorado, Boulder Fall 2012 1 Inroducion o Power Elecronics ECEN 4797/5797 Insrucor: Prof. Bob Erickson

More information

IR Receiver Module for Light Barrier Systems

IR Receiver Module for Light Barrier Systems New Produc IR Receiver Module for Ligh Barrier Sysems TSSP5838 1926 FEATURES Low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for 38 khz IR signals Shielding agains EMI Supply

More information

Trigger high-speed, retro-reflective sensors for bottles. Dimensioned drawing

Trigger high-speed, retro-reflective sensors for bottles. Dimensioned drawing Trigger high-speed, rero-reflecive sensors for boles Dimensioned drawing en 03-2014/10 50121192-02 10-30 V DC 0 3.6m 5 khz We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK18BFX_en_50121192_02.fm Trigger high-speed,

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems 2 MECHNICAL DATA Pinning for TSOP44.., TSOP48..: = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S Pinning for TSOP22.., TSOP24..: = OUT, 2 = V S, 3 = GND 3 6672 FEATURES Improved immuniy

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems 1926 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for PCM frequency Supply volage: 2.5 V o 5.5 V Improved immuniy

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems MECHANICAL DATA 2 Pinning for TSOP348.., TSOP344..: = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S Pinning for TSOP322.., TSOP324..: = OUT, 2 = V S, 3 = GND 3 6672 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier

More information

Analysis of SiC MOSFETs under Hard and Soft- Switching

Analysis of SiC MOSFETs under Hard and Soft- Switching Analysis of SiC MOSFETs under Hard and Sof- Swiching M. R. Ahmed, R. Todd and A. J. Forsyh School of Elecrical and Elecronic Engineering, Power Conversion Group The Universiy of Mancheser Mancheser, U.K.

More information

Estimating Transfer Functions with SigLab

Estimating Transfer Functions with SigLab APPLICATION NOTE Esimaing Transfer Funcions wih SigLab Accurae ransfer funcion esimaion of linear, noise-free, dynamic sysems is an easy ask for DSPT SigLab. Ofen, however, he sysem being analyzed is noisy

More information

M Series Data Sheet 50 Watt DC-DC and AC-DC Converters

M Series Data Sheet 50 Watt DC-DC and AC-DC Converters 5 Wa DC-DC and AC-DC Converers Feaures.7" U Exremly wide operaing inpu volage ranges from 8 o 85 VDC and 85 o 6 VAC, 7 o Hz RoHS lead-free-solder and lead-solder-exemped producs available Class I equipmen

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems TSOP32.., TSOP34.. IR Receiver Modules for Remoe 2 3 MECHANICAL DATA Pinning: = GND, 2 = V S, 3 = OUT 94 869 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for

More information

Active Electrode IC for EEG and Electrical Impedance Tomography with Continuous Monitoring of Contact Impedance

Active Electrode IC for EEG and Electrical Impedance Tomography with Continuous Monitoring of Contact Impedance PRE-PRINT VERSION. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS 1 Acive Elecrode IC for EEG and Elecrical Impedance Tomography wih Coninuous Monioring of Conac Impedance Marco Guermandi,

More information

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking 25 American Conrol Conference June 8-, 25. Porland, OR, USA ThA7.2 Auo-Tuning of PID Conrollers via Exremum Seeking Nick illingsworh* and Miroslav rsić Deparmen of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

More information

Fixed-Frequency, 800V CoolSET in DS0-12 Package

Fixed-Frequency, 800V CoolSET in DS0-12 Package ICE3AR1080JG Fixed-Frequency, 800V CoolSET in DS0-12 Package Produc Highlighs 800 V avalanche rugged CoolMOS wih sarup cell Acive Burs Mode o reach he lowes Sandby Power

More information

Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing

Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter. Dimensioned drawing Rero-reflecive phooelecric sensors wih polarizaion filer Dimensioned drawing en 10-2011/04 50105364 1 khz 0 5m We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK3B_Sandard_EL_en.fm 10-30 V DC A 2 LS Polarized rero-reflecive

