Table of Contents. 3.0 SMPS Topologies. For Further Research. 3.1 Basic Components. 3.2 Buck (Step Down) 3.3 Boost (Step Up) 3.4 Inverter (Buck/Boost)

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1 Table of Conens 3.0 SMPS Topologies 3.1 Basic Componens 3.2 Buck (Sep Down) 3.3 Boos (Sep Up) 3.4 nverer (Buck/Boos) 3.5 Flyback Converer 3.6 Curren Boosed Boos 3.7 Curren Boosed Buck 3.8 Forward Converer 3.9 Cuk Converer 3.10 Half-Forward Regulaor 3.11 Push-Pull Regulaor 3.12 Half-Bridge Regulaor 3.13 Full-Bridge Regulaor Assignmen Quesions For Furher Research An nroducion o Communicaions Sysems i

2

3 Noes 3.0 SMPS Topologies Objecives denify various ypes of swich mode converers. Deermine he approximae curren waveforms in SMPS circuis. Here are some excellen documens: hp:// hp:// hp:// /APPCHP2.pdf hp:// hp:// hp:// hp://henry.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/smps_e/smps_e.asp hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// Power Elecronics by Faz Rahman Many of hese illusraions are from SWTCHMODE Power Supply Reference Manual, rev 3, 2002, by ON Semiconducor. A swiching regulaor opology is very similar o ha of a linear regulaor. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-1

4 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies n addiion o a regulaor, a swiching power supply consiss of four exernal componens: A swich used o ransfer a small porion of energy from he inpu An inducor o sore energy when he swich is closed and o discharge energy when he swich is open A capacior o sore he energy from he inducor when he swich is closed and o provide energy o he load A diode o govern he direcion of he charging and discharging currens These simple componens can be used o creae a bewildering array of power supplies, no aainable by linear mehods. Alhough each of he following circuis is quie complex, he basic operaion can be undersood by applying he Kirchoff s volage and curren laws o an RC nework. Each circui ype has only wo saes, one where he swich is ON and he oher where he swich is OFF. For he sake of simpliciy, he circuiry need o conrol he swich will be considered laer. The volage drop across he (ransisor) swich is normally quie small ( vols), bu i will be included in he following analysis. 3.1 Basic Componens Swich Bipolar and MOS ransisors used o provide he swiching funcion. Bipolar MOS Drive Circui Curren olage Break down volage Higher Cos ower Swiching speed 5 10 imes faser 3-2 An nroducion o Power Supplies

5 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Capacior Because enormous amouns of charge mus be ransferred during he swiching cycle, elecrolyic capaciors are required. However, he ESR (equivalen series resisance) of hese can be quie high and may pose some problems. f he ESR mus be lowered, a analum capacior of abou ¼ he value can be placed in parallel. Diode hp:// The diode recifier is ofen he highes source of loss in a swich mode power supply. The mos imporan parameers are: forward volage drop and reverse recovery ime. For low volage oupus, Schoky diodes are preferred. Diode Type Forward Drop Reverse Recovery Forward Recovery Fas Recovery nsec 1050 nsec UlraFas Recovery nsec 50 nsec Schoky 0.5 <1 nsec 0 nducors hp:// _EP_June% pdf hp:// hp:// f a consan curren flows hrough an inducor, i will generae a volage drop equal o ha deermined by Ohm s law E=R, where R is equal o he winding resisance. However, if he curren changes, he volage generaed across he inducor will change according o Faraday s law: = This equaion suggess ha if he curren is inerruped in a vary shor ime span (), he resuling volage can be quie high. n pracice, several housand vols can be generaed when breaking a circui. f a fixed volage is applied o an ideal inducor, he curren will rise linearly o infiniy. A real inducor however will have he curren rise linearly unil he flux sauraes he core, a which poin he inducor essenially becomes a shor circui and he curren increases o he limi of he power source. From his we noe ha an inducor mus no be allowed o saurae. This can be accomplished by placing a curren limiing resisor in series wih he inducor. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-3

