ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009

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1 ECMA nd Ediion / June 2012 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Reference number ECMA-123:2009 Ecma Inernaional 2009

2 COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT Ecma Inernaional 2012

3 Conens Page 1 Scope Conformance Normaive references Terms and definiions Convenions and noaions Represenaion of bi values Represenaion of logical saes of and Capialisaion of names Sae noaion Acronyms General Signals Signal wires Signal-In Signal-Ou Elecrical characerisics Clock frequency (f CLK ) NFC-WI saes Off sae Acivaing sae Signal-Ou acivaion Signal-In acivaion On sae Idle Busy De-Acivaing sae Signal-Ou deacivaion Signal-In deacivaion Command sae Escape sequence Informaion-Transfer Mancheser Bi coding Modified Miller Bi coding Bi coding for f CLK /128 (~106 kb/s) Signal-Ou Signal-In Bi coding for f CLK /64 (~212 kb/s) Signal-Ou Signal-In Bi coding for f CLK /32 (~424 kb/s) Annex A (informaive) Applicaion of NFC-WI wih NFCIP A.1 General A.2 Reference A.3 Propagaion delay A.4 Communicaion Mode A.5 RF-field conrol during acivaion A.5.1 Acivaion wihou RF-field Ecma Inernaional 2012 i

4 A.5.2 Acivaion wih RF-field...14 A.6 Signal diagrams...15 A.6.1 f CLK / A.6.2 f CLK / Annex B (informaive) Command sae...17 B.1 Configuraion...17 ii Ecma Inernaional 2012

5 Inroducion Following he sandardisaion of Near Field Communicaion (NFC) sysems and heir es mehods in Ecma Inernaional, his Sandard specifies a wo-wire inerface beween wo componens called Transceiver and Fron-end. Sysems ha implemen he NFC-WI inerface can hus be augmened wih e.g. a wireless Fron-end for NFCIP-1 as illusraed in Figure 1. Alhough his Sandard only specifies requiremens for he Signal-In and Signal-Ou wires and he digial signals hey carry, informaive Annex A liss some NFCIP-1 specific consideraions. NFC Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) NFC Transceiver Signal-Ou Signal-In NFC Fron-End Device (e.g. NFCIP-1) Ou of Scope Ou of Scope In scope Figure 1 Conex diagram for he NFC wired inerface This 2 nd ediion is fully aligned wih he 1 s ediion of ISO/IEC 28361:2007. This Ecma Sandard has been adoped by he General Assembly of June Ecma Inernaional 2012 iii

6 "COPYRIGHT NOTICE This documen may be copied, published and disribued o ohers, and cerain derivaive works of i may be prepared, copied, published, and disribued, in whole or in par, provided ha he above copyrigh noice and his Copyrigh License and Disclaimer are included on all such copies and derivaive works. The only derivaive works ha are permissible under his Copyrigh License and Disclaimer are: (i) works which incorporae all or porion of his documen for he purpose of providing commenary or explanaion (such as an annoaed version of he documen), (ii) works which incorporae all or porion of his documen for he purpose of incorporaing feaures ha provide accessibiliy, (iii) ranslaions of his documen ino languages oher han English and ino differen formas and (iv) works by making use of his specificaion in sandard conforman producs by implemening (e.g. by copy and pase wholly or parly) he funcionaliy herein. However, he conen of his documen iself may no be modified in any way, including by removing he copyrigh noice or references o Ecma Inernaional, excep as required o ranslae i ino languages oher han English or ino a differen forma. The official version of an Ecma Inernaional documen is he English language version on he Ecma Inernaional websie. In he even of discrepancies beween a ranslaed version and he official version, he official version shall govern. The limied permissions graned above are perpeual and will no be revoked by Ecma Inernaional or is successors or assigns. This documen and he informaion conained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and ECMA INTERNATIONAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY OWNERSHIP RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE." iv Ecma Inernaional 2012