More information

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes Noes CHAPTER CONTENTS 9. Line Coding 9. inary Line Codes 9. ipolar and iphase Line Codes 9.. AMI 9... inary N Zero Subsiuion 9..3 lock Line Codes 9.3 M-ary Correlaion Codes 9.3. Q 9.3. Correlaion Coding

More information

Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter for bottles. Dimensioned drawing

Retro-reflective photoelectric sensors with polarization filter for bottles. Dimensioned drawing Rero-reflecive phooelecric sensors wih polarizaion filer for boles Dimensioned drawing en 05-2013/08 50103461 1 khz 0 3.5m 10-30 V DC We reserve he righ o make changes DS_PRK3B42_en_50103461.fm Polarized

More information

CoolSET -F3R80 ICE3AR4780CJZ. Off-Line SMPS Current Mode Controller with integrated 800V CoolMOS and Startup cell (brownout & CCM) in DIP-7

CoolSET -F3R80 ICE3AR4780CJZ. Off-Line SMPS Current Mode Controller with integrated 800V CoolMOS and Startup cell (brownout & CCM) in DIP-7 Version 2.0, 19 Apr 2013 CoolSET -F3R80 Off-Line SMPS Curren Mode Conroller wih inegraed 800V CoolMOS and Sarup cell (brownou & CCM) in DIP-7 Power Managemen & Supply Never sop hinking. Revision Hisory:

More information

Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer High-Performance Silicon-Gate CMOS

Analog Multiplexer Demultiplexer High-Performance Silicon-Gate CMOS TECHNICAL DATA IW0B Analog Muliplexer Demuliplexer HighPerformance SiliconGae CMOS The IW0B analog muliplexer/demuliplexer is digially conrolled analog swiches having low ON impedance and very low OFF

More information

S Series Data Sheet 100 Watt AC-DC and DC-DC Converters

S Series Data Sheet 100 Watt AC-DC and DC-DC Converters Wa AC-DC and DC-DC Converers 6." TE 68 6.6"." 3 U Feaures Inpu volage ranges from 8 o 385 VDC and 85 o 6 VAC, 7- Hz or isolaed oupus up o 8 VDC Class I equipmen RoHS lead solder exempion complian Exremely-wide

More information

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter 160 Journal of Power Elecronics, Vol. 5, No. 2, April 2005 JPE 5-2-9 A Harmonic Circulaion Curren Reducion Mehod for Parallel Operaion of U wih a Three-Phase Inverer Kyung-Hwan Kim, Wook-Dong Kim * and

More information

High-Bandwidth, High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking Power Supply for 40W RF Power Amplifier Using Paralleled Bandpass Current Sources

High-Bandwidth, High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking Power Supply for 40W RF Power Amplifier Using Paralleled Bandpass Current Sources Downloaded from orbi.du.dk on: Dec 11, 2017 HighBandwidh, HighEfficiency Envelope Tracking Power Supply for 40W RF Power Amplifier Using Paralleled Bandpass Curren Sources Høyerby, Mikkel Chrisian Kofod;

More information

Monitoring Relays. Current Monitoring A A DIN. Comat products comply with different international standards and are certified accordingly.

Monitoring Relays. Current Monitoring A A DIN. Comat products comply with different international standards and are certified accordingly. Monioring elays Curren Monioring DI Coma producs comply wih differen inernaion sandas and are cerified accoingly. Curren Monioring elays EOC- EUC-B -05-30 -60 JUST LOOP IT LOD Seing ranges x x 3x 4x 5x

More information

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH Progress In Elecromagneics Research Leers, Vol. 21, 129 137, 2011 A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH S. Ononchimeg, G. Ogonbaaar, J.-H. Bang, and B.-C. Ahn Applied Elecromagneics

More information

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals CS4/MSc Compuer Neworking Lecure 11 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Compuer Neworking, Copyrigh Universiy of Edinburgh 2005 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Neworks consruced ou of Links or ransmission

More information

OpenStax-CNX module: m Elemental Signals. Don Johnson. Perhaps the most common real-valued signal is the sinusoid.

