# ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER

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1 Final Project ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER As preparation for the laboratory, examine the final circuit diagram at the end of these notes and write a brief plan for the project, including a list of the components needed and a layout of how the circuit will actually be assembled on your circuit board. In this experiment you will construct an analog to digital converter, making use of several of the principles that you have investigated so far in this course. Schmitt-trigger Inverter: The MC5/7HCA Inverters you have been using are a special type of inverter which incorporates hysteresis in the input triggering characteristic. In other words, the input voltage level required to cause the output to make a transition from one state to the other depends on which state characterizes the output. This characteristic is displayed in the accompanying figure. Standard Hysteresis V out V out V in V in A) Using the output of the dc power supply as the input to one of your inverters, measure the two threshold levels of the unit. That is, determine the amount of hysteresis characterizing the device. The presence of hysteresis of this kind increases the versatility of the unit. In particular, Schmitt-trigger circuits provide excellent noise immunity and the ability to square up signals with long rise and fall times. An application of interest to us is the ability to construct a simple square wave oscillator from such an inverter. B) Assemble the following circuit: k khz Square Wave Oscillator 0.0 F

2 Explain its operation. To explain it you will find it helpful to measure the input voltage and output voltage simultaneously on the oscilloscope. For your ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) which you will be assembling shortly, you will need a pulse generator providing short pulses every few seconds. This is required in order to trigger the ADC into performing measurements of the input analog signal repetitively, a few times a second. C) The short pulses are generated by the following circuit, when connected to the output of the square wave oscillator. 50 pf Assemble the circuit shown and connect it to the output of the square wave oscillator. Verify that the circuit performs the intended function. Explain its operation. Now decrease the oscillation frequency of your square wave oscillator (part B) byfirst changing the 0.0 F capacitor to.0 F and then connecting a 0 F capacitor in parallel with it. (Note: Capacitors with large values (00 s of F) of capacitance are electrolytic capacitors which are polarized. They must be inserted into the circuit with appropriate care. The longer of the two leads is the positive terminal. The negative terminal is also marked using a grey stripe. Leave this combination of circuits on your breadboard. They will be incorporated later into your ADC. They will be referred to then as circuit O. D) For your ADC, you will require another square pulse generator, a unit generating a train of clock pulses which when counted by a scaler will generate the digital output of the device. Now is an appropriate time to assemble it onto your breadboard. Clock Pulse Generator 0.0 F

3 Assemble this circuit and make sure that it produces a square wave with a frequency of 0 khz. The variable resistor enables you to tune the frequency of your oscillator. Leave this combination on your breadboard, too. When used in your ADC, it will be referred to as circuit O. E) As shown in the following figure, connect the two decade counters to each other, so that a 00 counter is formed. Clock input CLR CLKA CLKB QA QB QC QD CLR CLKA CLKB QA QB QC QD To read the output of the decade counters, use LEDs in series with 00 resistors. The positive terminals of the diodes should be connected to the counter outputs and the resistors should go between the negative terminals and ground. Verify the operation of this whole counting system by feeding a pulse train into the 00 counter. The function generator TTL output can be used to provide a low-frequency zero-to-five volt square wave clock input. The counter should count from 0 to 99 and then return back to zero. The decade counters are equipped with a reset function. In normal operation the reset inputs are grounded. Taking the reset input from LO-to-HI-to-LO resets the counters such that all outputs read LO. Retain this final circuit on your breadboard. It is also required for your ADC.

4 ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER Even today, there is still a large body of instrumentation involving analogue signals (voltages and currents). In order to use a computer for monitoring, acquiring or operating on data from such instrumentation, the analogue information must first be converted to digital quantities. The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) accomplishes this task. There are many techniques utilized by commercial ADC s to perform the A-to-D conversion. One of the simplest methods (and still encountered in practice) involves an Analog-to-Time Converter. This is a device which, on receipt of an appropriate trigger pulse, generates a stop pulse at a time t later, where t is proportional to the voltage level being digitized. By gating a free-running clock with a pulse whose time duration is equal to t, and counting the gated clock pulses in an appropriate counter (or scaler), the desired analogto-digital conversion is obtained. This is the type of ADC which you will assemble in this experiment. Of the required circuitry: ) Analogue to Time Converter ) Trigger Generator ) Clock ) Control Logic 5) Divide-by-00 Counter and Numeric Display the Trigger generator () is your circuit O, the Clock (), is O, the Control logic () is your FF together with an additional NAND gate, and the Counter and Numeric Display (5) is the 7HC90 Dual -Stage Counter. Analog-to-Time Converter: The Analog-to-Time Converter () is the item which we must now address. It is a circuit which consists of two parts: i) The first part is a circuit which, on receipt of a start pulse (produced by the Trigger circuit), generates a voltage ramp (a linearly increasing voltage signal). ii) The second is a voltage comparator which compares the input (dc) voltage signal whose value is to be determined, with this voltage ramp i), generating an output pulse, the stop signal, when the ramp exceeds the input.