6 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Adding a resisor in series wih an inducor creaes a curren waveform very much like he charging volage waveform of a capacior. This is because he volage across he inducor is no longer consan and he curren can now only rise o a maximum of max in = R The volage and curren waveforms resemble: 1 1 nducor Response olage and Curren ( ) ( ) Curren olage The ime consan is given by: τ = R Time Consan A any given ime, he inducor volage and curren is given by: 5 ( ) e R = in 1 τ ( ) = e in τ 3-4 An nroducion o Power Supplies

7 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes akes approximaely 5 ime consans (5τ) for he curren (or volage) o reach is final value. f he charging period is one ime consan or less, he curren essenially rises in a linear manner. A diode can be added o provide a discharge pah for he inducor when he swich is OFF. Turning he swich ON and OFF resuls in a riangle waveform, and if he swiching ime is fas enough, he curren waveforms can be approximaed by sraigh lines. From his we observe ha he average curren value is somewha lower han he peak curren value. f he average curren needs o be increased (or decreased) because of he load, he ON ime can be increased (or decreased) accordingly. During he ON period, energy is ransferred from he inpu power source o he inducor. During he OFF period, energy is ransferred from he inducor o he load side of he circui. A pulsing curren is generally no direcly usable by a load. Therefore a capacior is required o accumulae he excess curren and discharge i when required. This forms he basis of he simples swiching converer, namely he buck or sep down converer. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-5

8 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Many of he design equaions for a swich mode power supply can be derived by examining he inducor curren waveforms. f he inducor curren falls o zero, he circui is operaing in he disconinuous mode. f here is always a curren in he inducor, i is operaing in he coninuous mode. Mos SMPS design equaions can be derived when he inducor curren is jus a he coninuous/disconinuous hreshold. The relaionship beween peak inducor curren and inducor value can be deermined if he slope of he curren waveforms can be deermined. The size of he inducor can hen be deermined by finding he relaionship beween he peak inducor curren and he swich OFF ime. 3.2 Buck (Sep Down) hp://schmid-waler.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/sn/sn_eng/sne_pdf.hml hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure_12.pdf 3-6 An nroducion o Power Supplies

9 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes The oupu volage is deermined by he swich duy cycle: ou = in on on + off niial Sae (simplified circui) The oupu volage is conrolled by he swich ON ime. The circui operaion can be observed by urning he swich ON and OFF. Sep 1 Close he swich. When he swich closes: The inducor sars o sore energy. Curren sars o flow in he capacior and load. The diode does no conduc. The volage drop across he swich is quie low and is equal o he sauraion volage of he paricular ransisor used. sw = sa = low An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-7

10 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies The curren during he ON period is: and reaches a maximum of: in sa ou ( ) = pk = in sa ou on Sep 2 Open he swich. When he swich opens: The volage across he inducor reverses polariy. The inducor releases is sored energy o he capacior and load. The diode sars o conduc. The curren during he OFF period is: + ou D ( ) = The slope of he falling inducor curren is: pk = ou + D 3-8 An nroducion o Power Supplies

11 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Sep 3 Close he swich. When he swich closes: The volage across he inducor reverses polariy. The process repeas. Curren Waveforms The direc currens in he inducor, diode, and load resisance are quie easy o approximae. The capacior curren however is more complex since i is AC. The capacior will alernaely accep curren from he inducor, hus soring charge when he swich is ON, and discharge hrough he load when he swich is OFF. The capacior curren can be approximaed by using Kirchoff s curren law: he sum of all currens in a node is zero. C + + R = 0 An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-9

12 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Posiive values in he above diagram represen currens enering he node and negaive values represen currens leaving he node. From his we observe ha he inducor and load currens are DC, however he capacior curren is AC. The posiive capacior currens represen i discharging curren o he load and he negaive values represen i being recharged by he inducor. The principle losses will be he volage drop across he swich (a ransisor) and he resisive loss across he inducor (generally very small). Deriving he Minimum nducor alue From he falling inducor curren waveform, (assuming coninuous operaion) we can deduce: pk = ou + Rearranging we obain he minimum inducor value: D off = ou + pk D off 3.3 Boos (Sep Up) hp://schmid-waler.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/sn/sn_eng/sne_pdf.hml hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure_13.pdf 3-10 An nroducion o Power Supplies