OpenStax-CNX module: m Elemental Signals. Don Johnson. Perhaps the most common real-valued signal is the sinusoid. OpenSax-CNX module: m0004 Elemenal Signals Don Johnson This work is produced by OpenSax-CNX and licensed under he Creaive Commons Aribuion License.0 Absrac Complex signals can be buil from elemenal signals,

More information

Packages R VBUS1 R SUPPLY R CPH C VBUS VBUS 1 HO 16 R VBUS C PH CPH 2 VCO 3 IRS2168D R RPH FMIN VCC 13 FMIN 4 C COMP COM 12 COMP 5 R 1 LO 11 R GPFC

Packages R VBUS1 R SUPPLY R CPH C VBUS VBUS 1 HO 16 R VBUS C PH CPH 2 VCO 3 IRS2168D R RPH FMIN VCC 13 FMIN 4 C COMP COM 12 COMP 5 R 1 LO 11 R GPFC Feaures PFC, ballas conrol and 600 V half-bridge driver in one IC Criical-conducion mode boos-ype PFC Programmable PFC over-curren proecion Programmable half-bridge over-curren proecion Programmable prehea

More information

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications Opical phase locked loop for ransparen iner-saellie communicaions F. Herzog 1, K. Kudielka 2,D.Erni 1 and W. Bächold 1 1 Communicaion Phoonics Group, Laboraory for Elecromagneic Fields and Microwave Elecronics,

More information

Solid-state Timer. DIN 48 x 48-mm Multifunctional Timer with Many Time Ranges and Operating Modes, and Wide Power Supply Ranges

Solid-state Timer. DIN 48 x 48-mm Multifunctional Timer with Many Time Ranges and Operating Modes, and Wide Power Supply Ranges Solid-sae Timer DIN 48 x 48-mm Mulifuncional Timer wih Many Time Ranges and Operaing Modes, and Wide Supply Ranges A wider power range reduces he number of imer models kep in sock. An 11-pin or 8-pin model

More information

< IGBT MODULES > CM600DU-12NFH HIGH POWER HIGH FREQUENTLY SWITCHING USE INSULATED TYPE

< IGBT MODULES > CM600DU-12NFH HIGH POWER HIGH FREQUENTLY SWITCHING USE INSULATED TYPE Dual (Half-Bridge) Collecor curren I C...... 6A Collecor-emier volage CES... 6 Maximum juncion emperaure T jmax... 5 C Fla base Type Copper base plae RoHS Direcive complian UL Recognized under UL557, File

More information

PRELIMINARY N-CHANNEL MOSFET 1 P-CHANNEL MOSFET. Top View

PRELIMINARY N-CHANNEL MOSFET 1 P-CHANNEL MOSFET. Top View HEXFET Power MOSFET dvanced Process Technology Ulra Low On-Resisance ual N and P Channel Mosfe Surface Moun vailable in Tape & Reel ynamic dv/d Raing Fas Swiching escripion PRELIMINRY N-CHNNEL MOSFET 8

More information

A floating-output interleaved boost DC DC converter with high step-up gain

A floating-output interleaved boost DC DC converter with high step-up gain Auomaika Journal for Conrol, Measuremen, Elecronics, Compuing and Communicaions ISSN: 0005-1144 (Prin) 1848-3380 (Online) Journal homepage: hp://www.andfonline.com/loi/au20 A floaing-oupu inerleaved boos

More information

Not Recommend. for New Design < IGBT MODULES > CM1400DUC-24NF HIGH POWER SWITCHING USE INSULATED TYPE APPLICATION

Not Recommend. for New Design < IGBT MODULES > CM1400DUC-24NF HIGH POWER SWITCHING USE INSULATED TYPE APPLICATION dual swich (Half-Bridge) Collecor curren I C...... 1 4 A Collecor-emier volage CES... 1 2 Maximum juncion emperaure T jmax... 1 5 C Fla base Type Copper base plae (non-plaing) RoHS Direcive complian Recognized

More information

Unidirectional hybrid circuit breaker topologies for multi-line nodes in HVDC grids

