# Electronic Instrumentation

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1 5V CL CLK LD TE PE CO P4 P3 P2 P1 Q4 Q3 Q2 Q Electronic Instrumentation Experiment 7 Digital Logic Devices and the 555 Timer Part A: Basic Logic Gates Part B: Flip Flops Part C: Counters Part D: 555 Timers

2 Part A Basic Logic Gates Combinational Logic Devices Boolean Algebra DeMorgan s Laws Timing Diagrams 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 2

3 Combinational Logic Devices Logic Gates perform basic logic operations, such as AND, OR and NOT, on binary signals. We can model the behavior of these chips by enumerating the output they produce for all possible inputs. In order to show this behavior, we use truth tables, which show the output for all input combinations. The outputs of combinational logic gates depend only on the instantaneous values of the inputs. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 3

4 Logic Gates 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 4

5 Logic Gate Example: XOR Input Input Output A B X Question: What common household switch configuration corresponds to an XOR? 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 5

6 Boolean Algebra The variables in a boolean, or logic, expression can take only one of two values, 0 (false) and 1 (true). We can also use logical mathematical expressions to analyze binary operations, as well. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 6

7 The basis of boolean algebra lies in the operations of logical addition, or the OR operation, and logical multiplication, or the AND operation. OR Gate If either X or Y is true (1), then Z is true (1) AND Gate If both X and Y are true (1), then Z is true (1) Logic gates can have an arbitrary number of inputs. Note the similarities to the behavior of the mathematical operators plus and times. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 7

8 Laws of Boolean Algebra 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 8

9 DeMorgan s Laws 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 9

10 Timing Diagrams sequential logic When we deal with binary signals, we are not worried about exact voltages. We are only concerned with two things: Is the signal high or low? When does the signal switch states? Relative timing between the state changes of different binary signals is much easier to see using a diagram like this. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 10

11 Part B Flip Flops Sequential Logic Devices Flip Flops By-Pass Capacitors 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 11

12 Sequential Logic Devices In a sequential logic device, the timing or sequencing of the input signals is important. Devices in this class include flip-flops and counters. Positive edge-triggered devices respond to a low-tohigh (0 to 1) transition, and negative edge-triggered devices respond to a high-to-low (1 to 0) transition. 1 0 positive edge negative edges positive edge 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 12

13 Flip-Flops A flip-flop is a sequential device that can store and switch between two binary states. It is called a bistable device since it has two and only two possible output states: 1 (high) and 0 (low). It has the capability of remaining in a particular state (i.e., storing a bit) until the clock signal and certain combinations of the input cause it to change state. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 13

14 Simple Flip Flop Example: The RS Flip-Flop Q = 0 Q = 1 Note that the output depends on three things: the two inputs and the previous state of the output. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 14

15 Inside the R-S Flip Flop Note that the enable signal is the clock, which regularly pulses. This flip flop changes on the rising edge of the clock. It looks at the two inputs when the clock goes up and sets the outputs according to the truth table for the device. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 15

16 Inside the J-K Flip Flop Note this flip flop, although structurally more complicated, behaves almost identically to the R-S flip flop, where J(ump) is like S(et) and K(ill) is like R(eset). The major difference is that the J-K flip flop allows both inputs to be high. In this case, the output switches state or toggles. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 16

17 By-Pass Capacitors V+ GND In a sequential logic device, a noisy signal can generate erroneous results. By-pass capacitors are placed between 5V and 0V to filter out high frequency noise. A by-pass capacitor should be used in any circuit involving a sequential logic device to avoid accidental triggering. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 17

18 Part C: Counters Binary Numbers Binary Counters 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 18

19 Binary Decimal -- Hexadecimal Conversion binary number equivalent base 10 value for each group of 4 consecutive binary digits (bits) B 5 C 5 9 C F 6 B5C59CF6 corresponding hexadecimal (base 16) digit equivalent hexadecimal number Decimal 8 = 1x x x2 1 +0x2 0 = in Binary Calculator Applet 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 19

20 Binary Counters Binary Counters do exactly what it sounds like they should. They count in binary. Binary numbers are comprised of only 0 s and 1 s. Decimal QD QC QB QA March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 20

21 Binary Counters are made with Flip Flops Each flip flop corresponds to one bit in the counter. Hence, this is a four-bit counter. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 21

22 Typical Output for Binary Counter Note how the Q outputs form 4 bit numbers 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 22

23 Part D: 555-Timers The 555 Timer Inside the 555-Timer Types of 555-Timer Circuits Understanding the Astable Mode Circuit Modulation Pulse Width Modulation 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 23

24 The 555 Timer The 555 Timer is one of the most popular and versatile integrated circuits ever produced! It is 30 years old and still being used! It is a combination of digital and analog circuits. It is known as the time machine as it performs a wide variety of timing tasks. Applications for the 555 Timer include: Bounce-free switches and Cascaded timers Frequency dividers Voltage-controlled oscillators Pulse generators and LED flashers 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 24

25 555 Timer DIS R VCC THR TR CV NE555 1 Q GND Each pin has a function Note some familiar components inside 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 25

26 Inside the 555 Timer 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 26

27 Inside the 555 Timer The voltage divider (blue) has three equal 5K resistors. It divides the input voltage (Vcc) into three equal parts. The two comparators (red) are op-amps that compare the voltages at their inputs and saturate depending upon which is greater. The Threshold Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Threshold pin (pin 6) is greater than (2/3)Vcc. The Trigger Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Trigger pin (pin 2) is less than (1/3)Vcc 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 27