13 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes The boos circui akes advanage of reverse polariy generaed across he inducor during he OFF period, and places i in series wih he inpu volage. This allows he oupu volage o exceed inpu volage. The oupu is deermined by he swich duy cycle. ou on on = + = + 1 in in in off off niial Sae (simplified circui) Sep 1 Close he swich. When he swich closes: The inducor sars o sore energy. The diode does no conduc. The inducor curren during he ON period is: in sw ( ) = An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-11

14 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies and reaches a maximum of: (max) = in sw on Sep 2 Open he swich. When he swich opens: The volage across he inducor reverses polariy. The diode sars o conduc. The inducor curren during he OFF period is: + ou D in ( ) = The slope of he falling inducor curren is: pk + ou D in ( ) = The oupu volage rises o: ou = + in D The inducor discharges is energy o he capacior and load. Sep 3 Close he swich An nroducion o Power Supplies

15 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes When he swich closes: The volage across he inducor reverses polariy. The capacior discharges ino he load. The process repeas. Principle Waveforms The capacior curren can be approximaed by using Kirchoff s curren law: he sum of all currens in a node is zero. C + D + R = 0 By increasing he ON ime, his circui can creae an oupu several imes he inpu volage. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-13

16 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Noice ha he sored energy in he inducor is ransferred o he load when he swich is OFF. This creaes very high surge currens hrough he diode. also creaes very high volages across he swich. Deriving he Minimum nducor Size From he falling inducor curren (assuming i falls o zero a he end of he cycle) we obain: pk = ou + From his we can deermine he inducor size: D in off = ou + D pk in off 3.4 nverer (Buck/Boos) hp://schmid-waler.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/sn/sn_eng/sne_pdf.hml This circui simply reverses he polariy of he inpu volage. The oupu magniude can be less han, equal o, or greaer han ha of he inpu. = ou in on off 3-14 An nroducion o Power Supplies

17 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes niial Sae (simplified circui) Sep 1 Close he swich. When he swich closes: The inducor sars o sore energy. The inducor curren during he ON period is: in sw ( ) = and rises o a maximum of: pk = in sw on The diode does no conduc. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-15

18 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Sep 2 Open he swich When he swich opens: The volage across he inducor reverses polariy. The diode sars o conduc. The inducor discharges is energy o he capacior and load. The inducor curren during he OFF period is: + ou D ( ) = The slope of he falling inducor curren is; The oupu volage is negaive. pk = ou + D Sep 3 Close he swich An nroducion o Power Supplies

19 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Principle Waveforms The capacior curren can be approximaed by using Kirchoff s curren law: he sum of all currens in a node is zero. C + D + R = 0 Deriving he Minimum nducor Size From he falling inducor curren, we observe ha: An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-17

20 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Rearranging, we obain: pk = ou + D off = ou + pk D off 3.5 Flyback Converer hp://schmid-waler.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/sn/sn_eng/sne_pdf.hml hp://schmid-waler.fbe.fh-darmsad.de/sn/sn_eng/sneng3b.pdf hp:// new.pdf hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// OW_AN.PDF hp:// W_AN02.PDF hp://pdfserv.maxim-ic.com/en/an/an1166.pdf hp:// /5956.pdf hp://focus.i.com/li/ml/slup076/slup076.pdf hp://focus.i.com/li/ml/slup058/slup058.pdf hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure_15.pdf The single-ended flyback converer is he simples isolaed converer. The ransformer is acually a close-coupled inducor and is energized by means of a unipolar pulse. This circui can be configured o operae as a boos, buck, or invering converer. The oupu circui is also isolaed from he inpu. This echnique can be used o creae muliple oupu power supplies since load changes on one winding have lile effec on he ohers. A disadvanage of his approach is he need for large filer capaciors since he enire load curren is ulimaely supplied during he ransisor OFF period. The capacior should have a low ESR. Flyback converers are relaively inexpensive and are widely used in high volage monior supplies An nroducion o Power Supplies

