# Exam Booklet. Pulse Circuits

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1 Exam Booklet Pulse Circuits

2 Pulse Circuits STUDY ASSIGNMENT This booklet contains two examinations for the six lessons entitled Pulse Circuits. The material is intended to provide the last training sought by industry. In this series of lessons you will learn about the use of RC time-constant effects in pulse generation, various types of waveshaping circuits, solid state and electron-tube pulse generators, and how timing, triggering, and synchronization are achieved. Before selecting your answers for Examination 2708A, be sure to study the three lessons, serial numbers B0701, B0702, and B0703. Examination 2708B requires the study of lessons B0704, B0705, and B0706. LESSON OBJECTIVES Listed below are the objectives that you should attain upon completing the study of the specific lesson in this assignment series on Pulse Circuits. Pulse Techniques (80701) Describe what s meant by the term pulse and how it differs from nonpulse wave forms Name at least six terms that specify pulse dimensions and briefly explain each 1

3 List at least four ways that pulses are generated or developed Describe the frequency content or makeup of square waves, rectangular waves, sawtooth and triangular waves, spikes, and half-sine waves Pulse Generators (80702) Review the main methods of generating pulses Review the concept of time constant, and its relationship to pulse circuits Explain the response of differentiator and integrator circuits to sine waves and pulses Discuss pulse generation by sine wave clipping Describe briefly how pulses are developed by the relaxation oscillator, multivibrators, and switching circuits Go over the operation of the Schmitt trigger Waveshaping Circuits (80703) Explain the operation of circuits for forming square and rectangular waves, saw tooth waves, and triangular waves Tell how pulses are stretched, narrowed, widened and otherwise shaped or reshaped Discuss the response of pulses to capacitors, transformers and inductors Illustrate how a damper is used to restore shape to a pulse or a pulse series Timing and Synchronization (80704) Discuss free-running and nonsynchronized pulses Discuss the 555 timer and name some of its applications Show examples of using crystals for frequency stabilization 2 Pulse Circuits

4 Pulse Circuit Applications (80705) Review the uses of pulses in switching circuits Tell how pulses are used in computers Explain the concept of how pulses fit into data communication Discuss digital audio and television techniques Describe five uses of pulses in industry Troubleshooting Pulse Circuits (80706) Sketch typical oscilloscope waveforms for good pulses Identify possible causes of trouble wnile examining photos or sketches of distorted pulses Show how to use a logic probe in troubleshooting digital pulse circuits Demonstrate the use of a pulse generator in circuit troubleshooting Describe the steps to troubleshoot resistance welding and other industrial equipment using pulses Pulse Circuits 3

5 NOTES

7 3. When a pulse is amplified in a linear amplifier, the charge carrier transmit time can cause A. loss of the d-c reference levels. B. rise-time distortion. C. waveform tilt. D. propagation delay. 4. It requires 5 time divisions for a pulse to go from 10% to 90% of full amplitude. The sweep of the scope is calibrated so that 10 sec are represented by 20 divisions. What is the rise time of the pulse? A sec C. 10 sec B. 2.5 sec D. 15 sec 5. In a certain LR time constant circuit, it takes 135 msec for the current to reach maximum after the switch is closed. If the inductance is 4 henrys, what is the value of circuit resistance? A. 670 C B. 148 D When you increase the width of a pulse, you A. decrease average value. C. increase overshoot. B. decrease duty cycle. D. increase RMS value. 7. Which of the following will most likely cause arcing at the switch contacts? A. A switch that starts current flowing in an LR time constant circuit B. A switch that opens an LR time constant circuit C. A switch that starts the capacitor charge in an RC time constant circuit D. A switch that opens an R-b -time constant circuit fer ihe capacitor to discharge 8. In a certain circuit the output signal is NOT permitted to exceed a certain value even though the input signal tries to drive it beyond that value. What is the circuit? A. Limiter C. Baseline stabilizer B. Clipper D. Ringing oscillator 9. How would you describe a differentiator? A. An RC circuit where the time constant is greater than 1. B. An RC circuit where the time constant is equal to 1. C. A circuit that has an output signal proportional to the sum of input pulses. D. A circuit that has an output signal proportional to the rate of change of the input signal. 6 Examination

8 10. Of the following devices, which one is most suitable for frequency domain displays? A. Memory scope C. Spectrum analyzer B. Oscillograph D. Triggered sweep scope 11. An NPN common emitter transistor, when operated without d-c bias, can be used as a A. d-c restorer. C. positive peak clipper. B. negative peak clipper. D. baseline stabilizer. 12. The amplifier circuit shown uses an enhancement-type N-channel MOSFET. The input signal goes from a slightly positive value to a negative value, then back to a slightly positive value. Which waveform is correct for the output signal? A. B. C. D. 13. What is the bandwidth of an amplifier that produces a square wave with a rise time of 2 sec? A. 20 khz C. 70 khz B. 57 khz D. 175 khz 14. An advantage of direct-coupled amplifiers is that they A. make ideal clippers. B. make ideal limiters. C. can amplify a signal without inverting it. D. can amplify a signal without changing its d-e reference level. Examination 7

9 15. Determine the duty cycle for the pulse shown below. A. 9% B. 23% C. 27% D. 80% 16. When a pulse is delivered to an amplifier, ringing may occur if A. the amplifier is overdriven. B. direct coupling is used. C. there is inductance in the output circuit. D. the amplifier is operated without bias. 17. To transmit only portions of an input wave lying on one side of an amplitude boundary, you would use a A. toggled flip flop. C. limiter. B. d-e restorer. D. clipper. 18. When working with pulse generators, you should be aware that a monostable multi, vibrator is also a(n) A. collector-coupled multivibrator. C. astable multivibrator. B. one-shot multivibrator. D. bilateral compressor. 19. How long will it take for the current to reach 36.7% of its initial value in an inductive discharge circuit if R equals 1000 n and L equals 4 henrys? A. 40 sec C sec B. 10 sec D sec 20. An oscilloscope grid is calibrated so that one square represents 1-V vertically and 1 msec horizontally. If the height of a square wave pulse display is 6 squares, the width of the pulse is 7 squares, and the cycle of the wave is 16 squares, the average value of the pulse is A V. C V. B V. D V. 8 Examination

