EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER

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1 EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER INTRODUCTION: Being able o ransmi a radio frequency carrier across space is of no use unless we can place informaion or inelligence upon i. This las ransmier sage will do jus ha; i is an AM modulaor. For a circui o work as an AM modulaor, i mus be non-linear. This is very imporan. In a linear circui, doubling he inpu volage always doubles he oupu volage; ripling he inpu volage riples he oupu volage; and so forh. However, in a non-linear circui, his is no rue. Doubling he inpu volage may resul in a ripled oupu volage, while ripled inpu volage may resul in an oupu much more han riple he original! In oher words, he inpu-oupu characerisic of he non-linear circui isn' a sraigh line. A ransisor amplifier can easily be made non-linear by operaing i in large-signal mode. OK, I see you remember now, and you're righ: In large-signal mode, he ransisor nearly approaches (or acually reaches) boh cuoff and sauraion on each cycle of he inpu signal. Which amplifier class is usually cu-off mos of he ime, and rarely urns on? Righ, i's class C--and ha's exacly he class he modulaor sage in he ransmier will use. A class C amplifier is, in fac, highly non-linear! A non-linear circui will disor he inpu waveform. Normally his is undesirable; however, i's exacly wha we wan in his case. The inpu o he modulaor will consis of he carrier (from he buffer amplifier and oscillaor), and he inelligence (a 1 KHz sine wave from he benchop signal generaor.) Because of he non-linear disorion produced by he modulaor, he oupu will consis of he wo original oupu frequencies ( f c, f m ), as well as NEW frequencies (f usb -- he upper sideband, and f lsb --he lower sideband.) Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-1

2 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Figure 1 shows he modulaor sage. The ransisor is biased in class C by resisor R9 on is base. When here is no inpu signal, R9 is coupling he base of Q2 o ground. Since he base-emier volage would be zero under hese condiions, he ransisor will be cu-off wih no signal. Sure enough, class C! T1 42TL030 INTELLIGENCE INPUT "P" +12 V L2 1 mh C9 0.1 uf C10 L3 AM RF OUTPUT RF INPUT (From buffer) R9 470 Ohms Q2 2N uf 100 uh C uf C uf R(LOAD) 50 Ohms Figure 1: AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier C7 couples he buffer amplifier o Q2. I funcions boh as a DC blocking capacior, and a signal coupling capacior. C7 also works ogeher wih R9 and he base-emier juncion of Q2 o form a clamper nework. You migh recall ha he effec of he base clamping nework in a class-c amplifier is o allow he ransisor o conduc only on he very ip of each posiive peak of he inpu signal. This way, he ransisor is off mos of he ime, giving jus one "push" o he oupu ank circui for each cycle of he signal. Since he ransisor conducs for only abou 120 degrees of he inpu AC RF cycle, he waveform a he collecor is highly disored; i is, in fac, a series of pulses. These pulses have a peak ampliude of approximaely Vcc (remember, he ransisor is going all he way beween cuoff and sauraion). The load needs o see a clean sine wave. How can we conver he pulses back ino a sine wave? A resonan ank circui will do he job. C11, L3, and C12 form his ank circui. Huh? Take a look a he circui. This surely mus be a misprin; ha circui doesn' look anyhing like he resonan circuis from fundamenals! C11, L3, and C12 in fac form a PI nework anenna coupler, which acs as a resonan circui (wo capaciors and an inducor, of course) in he ime domain, and a low-pass filer in he frequency domain. Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-2

3 In he ime domain, he flywheel acion of C11, L3, and C12 convers he pulse rain a he collecor of Q2 back ino a sine wave. As a free bonus, hese componens also impedance mach he 50 ohm load o he 2200 ohm collecor resisance of Q2. The anenna coupler can also be explained in he frequency domain. The pulse rain a he collecor of Q2 consiss of a DC level, a fundamenal sine wave frequency, and an almos infinie number of harmonics. Capacior C10 eliminaes he DC level, while he low-pass filer formed from C11, L3, and C12 eliminaes mos of he harmonic energies, producing a relaively pure sine wave a he AM RF OUTPUT erminal. A class C amplifier can be emier, base, or collecor modulaed. This circui uses collecor injecion of he informaion signal. The secondary of audio ransformer T1 is placed in series wih he Vcc power supply of Q2. When audio energy from he signal generaor is coupled ino T1's primary, his AC energy becomes superimposed upon he Vcc power supply a he collecor of Q2. Therefore, he insananeous DC volage a he collecor of Q2 rides up and down in sep wih he informaion signal. This causes he peak volage a Q2's collecor o also rise up and down (since we're varying he power supply). The resul is ha he oal AC oupu compliance (maximum p-p signal oupu) of Q2 rises and falls in sep wih he informaion. In oher words, ampliude modulaion occurs. Inducor L2 is an RF choke. An RF choke prevens radio frequency currens from passing hrough. In his case, L2 forces he AC RF currens o say "below" in he Q2 circui, while allowing he low-frequency audio energy from T1 o pass, creaing ampliude modulaion. C9 is an addiional RF bypass capacior, whose job is o clean up any residual RF ha happens o sneak hrough L2. Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-3