Unidirectional hybrid circuit breaker topologies for multi-line nodes in HVDC grids Unidirecional hybrid circui breaker opologies for muli-line nodes in HVDC grids A. Jehle, D. Pefisis, J. Biela Power Elecronic Sysems Laboraory, ETH Zürich Physiksrasse 3, 892 Zürich, Swizerland This maerial

More information

Undamped, Length Varying TLP Pulses Measurements and ESD Model Approximations

Undamped, Length Varying TLP Pulses Measurements and ESD Model Approximations Undamped, Lengh arying TLP Pulses Measuremens and ESD Model Approximaions Gonzalo Andrés Pacheco, Julio Guillermo Zola Elecronic Circuis Laboraory Elecronic Deparmen Faculy of Engineering Universiy of

More information

Simple structure for reactive power control of AC photovoltaic modules

Simple structure for reactive power control of AC photovoltaic modules Universiy of Wollongong Research Online Fuly of Engineering and Informaion Sciences - Papers: Par A Fuly of Engineering and Informaion Sciences 015 Simple srucure for reive power conrol of AC phoovolaic

More information

NDS352P P-Channel Logic Level Enhancement Mode Field Effect Transistor

NDS352P P-Channel Logic Level Enhancement Mode Field Effect Transistor March 996 NS352P P-Channel Logic Level Enhancemen Mode Field Effec Transisor General escripion These P-Channel logic level enhancemen mode power field effec ransisors are produced using Fairchild's proprieary,

More information

49.8. Control Relays and Timers. Contents. Product Selection Guide. Timing Relays

49.8. Control Relays and Timers. Contents. Product Selection Guide. Timing Relays Conrol Relays and Timers.8 Produc Selecion Guide Noes Applies o TRN model only. Applies o TRF model only. The E5-248 is baery powered and has hree programmable rigger funcions. This produc may perform

More information

Switch-Off Behaviour of 6.5 kv IGBT Modules in Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter

Switch-Off Behaviour of 6.5 kv IGBT Modules in Two-Level Voltage Source Inverter > > Scienific Journal of iga echnical niversiy Power and lecrical ngineering Volume 7 Swich-Off Behaviour of 6.5 kv IGB Modules in wo-evel Volage Source Inverer Andrei Blinov, allinn niversiy of echnology,

More information

TLE7257. Data Sheet. Automotive Power. LIN Transceiver TLE7257SJ TLE7257LE. Rev. 1.1,

TLE7257. Data Sheet. Automotive Power. LIN Transceiver TLE7257SJ TLE7257LE. Rev. 1.1, LIN Transceiver TLE7257SJ TLE7257LE Daa Shee Rev. 1.1, 2015-08-20 Auomoive Power Table of Conens 1 Overview....................................................................... 3 2 Block Diagram...................................................................

More information

Driver Modeling and Alignment for Worst-Case Delay Noise

Driver Modeling and Alignment for Worst-Case Delay Noise Drier Modeling and Alignmen for Wors-Case Noise Supamas Sirichoiyakul, Daid Blaauw, Chanhee Oh, Rafi Ley*, Vladimir Zoloo, Jingyan Zuo Moorola Inc. Ausin, TX, *Moorola Semiconducor Israel Ld. Tel Ai, Israel

More information

NCP1239. Fixed Frequency Current Mode Controller for Flyback Converter

NCP1239. Fixed Frequency Current Mode Controller for Flyback Converter Fixed Frequency Curren Mode Conroller for Flyback Converer The NCP1239 is a fixed-frequency curren-mode conroller feauring a high-volage sar-up curren source o provide a quick and lossless power-on sequence.

More information

Cours Circuits Intégrés Analogiques / Chapitre II 29/04/2010. Outline. Polytech Montpellier ERII 4

Cours Circuits Intégrés Analogiques / Chapitre II 29/04/2010. Outline. Polytech Montpellier ERII 4 Cours Circuis Inégrés nalogiques - 008/009-9/0/010 Polyech Monpellier ERII Design of nalog IC s Chapire I danced nalog Design echniques Pascal Noue March 010 noue@lirmm.fr nalog IC Design Flow 3 nalog

More information