10 21. To change the relationship between a waveform and the zero-volt axis, and at the same time retain the shape of the wave, you would use a A. toggled flip flop. C. limiter. B. d-e restorer. D. clipper. 22. Which one of the following actions will you take to decrease the rise time of pulses passing through an amplifier? A. Increase low-frequency response. B. Decrease low-frequency response. C. Increase high-frequency response. D. Decrease high-frequency response. 23. The simplest clamping circuit consists of a A. diode and capacitor. C. capacitor and resistor. B. diode and resistor. D. capacitor and inductor. 24. If the pulse repetition rate (PRR) of a transmitted pulse is 400 pulses per second, what is the period of the waveform? A. 2.5 msec C. 25 msec B. 4.0 msec D. 40 msec 25. The time that it takes for a capacitor to completely charge or discharge is, for all practical purposes, equal to time constants. A. two C. four B. three D. five Examination 9

11 NOTES

13 4. To obtain the greatest possible accuracy in a timing device, you should use a A. digital timer operated from a crystal-controlled oscillator. B IC operated through an electronic inductor. C. timer with a unijunction transistor in its circuit. D. 555 IC operated through an electronic capacitor. Question 5 is based on the following schematic of an astable-multivibrator. 5. In order to obtain a 0.5-msec discharge time in the multivibrator circuit, you will need a capacitor rated at F. A C B D You have two methods of locating faults in electronic systems -signal tracing and signal A. dumping. C. shaping. B. injecting. D. squaring. 7. A disadvantage of timers operated by an RC time constant circuit is that efficient operation A. requires long timing periods. B. requires a high input power. C. depends on maintaining a constant temperature. D. depends on maintaining a minimum 15-V input. 12 Examination

14 8. You use a square-wave test to determine if an amplifier is functioning properly. This test may NOT be conclusive if the amplifier is A. operating in an overdriven mode. B. acting as an emitter follower. C. displaying poor low-frequency response. D. looking into a resistive load. Question 9 is based on the following schematic. 9. The output of the circuit will be a high when A. A, B, and C are high. B. A, B, and C are low. C. A is low and B and C are high. D. A is high and B and C are low. 10. Which one of the following distinguishes a switching power supply from other power suppliers? A. Simpler circuitry C. Higher output voltage B. Smaller transformer D. Elimination of diode rectifier 11. Which of the following devices is connected internally to an output pin of a 555 IC? A. RS flip-flop C. Reset transistor B. Power amplifier D. Threshold comparator Question 12 is based on the following graph. 12. Using the time delay graph, determine the approximate capacitance needed with a 10,000 n resistance to obtain a 10-msec delay with a 555 monostable multivibrator. A F B F C. 0.8 F D. 8 F Examination 13

15 13. In troubleshooting a pulse circuit by waveform comparison, you should use A. a logic probe. C. an oscilloscope. B. a logic scope. D. a pulser. 14. Which one of the following probe circuits will activate the LED when the probe touches a logic 0? A. C. B. D. Question 15 is based on the following schematic. 15. When the switch in the circuit has just closed, which one of the following waveforms will occur at output A? (Note: Under the conditions shown in the schematic, the capacitor is not charged.) A. C. B. D. 14 Examination

16 16. The most convenient and least time-consuming method of determining an amplifier s ability to pass a pulse in a digital circuit is to use the A. sine-wave test. C. VOM test. B. square-wave test. D. Wattmeter test. 17. An output of a high from a logic gate having a high on only one input describes the operation of A. an AND gate. C. an NOR gate. B. a NOT gate. D. ah XOR gate. 18. A one-shot multivibrator contains two transistors. What is the condition of the transistors in the standby state? A. Input transistor is cut off; output transistor is saturated. B. Output transistor is cut off; input transistor is saturated. C. Both transistors are saturated. D. Both transistors are cut off. 19. You would use a logic analyzer to test A. voltage values. C. an ac amplifier. B. a digital integrated circuit. D. a system s power supply. 20. When you hold down the switch in most types of pulsers, the instrument will generate a A. clock waveform. C. single pulse. B. sine wave. D. triangular wave. 21. The input trigger pulse to the 3905 timer must be A. negative-going to pin 1. C. negative-going to pin 2. B. positive-going to pin 1. D. positive-going to pin Which one of the following testing methods should you use in comparing the power requirements of several different computer systems? A. Benchmark testing C. Logic probing B. Component-by-component testing D. Signal tracing 23. Which one of the following changes in resistance and capacitance will produce the shortest pulse width in a 555 one-shot multivibrator? A. Decrease resistance and increase capacitance. B. Increase resistance and decrease capacitance. C. Decrease both resistance and capacitance. D. Increase both resistance and capacitance. Examination 15

17 24. The reason for connecting a diode across the resistor in the trigger circuit of a 555 monostable multivibrator is to A. rectify the trigger circuit d-e supply. B. give a sharper rise time to the trigger pulse. C. prevent a negative voltage from entering the comparator. D. lower the cost of the system by substituting a cheap diode for an expensive resistor. 25. Which one of the following testing devices should you use in checking the power supply for a digital system in which the value of logic 1 CANNOT vary by more than 0.5%? A. Logic scope C. Voltmeter B. Pulser D. Wattmeter 16 Examination

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