4 LABORATORY PROCEDURE: Name Sign-off In his experimen, you'll align he uned circuis of he ransmier, hen observe he resuling AM waveform a he oupu of he uni. You will learn how o compue he percenage of modulaion of an AM signal by measuring he modulaed carrier waveform wih an oscilloscope. 1. Add he AM modulaor sage o your exising ransmier circuiry. NOTE: The ransformer T1 has hree leads on each side, and one side is marked "P" (for Primary). Be careful o inser T1 in he correc direcion. Don' force T1's leads ino he breadboard; hey're easily damaged. 2. Connec he analog oupu of he AF signal generaor o he INTELLIGENCE INPUT of he modulaor sage. Leave he generaor off. This ensures ha no inelligence is being fed ino he modulaor. 3. Connec channel #1 of he scope o he AM RF OUTPUT of he circui. Trigger off his channel. 4. Apply power o he circui, and make he following adjusmens: L1 (Oscillaor): Adjus for desired carrier frequency, beween 450 KHz and 700 KHz. (You may wan o make sure you're using a differen frequency han ohers in he lab.) R4 (RF Level): Adjus for maximum oupu wihou clipping a he AM RF OUTPUT es poin. L3 (Anenna Coupler): Adjus for maximum oupu a he AM RF OUTPUT. TIP: If everyhing is working correcly, you'll ge a clean sine wave of 5 Vpp or beer a he AM RF OUTPUT. This corresponds o he design RF oupu power level of approximaely 60 mw. Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-4

5 5. The wave obained in sep 4 is he unmodulaed carrier wave. Draw i below. Don' forge o show ime and volage! AM RF OUTPUT (Unmodulaed) 6. Wha do he base and collecor volages in he class C circui look like? Le's find ou! Leave channel #1 of he scope conneced, and connec channel #2 of he scope o he base of Q2. Use DC coupling! Draw a deailed graph of he Q2 base volage below: Q2 BASE VOLTAGE Q2 COLLECTOR VOLTAGE 7. We would now like o view some AM waveforms. On he scope, he channel #1 race should display he INTELLIGENCE, and he channel #2 race should show he MODULATED WAVE. We should also rigger off he INTELLIGENCE. Reconnec he scope leads o he proper poins, please! 8. Turn on he AF signal generaor, and se is frequency o 1 KHz. This is he inelligence frequency. Se he ampliude of he informaion signal o 6 Vpp. 9. Adjus he scope unil you see one cycle of he inelligence displayed across he screen. (Channel 1) Noe: You'll find i helpful o use CHOP mode, so ha you can see channel 1 and 2 a he same ime. 10.Remember how o calculae percenage of modulaion from he envelope dimensions of a waveform? We used he formula: V m = V max max V + V min min Where Vmax is he maximum peak-o-peak envelope size, and Vmin is he minimum peak-o-peak envelope size. Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-5

6 Adjus he inelligence ampliude (Waveek) unil here is approximaely 50% modulaion, hen draw he following waveforms: INTELLIGENCE VOLTAGE AM RF OUTPUT (50% mod) 11. Record your measured Vmax and Vmin values in he able below; hen repea sep 10 for he res of he values in he able. (You do no have o redraw he waveforms). % Modulaion Vmax Vmin 50% 25% 0% 100% 12. From wha you did in seps 10 and 11, can you ell me an easy way (no calculaions) o deermine when he oscilloscope-displayed AM waveform reaches 100% modulaion? 13. Wha happens if we ry o exceed 100% modulaion? Well, ry i and find ou! Draw he resulan AM OUTPUT waveform below: AM RF OUTPUT ( > 100%) Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-6

7 14. Can you explain o me how I can idenify an OVERMODULATED AM waveform on he scope, given your resuls from sep 13? Ousanding! I hink you're ready for he nex experimen! Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-7

8 QUESTIONS 1. Wha purpose is acheived in he modulaor sage of a ransmier? 2. Why does he AM modulaor oupu Fusb and Flsb, in addiion o he he carrier frequency? (In oher words, wha propery of he circui makes i useful as a modulaor?) 3. Why is a class C amplifier a good choice for a modulaor sage? Lab 4 - AM Modulaor and Power Amplifier Page 4-8

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