28 The flip-flop (green) is a bi-stable device. It generates two values, a high value equal to Vcc and a low value equal to 0V. When the Threshold comparator saturates, the flip flop is Reset (R) and it outputs a low signal at pin 3. When the Trigger comparator saturates, the flip flop is Set (S) and it outputs a high signal at pin 3. The transistor (purple) is being used as a switch, it connects pin 7 (discharge) to ground when it is closed. When Q is low, Qbar is high. This closes the transistor switch and attaches pin 7 to ground. When Q is high, Qbar is low. This open the switch and pin 7 is no longer grounded 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 28

29 Types of 555-Timer Circuits 5V 5V Ra 4 8 R 4 8 C Rb uF DIS THR TR CV NE555 R 1 GND VCC Q 3 LED 1 2 1K C uF DIS THR TR R CV NE555 1 GND VCC Q 3 LED Astable Multivibrator puts out a continuous sequence of pulses Monostable Multivibrator (or one-shot) puts out one pulse each time the switch is connected 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 29

30 Monostable Multivibrator (One Shot) V cc 8 4 Reset R Threshold Comparator R a 6 2 V cc 3 R - + +V -V R Q Output 3 Trigger 2 1 Vcc 3 +V - + -V Trigger Comparator S Q Control Flip-Flop C 7 R 1 Monstable Multivibrator 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 30 One-Shot

31 Behavior of the Monostable Multivibrator The monostable multivibrator is constructed by adding an external capacitor and resistor to a 555 timer. The circuit generates a single pulse of desired duration when it receives a trigger signal, hence it is also called a one-shot. The time constant of the resistor-capacitor combination determines the length of the pulse. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 31

32 Uses of the Monostable Multivibrator Used to generate a clean pulse of the correct height and duration for a digital system Used to turn circuits or external components on or off for a specific length of time. Used to generate delays. Can be cascaded to create a variety of sequential timing pulses. These pulses can allow you to time and sequence a number of related operations. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 32

33 Astable Pulse-Train Generator (Multivibrator) V cc 8 4 R Threshold Comparator R 1 R 2 6 R - + +V -V R Q Output V -V S Q Trigger Comparator Control Flip-Flop C 7 R 1 Astable Pulse-Train Generator 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 33

34 Behavior of the Astable Multivibrator The astable multivibrator is simply an oscillator. The astable multivibrator generates a continuous stream of rectangular off-on pulses that switch between two voltage levels. The frequency of the pulses and their duty cycle are dependent upon the RC network values. The capacitor C charges through the series resistors R 1 and R 2 with a time constant (R 1 + R 2 )C. The capacitor discharges through R 2 with a time constant of R 2 C 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 34

35 Uses of the Astable Multivibrator Flashing LED s Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Position Modulation Periodic Timers 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 35

36 Flashing LED s 40 LED bicycle light with 20 LEDs flashing alternately at 4.7Hz 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 36

37 Understanding the Astable Mode Circuit 555-Timers, like op-amps can be configured in different ways to create different circuits. We will now look into how this one creates a train of equal pulses, as shown at the output. 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 37

38 First we must examine how capacitors charge TCLOSE = U1 V V R1 1k V 1 10V V1 U2 TOPEN = 0 C1 2 1uF 0 Capacitor C1 is charged up by current flowing through R1 I V1 V = R1 CAPACITOR 10 V = 1k CAPACITOR As the capacitor charges up, its voltage increases and the current charging it decreases, resulting in the charging rate shown 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 38

39 Capacitor Charging Equations Capacitor Current Capacitor Voltage I = I e o t τ V = V o e t τ 1 Where the time constant τ = RC = R1 C1 = 1ms 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 39

40 Understanding the equations Note that the voltage rises to a little above 6V in 1ms. 1 ( 1 e ) = March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 40

41 Capacitor Charging and Discharging There is a good description of capacitor charging and its use in 555 timer circuits at 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 41

42 555 Timer At the beginning of the cycle, C1 is charged through resistors R1 and R2. The charging time constant is τ ch e = ( R1 + arg The voltage reaches (2/3)Vcc in a time R2) C1 t T1 = 0.693( R1 ch arge = + R2) C1 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 42

43 555 Timer When the voltage on the capacitor reaches (2/3)Vcc, a switch (the transistor) is closed (grounded) at pin 7. The capacitor is discharged to (1/3)Vcc through R2 to ground, at which time the switch is opened and the cycle starts over. τ disch = arge tdisch e = T 2 = arg ( R2) C ( R2) C1 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 43

44 555 Timer The frequency is then given by f = = ( R1 + 2 R2) C1 ( R1 + 2 R2) C1 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 44

45 555 Animation Output is high for 0.693(R a +R b )C Output voltage high turns off upper LED and turns on lower LED Capacitor is charging through R a and R b timer_slow.htm 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 45

46 555 Animation Output is low for 0.693(R b )C Output is low so the upper LED is on and the lower LED is off Capacitor is discharging through R b 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 46

47 PWM: Pulse Width Modulation Signal is compared to a sawtooth wave producing a pulse width proportional to amplitude 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 47

48 What Can Be Done With PWM? Low Duty Cycle Medium Duty Cycle High Duty Cycle Question: What happens if voltages like the ones above are connected to a light bulb? Answer: The longer the duty cycle, the longer the light bulb is on and the brighter the 20 March light Electronic Instrumentation 48

49 What Can Be Done With PWM? Average power can be controlled Average flows can also be controlled by fully opening and closing a valve with some duty cycle 20 March 2007 Electronic Instrumentation 49

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