21 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes niial Sae (simplified circui) Sep 1 Close he swich. When he swich closes: Curren begins flowing in he primary inducor, bu no in he secondary. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-19

22 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Sep 2 Open he swich. When he swich opens: An iniial high inducive kickback volage is generaed across he primary. (The forward converer removes his high volage spike by adding a diode and clamp winding across he primary) Curren begins flowing in he secondary inducor, bu no in he primary. The secondary winding volage is refleced across he primary. Two-Transisor Flyback Converer The very high inducive kickback which occurs when he swich urns OFF places a grea deal of srain on he ransisor. This can be reduced by using wo ransisors and a pair of seering diodes. This prevens he volage across eiher swich from exceeding he inpu volage level. 3.6 Curren Boosed Boos This arrangemen allows curren o flow from he inpu o he load a all imes hus reducing he curren demands on he ransisor swich. However, he ransisor swiching volage increases An nroducion o Power Supplies

23 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes niial Sae Sep 1 Close he swich. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-21

24 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Sep 2 Open he swich. 3.7 Curren Boosed Buck This circui uses a ransformer o increase he oupu curren. This effecively decreases he curren raing of he ransisor bu unforunaely increases is volage raing. niial Sae 3-22 An nroducion o Power Supplies

25 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Sep 1 Close he swich. Sep 2 Open he swich. 3.8 Forward Converer hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// hp:// An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-23

26 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure%2016.pdf The rese winding (lef) dumps he sored energy in he primary winding back o he inpu source. f his did no happen, he volage across he primary would aemp o rise o infiniy and blow he swiching ransisor. Magneizing flux would also buildup and saurae he core. niial Sae 3-24 An nroducion o Power Supplies

27 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Sep 1 Close he swich. Sep 2 Open he swich. Two-Transisor Forward Converer 3.9 Cuk Converer This very popular converer has low inpu and oupu ripple. By conrolling he duy cycle, i can be operaed as a boos or buck regulaor. hp://focus.i.com/li/an/slua158/slua158.pdf hp:// hp:// An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-25

28 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure_14.pdf niial Sae Sep 1 Close he swich. Sep 2 Open he swich An nroducion o Power Supplies

29 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Sep 3 Close he swich. Sep 4 Open he swich Half-Forward Regulaor 3.11 Push-Pull Regulaor hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure%2017.pdf An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-27

30 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies 3.12 Half-Bridge Regulaor 3.13 Full-Bridge Regulaor hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure_14.pdf hp://alpha400.ee.unsw.edu.au/elec4240/ecure%2017.pdf 3-28 An nroducion o Power Supplies

31 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes Assignmen Quesions On-ine Tes Quick Quiz 1. f a fixed volage is applied o an ideal inducor, he curren will aemp o increase [linearly, exponenially]. 2. Adding a resisor in series wih an inducor does no aler he curren waveform. [True, False] 3. akes approximaely [2, 5, 7] ime consans for he curren in an inducor o reach is final value. 4. f he swich duy cycle is 50%, he peak curren is approximaely [on half, wice] he average curren. 5. Mos loads require a pulsing curren source. [True, False] 6. A buck regulaor is also known as a sep up converer. [True, False] 7. The boos circui does no ake advanage of he polariy reversal across he inducor during he OFF period. [True, False] 8. n more expensive SMPS devices, he capacior is inegraed on he chip. [True, False] 9. Swiching power converers achieve an efficiency of 70% or beer. [True, False] 10. SMPS bipolar swiching ransisors should have a gain-bandwidh produc of approximaely MHz. 11. Composiion Quesions To answer hese quesions, i will be necessary o do some research. 1. Wha are he four main componens in a SMPS? 2. is he hree modulaion schemes used in SMPS. 3. The sampling circui generally consiss of a simple volage divider. [True, False] 4. An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-29

32 Noes Swich Mode Power Supplies Analyical Quesions An nroducion o Power Supplies

33 Swich Mode Power Supplies Noes For Furher Research An nroducion o Power Supplies 3-31

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