7 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) 1 Scope This Sandard specifies he digial wire inerface beween a Transceiver and a Fron-end. The specificaion includes he signal wires, binary signals, he sae diagrams and he bi encodings for hree daa raes. 2 Conformance Conforman Transceivers and Fron-ends implemen he wired inerface specified herein. 3 Normaive references None. 4 Terms and definiions For he purposes of his documen, he following erms and definiions apply. 4.1 Clock sequence of and as defined in 5.2 wih duraion of 1/(2*f CLK ), where f CLK is he clock frequency as defined in Informaion Bi-coded daa as defined in Clause Fron-end eniy ha drives he Signal-Ou wire and receives on he Signal-In wire 4.4 Transceiver eniy ha drives he Signal-In wire and receives on he Signal-Ou wire 5 Convenions and noaions 5.1 Represenaion of bi values Bi values are eiher ZERO or ONE. 5.2 Represenaion of logical saes of and The logical signal sae is if he elecrical level of a signal has he inpu volage of V IL or he oupu volage of V OL as specified in Table 1 in 8.2. Ecma Inernaional

8 The logical signal sae is if he elecrical level of a signal has he inpu volage of V IH or he oupu volage of V OH as specified in Table 1 in Capialisaion of names The iniial characer of names of basic elemens, e.g. specific fields, is capialised. 5.4 Sae noaion The saes are specified in Unified Modelling Language (UML) noaion. 6 Acronyms AND Logical AND operaion f CLK Clock frequency as defined in 8.3 NFC-WI OR XOR Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface Logical OR operaion Logical XOR operaion Divide a clock frequency by a consan value. Table 1 in 8.2 liss addiional symbols for elecrical characerisics. 7 General The NFC-Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) specifies he Signal-In and he Signal-Ou wires as illusraed in Figure 2. The wires carry binary signals of and. NFC Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) NFC Transceiver Signal-Ou Signal-In NFC Fron-End In scope Figure 2 NFC-WI The combinaions of he signals on he wires make up he NFC-WI saes as defined in Clause 9. Clause 10 specifies encodings for Informaion ransfer, while in he On sae, for he f CLK /128, f CLK /64 and f CLK /32 daa ransfer raes. Annex A liss NFCIP-1 specific consideraions for implemening he NFC-WI; Annex B liss possible uses of he Command sae, such as changing o alernaive proocols. 2 Ecma Inernaional 2012

9 8 Signals 8.1 Signal wires Signal-In The Transceiver drives he Signal-In wire wih a binary signal of and. The Fron-end receives he binary signal on Signal-In Signal-Ou The Fron-end drives he Signal-Ou wire wih a binary signal of and. The Transceiver receives he binary signal on Signal-Ou. 8.2 Elecrical characerisics The wires shall carry (binary) digial signals as illusraed in Figure 3 and specified in Table 1. Figure 3 Illusraion of some elecrical parameers Ecma Inernaional

10 Table 1 Elecrical characerisics Symbol Parameer Condiions Min Max Uni DC Characerisics V S Signalling volage ampliude No applicable 1,62 3,63 V V IH level inpu volage No applicable 1,10 3,63 V V IL level inpu volage No applicable 0 0,70 V I LI Inpu leakage curren Inpu volage is beween V ILmin and V IHmax ± 4 ma V OH level oupu volage Driver source curren of 4mA 1,32 3,63 V V OL level oupu volage Driver sink curren of 4mA 0 0,30 V AC Characerisics r f Signal-In, Signal-Ou rise ime (from 10 % o 90 % of V S ) Signal-In, Signal-Ou fall ime (from 90 % o 10 % of V S ) Add an exernal capaciive load beween 10 pf and 30 pf for esing Add an exernal capaciive load beween 10 pf and 30 pf for esing 4 20 ns 4 20 ns SP Pulse widh of spikes and gliches which mus be suppressed by he inpu filer No applicable 1 ns C I Inpu capaciance 1 MHz es frequency 10 pf C L V ITR Exernal load capaciance for he driver Inpu volage range a signal ransiions No applicable 30 pf No applicable 0,30 3,93 V Pulse widh No applicable 30 ns Environmenal / Tes Condiions T amb Ambien emperaure for elecrical characerisics measuremens No applicable C 8.3 Clock frequency (f CLK ) The clock frequency (f CLK ) shall be 13,56 MHz ± 7 khz. 9 NFC-WI saes Figure 4 specifies he main NFC-WI saes. The Off sae and he On sae are he main NFC-WI saes. The Off sae is he defaul sae. NFC-WI shall move from he Off sae o he On sae as specified in 9.2. NFC-WI shall move from he On sae o he Off sae as specified in Ecma Inernaional 2012