5 As well as resetting the ramp generator back to it quiescent (on inactive) state, this stop pulse also resets the control circuit flip-flop, thus cutting off the clock pulses from the decade counter. N90 E B C Trigger Input In detail: -5 V F +5 V Comparator Output 7 +5 V i) The voltage ramp circuit is an op-amp current integrator. Its input is a.5 ma DC constant current (5 V ), which when integrated on the F feedback capacitor, yields a positive ramp voltage output signal. The transistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor is an electronic switch controlled by the logic circuit. When open (resulting when a LO level is applied to its input), the integrator operates in the fashion described, producing the required ramp voltage at its output. However, when the switch is closed (resulting when a HI level is applied to its input), the feedback capacitor is shorted out, and, since the.5 ma current flowing through the switch results in an insignificant potential drop, a zero (LO) voltage is produced at the output of the 7 op-amp. ii) The comparator is a second op-amp (type difference amplifier). You built the equivalent of the comparator using a 7 op-amp and two npn transistors in the last part of experiment #. Here, the comparator yields a HI or LO voltage level (+5 V or GND) depending on whether the value of the ramp voltage is less than or greater than the input voltage set by the potentiometer (variable resistor). Operationally, as the ramp voltage moves past the input voltage level, the output of the comparator makes a sudden transition from HI to LO.

6 F) Construct the Ramp Generator (with transistor switch) and Comparator circuit using the 7 op-amp, N90 transistor and a Voltage Comparator. Refer to the pin connections shown on the data sheets for the op-amp and comparator to determine where to connect the required +5V and -5V power. Notice that these pin connections are different for the two devices! The input dc voltage signal is derived from a variable resistor. An important note: Pin of the comparator must be connected to ground in order for the comparator to function properly. To test the circuit, adjust the potentiometer so that a dc input voltage level intermediate between GND and +5V is provided to the, and apply a square wave signal (HIto-LO-to-HI) to the input of the transistor switch (marked Trigger Input in the diagram). Your khz Square Wave Oscillator (circuit O ) will provide the requisite signal. For this test application, use the circuit of part A), prior to the addition of the short pulse generator of part B), and with the 0 F capacitor temporarily disconnected. The duration of these square pulses should be long enough for the value of the ramp to exceed the input dc signal level before the LO-to-HI transition of the square wave Trigger Input occurs. If this is not the case, decrease the dc signal level somewhat so that the ramp can attain the required value quicker. At the instant the ramp exceeds the dc signal level, the output of the comparator will be observed to switch from a HI level to a LO level. It switches back to HI when the ramp is turned off by the Trigger Input square wave returning from LO-to-HI. Caution: Do not proceed further until you are sure that the output of the comparator varies between the HI and LO logic levels as described. If you fail to follow this advice and proceed to the next section (G) with an improperly functioning comparator, you may destroy some of the CMOS devices which will be connected to it! When you have satisfied yourself that this part of the ADC is working correctly, reconnect the 0 F capacitor into the square wave oscillator circuit ( O ).

7 You are now ready for the most exciting part of this whole operation! G) Assemble the whole ADC circuit, by inserting two more inverters, and interconnecting your various sub-components according to the circuit diagram on the last page. Carefully recheck that all required interconnections have been incorporated before proceeding further! Mode of Operation: The trigger generator (circuit O ) is the device which determines the frequency at which your dc input signal is sampled. Its short (negative going) output is used to: i) Clear the decade counter. But since the decade counter requires a positive reset (CLR) pulse, an additional digital inverter is incorporated between circuit 0 and the decade counter. ii) Sets the control flip-flop (circuit FF ) which in turn opens a gate to allow the clock pulses (from circuit O ) to pass to the decade counter. Since negativegoing signals are required to set the FF, the necessary signal could have been obtained directly at the output of the 0 circuit. However, in order to be certain that no gated clock pulses can arrive at the decade counter before the counter has been cleared, a slight time delay is provided by using one additional inverter. This inverter changes the short positive output pulse back to the short negative pulse required to set the FF. In addition, the control flip-flop opens the electronic (transistor) switch on the ramp generator to initiate the analogue-to-time conversion process. Once the ramp voltage reaches the level set by the dc input voltage, the negative transition at the output of the comparator Resets the flip-flop which in turn closes the gate at the output of the clock, thus preventing any more clock pulses from reaching the counter, and also closes the electronic (transistor) switch which in turn shorts the F integrating capacitor, thus terminating the production of the ramp and returning the output level of the integrating 7 op-amp to ground. At this instant, the comparator responds by changing its output to a HI value. Since this whole process, which occurs after the ramp voltage reaches the level set by the dc input level, takes such a short time, the duration of the negative output pulse from the comparator is correspondingly short as well. The whole cycle is then repeated when the next trigger pulse occurs.

8 H) Turn on the power and check whether your circuit operates according to expectation. If not, try to determine which subsection is not performing properly, and then disconnect it from the circuit and test it by itself. When things appear to be behaving properly, measure the dc voltage level of the input signal and then vary the clock frequency by adjusting the variable resistor in the clock circuit ( O ) so that the decade counter displays the correct value of the input voltage (it is sensible to arrange for a reading of 00 to refer to a level of 0.0 V). I) Finally, produce a timing diagram for the A-to-D converter by sketching in your lab book the shapes of the waveforms at various test points that illustrate how different parts of the A-D interact with one another. Note: To see the wave forms more clearly, speed up the trigger rate by removing the 0 F capacitor from the circuit 0. At the same time, you will have to set the value of the dc input voltage low enough that the ramp voltage is able to reach that value within the timing period set by the trigger oscillator! J) Once your ADC is working properly, and if time permits, use two LTS-0JR (or equivalent) seven-segment displays and two MC95- (or equivalent) decoders to display your counter outputs as decimal numbers. Look at pin diagrams on the data sheets archived on the course website to correctly wire the decoders and displays.

9 8 k 0 F 50 pf HC00 s N90 B E C 7 +5 V Comparator Output -5 V F 5 7 CLR 5 CLKA CLR CLKA CLKB QA QB QC QD 5 CLKB QA QB QC QD 7HC90 7HC00 FF O 7HC s 0.0 F O 7HC 7HC s F 7 +5 V

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