11 NFC-WI shall move from he On sae o he Command sae via he Escape sequence. Off Acivaing Deacivaing On Command Figure 4 Main saes of NFC-WI 9.1 Off sae When Signal-In and Signal-Ou are for a leas 120 µs, he NFC-WI sae shall be Off. NOTE In his sae, power saving feaures may be implemened. 9.2 Acivaing sae The NFC-WI shall ener he Acivaing sae when eiher Signal-Ou or Signal-In carry he acivaion sequence, as specified in and respecively. When subsequenly he opposie wire carries he acivaion response, he NFC-WI shall ener he On sae, as shown in Figure 5. Acivaing ACT_REQ_So ACT_REQ_Si Wai Signal- In ACT_RES_Si ACT_RES_So Wai Signal- Ou Figure 5 Acivaing sae Ecma Inernaional

12 9.2.1 Signal-Ou acivaion When he Signal-Ou wire carries he ACT_REQ_So, he NFC-WI shall ener he Acivaing sae. When Signal-In carries he ACT_RES_Si no laer han 50 ms afer enering he Acivaing sae he NFC-WI shall ener he On sae. Oherwise he NFC-WI shall ener he Off sae. The acivaion sequence is illusraed in Figure 6 and Figure 7. Fron-end Transceiver ACT_REQ_So ACT_RES_Si Figure 6 Signal-Ou acivaion ACT_REQ_So The Clock on he Signal-Ou wire consiues he ACT_REQ_So as illusraed in he upper par of Figure ACT_RES_Si The on Signal-In consiues he ACT_RES_Si as illusraed in he lower par of Figure 7. Off Sae Acivaing Sae On Sae Signal on Signal-Ou Signal on Signal-In max. 50ms Figure 7 Signal-Ou iniiaed acivaion sequence Signal-In acivaion When he Signal-In wire carries he ACT_REQ_Si, he NFC-WI shall ener he Acivaing sae. When Signal- Ou carries he ACT_RES_So wihin a period of beween 100 µs and 50 ms afer enering he Acivaing sae he NFC-WI shall ener he On sae. Oherwise he NFC-WI shall ener he Off sae. 6 Ecma Inernaional 2012

13 The acivaion sequence is illusraed in Figure 8 and Figure 9. Fron-end Transceiver ACT_REQ_Si ACT_RES_So Figure 8 Signal-In acivaion ACT_REQ_Si A leas 127 pulses wih a frequency in he range of 2 MHz o 12 MHz on Signal-In consiue he ACT_REQ_Si as illusraed in he upper par of Figure 9. Subsequenly Signal-In shall be ACT_RES_So The Clock on he Signal-Ou wire consiues he ACT_RES_So as illusraed in he lower par of Figure 9. Off Sae Acivaing Sae On Sae Signal on Signal-In Signal on Signal-Ou 100µs.. 50ms Figure 9 Signal-In iniiaed acivaion sequence 9.3 On sae The On sae consiss of he Idle and Busy sub saes; Idle is he defaul sub-sae of On, as shown in Figure 10. Ecma Inernaional

14 On Idle Busy Figure 10 The On sae Idle While in he On sae, in he absence of Informaion-ransfer, he On sub-sae shall be Idle. In he Idle subsae, Signal-In shall carry, and Signal-Ou shall carry he Clock Busy While in he On sae, during Informaion-ransfer on eiher Signal-In or Signal-Ou, he On sub-sae shall be Busy. 9.4 De-Acivaing sae The NFC-WI shall ener he De-Acivaing sae when eiher Signal-Ou or Signal-In carry he deacivaion sequence as specified in and respecively. When subsequenly he opposie wire carries he deacivaion response, he NFC-WI shall ener he Off sae, see Figure 11. De-Acivaing DEAC_REQ_So DEAC_REQ_Si Wai Signal- In DEAC_RES_Si DEAC_RES_So Wai Signal- Ou Figure 11 De-Acivaing sae 8 Ecma Inernaional 2012

15 9.4.1 Signal-Ou deacivaion When Signal-Ou carries DEACT_REQ_So, he NFC-WI shall ener De-Acivaing sae. Wihin 50 ms, he Signal-In shall carry DEACT_RES_Si, and he NFC-WI shall ener he Off sae DEACT_REQ_So Signal-Ou se o for more han 120 µs consiues he DEACT_REQ_So DEACT_RES_Si Signal-In se o consiues he DEACT_RES_Si Signal-In deacivaion When Signal-In carries DEACT_REQ_Si, he NFC-WI shall ener De-Acivaing sae. Wihin 50 ms, he Signal-Ou shall carry DEACT_RES_So, and he NFC-WI shall ener he Off sae DEACT_REQ_Si Signal-In se o for more han 120 µs consiues he DEACT_REQ_Si DEACT_RES_So Signal-Ou se o consiues he DEACT_RES_So. 9.5 Command sae The Command sae shall be enered from he On sae using he Escape sequence. The defaul bi coding in Command sae shall be as defined in 10.3, Bi coding for f CLK /128. The Command sae is exied wih a command. The command se is ouside he scope of his Sandard Escape sequence A leas 127 pulses wih a frequency in he range from 2 MHz o 12 MHz on Signal-In consiue he Escape sequence as illusraed in Figure 12. Subsequenly Signal-In shall be. On Sae Command Sae Signal on Signal-In Signal on Signal-Ou Figure 12 Escape sequence Ecma Inernaional

16 10 Informaion-Transfer This Clause specifies he bi coding for hree daa raes Mancheser Bi coding The Mancheser bi coding encodes ONE and ZERO in a o ransiion in he middle of a bi period as illusraed in Figure 13. The firs half of he bi is and he second half of he bi is for a ONE. The firs half of he bi is and he second half of he bi is for a ZERO. Reverse polariy shall be permied. Figure 13 Mancheser bi coding 10.2 Modified Miller Bi coding The Modified Miller bi coding defines ONE and ZERO by he posiion of a pulse during one bi period. The pulse is a ransiion from o, followed by a period of, followed by a ransiion o. The bi represenaion is illusraed in Figure 14. For a ONE he pulse shall occur in he second half of he bi period; he ransiion from o shall be in he middle of he bi period. For a ZERO a pulse shall occur a he beginning of he bi period wih he following excepion. In case a ZERO bi follows a ONE bi, no pulse shall occur during his ZERO. Figure 14 Modified Miller bi coding The jier margin for he rising pulse edge is +/- 2/fc. NOTE For implemenaion recommendaions he propagaion delays as specified in A.3 should be respeced. 10 Ecma Inernaional 2012

17 10.3 Bi coding for f CLK /128 (~106 kb/s) Signal-Ou Signal-Ou shall carry he AND combinaion of he Modified Miller bi coded daa and f CLK as illusraed in Figure 15. The Modified Miller bi coded pulse is a leas 7 and a mos 45 f CLK cycles long. Bi value ZERO ZERO ONE ONE ZERO ZERO Signal on Signal-Ou Figure 15 Signal-Ou coding a f CLK / Signal-In Coding on Signal-In shall carry he OR combinaion of he invered Mancheser bi-coded daa and (f CLK 16). Every bi shall sar wih he low phase of he (f CLK 16) as illusraed in Figure 16. Bi value ONE ZERO ONE ONE Signal on Signal-In Figure 16 Signal-In coding a f CLK / Bi coding for f CLK /64 (~212 kb/s) Signal-Ou Signal-Ou shall carry he XOR of he Mancheser bi-coded daa and he Clock, as illusraed in Figure 17. Bivalue ZERO ONE ZERO ZERO ONE Signal on Signal-Ou Figure 17 Signal-Ou coding a f CLK /64 Ecma Inernaional

18 Signal-In Coding on Signal-In shall carry he Mancheser bi-coded daa, as illusraed in Figure 18. Bi value ZERO ONE ZERO ONE ONE Signal on Signal-In Figure 18 Signal-In coding a f CLK / Bi coding for f CLK /32 (~424 kb/s) The bi coding for f CLK /32 shall be he same as he bi coding for f CLK /64 as defined in Ecma Inernaional 2012

19 Annex A (informaive) Applicaion of NFC-WI wih NFCIP-1 A.1 General This Annex liss specific consideraions for NFCIP-1 devices ha implemen NFC-WI. A.2 Reference ECMA-340 Near Field Communicaion - Inerface and Proocol (NFCIP-1) A.3 Propagaion delay The propagaion delay of he Fron-end is he ineger number of clock cycles needed for signal processing in he Fron-end. This delay is divided ino wo pars, one ime for Signal-Ou ( 1 ) and one for Signal-In ( 2 ). The sum of hem is he propagaion delay. ECMA-340 Fron-ends, using he NFC-WI inerface have he following requiremens on he propagaion delay: For daa rae f CLK /128: For daa rae f CLK /64: For daa rae f CLK /32: ( ) equal o 128 clock cycles ( ) maximum 256 clock cycles ( ) maximum 256 clock cycles A.4 Communicaion Mode The defaul communicaion mode is he Passive communicaion mode. A.5 RF-field conrol during acivaion In 9.2, he Sandard defines he Acivaing sae. The acivaion sequence defined in only acivaes he NFC-WI. Wheher he NFCIP-1 RF-field is swiched on is described by he following wo cases. A.5.1 Acivaion wihou RF-field When ACT_REQ_Si is shorer han 100µs he NFC-WI eners he On sae wihou he Fron-end swiching on he RF-field. Ecma Inernaional

20 Off Sae Acivaing Sae On Sae Signal on Signal-In Signal on Signal-Ou Max RF-field Min < 100µs A.5.2 Acivaion wih RF-field Figure A.1 Acivaion wihou RF-field When ACT_REQ_Si is overlapping he ACT_RES_So for a leas 16 clock cycles he NFC-WI eners he On sae wih he Fron-end performing he Iniial RF collision avoidance sequence as defined in ECMA-340. If he Fron-end is no able o swich on he RF-field i iniiaes he Signal-Ou deacivaion. Off Sae Acivaing Sae On Sae Signal on Signal-In Signal on Signal-Ou Max RF-field Min 100µs.. 50ms > 16 clock cycles Figure A.2 Acivaion wih RF-field 14 Ecma Inernaional 2012

21 A.6 Signal diagrams This Clause illusraes possible signal combinaions for Signal-In, Signal-Ou and he RF-field. A.6.1 f CLK /128 RF-field OFF Sae ACTIVATING Sae IDLE sub-sae BUSY sub-sae ON Sae IDLE sub-sae BUSY sub-sae IDLE sub-sae DEACTIVATING Sae OFF Sae Signal-ou wire Signal-in wire max. 50ms 1 2 Figure A.3 Signal diagram f CLK /128 Ecma Inernaional

22 A.6.2 f CLK /64 RF-field OFF Sae ACTIVATING Sae IDLE sub-sae BUSY sub-sae ON Sae IDLE sub-sae BUSY sub-sae IDLE sub-sae DEACTIVATING Sae OFF Sae Signal-ou wire Signal-in wire max. 50ms 1 2 Figure A.4 Signal diagram f CLK /64 16 Ecma Inernaional 2012

23 Annex B (informaive) Command sae B.1 Configuraion This Sandard specifies he Escape sequence o ener he Command sae in 9.5. The Command sae allows he exchange of conrol and sae informaion beween he Transceiver and he Fron-end. Such exchange may include: indicaion of he presence of he RF-field; informaion abou he sae of he RF- Collision avoidance; conrol informaion o change daa raes and communicaion modes. Furhermore, he Command mode allows changing o oher communicaion proocols. Ecma Inernaional

24 Ecma Inernaional 2012

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