# University of California at Berkeley Donald A. Glaser Physics 111A Instrumentation Laboratory

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1 Published on Instrumentation LAB ( Home > Lab Assignments > Digital Labs > Digital Circuits II Digital Circuits II Submitted by Nate.Physics on Tue, 07/08/ :57 University of California at Berkeley Donald A. Glaser Physics 111A Instrumentation Laboratory Digital Circuits II 555 Timer, Analog-to-Digital (ADC) and Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) Copyrighted 2014 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. Reading: Horowitz & Hill Chapter 5.14 and Hayes & Horowitz Pages and Millman & Grabel Pages , chapter Senturia & Wedlock Pages , chapter 18.3 Stubbins Higgins Chapter 12 (see Appendix) Pages (see Appendix) Sedra & Smith Chapter Physics 111-Lab Library Reference Site Reprints and other information can be found on the Physics 111 Library Site. [1] In this lab you will learn about the 555 timer chip and its varied applications. Your will also learn the basics of digital circuits, including digital logic, (TTL) switches, flip-flops, and counters. NOTE: You can check out and keep the portable breadboards, VB-106 or VB-108, from the 111-Lab for yourself ( Only one each please) Pre-lab 1

2 1. Explain the monostable and astable modes of the 555 timer qualitatively. 2. Derive the equations for the oscillator circuit based on the explanation given in Section 11.1 and in the specifications. Find the frequency and duty cycle of the circuit as functions of R A, R B, and C. 3. Derive the equation for pulse duration in terms of R and C for the 555 in monostable mode (see Section 11.2). 4. What is an ADC? DAC? 5. How are these useful? What is Shannon s sampling theorem? Give a short, plausible argument for this theorem. General remarks: CMOS ADC and DAC chips are very sensitive to static electricity. Be sure to touch the conductive foam and the circuit ground before you remove the chips from the foam. Double check your wiring carefully before turning on power. In particular, check that the ADC is connected to the +5 V supply, in contrast to the DAC, which needs +12 V and 12 V. Input signals for the ADC must always be in the range 0 to +5 V (no negative inputs!). Check input signals using the scope (set to DC) before connecting them to the ADC. In the lab The 555 timer circuit The NE555 timer chip is a chip with a tremendous range of applications in digital circuits and analog-digital interfaces. Figure 11.1 Schematic diagram of the NE555 timer chip Problem D2.1 The 555 can be used as an oscillator ("astable" mode) in the circuit shown in Figure 11.2: 2

3 Figure 11.2 NE555 oscillator circuit The circuit works as follows: initially, the flip-flop ( flop ) in the 555 is set, and the discharge transistor does not conduct. C charges up via R A and R B until the voltage across the capacitor C reaches 2/3 of V CC. At this point, the upper comparator switches and the flip-flop is reset to low (L). The discharge transistor starts conducting and discharges C via R B, until the voltage at C falls below 1/3 of V CC, at which point the lower comparator (pin 2) switches and sets the flop again. Also see the specification sheets. Build the circuit in Figure 11.2 using 2.2 kw for R A, another 2.2 kw in series with a 1 MegW potentiometer for R B (as shown in Figure 11.2), and 360 pf for C. Determine the frequency range that can be achieved by varying the potentiometer and compare with the theoretical range based on the equations given in the NE555 data sheets (see Appendix). Measure the frequency and duty cycle (fraction of time the output spends in the high state) for several potentiometer settings, and compare to predicted values (see Pre-lab Question 2). Note: the data sheets use a slightly different and unusual definition of the duty cycle. Problem D2.2 Now build the circuit in Figure 11.3 using the 555 as a single-pulse generator ("monostable" mode): 3

4 Figure 11.3 Using NE555 in the single-pulse monostable mode Pick R and C such that the pulse duration is 1 second (see data sheets), and verify the proper operation of the circuit. Note: it is very important that the capacitor C must not be an electrolytic capacitor; choose its value accordingly! Explain how the circuit works, clearly indicating the manner in which you trigger it. The 555 can also be used to generate frequency-modulated signals or pulse-width modulated signals (see data sheets). Feel free to experiment! Some Applications Problem D2.3 Design and build a digital frequency meter. The input signal is a 0 to 5V square wave from the function generator and is connected to the 7490s via a gate; the gate is opened for exactly one second using the 555 in its monostable mode. One push button is used to start the 555; one second later the frequency is displayed. Another push button resets the display. (This circuit can also be designed with one switch to do both functions.) The 7490s are read out via the 7-segment displays. Test your frequency meter by setting the function generator to frequencies between a few Hz and 100 Hz. Problem D2.4 4

6 Pin 5 : a 0 at this output signals the end of a conversion process. Pins 6 & 7 Differential inputs. The voltage difference between these inputs is converted into an 8-bit number. Pin 8 ADC ground. Pin 9 Reference voltage. It determines the coefficient between the analog input and the digital output. The maximum digital output, 2 8 1, corresponds to twice the voltage of this pin. Pin 10 Separate ground for the clock generator. Pins Digital outputs such that pin 11 corresponds to MSB (Most Significant Bit = 2 7 ) and pin 18 is LSB (Least Significant Bit = 2 0 ). Pin 19 ClkR: output of the clock generator trigger circuit. Feedback of the trigger output to the input via an RC circuit causes the clock generator to oscillate. Pin 20 VCC : positive supply voltage (+5 V). Normally, the ADC is interfaced to a microprocessor (µp) or computer as shown in Figure Figure 12.2 Connection of ADC0804 to a computer bus The µp selects the ADC by asserting, and sends a signal to start a conversion and then goes off to do something useful. After the ADC is finished with the conversion, it sends an interrupt ( ) get the µp s attention. Once the µp is ready to use the digitized output, it selects the ADC ( ) and sends a signal to cause the result to be applied to the outputs at pins 11 to 18, which are connected to the data bus. The outputs are so-called tri-state outputs ( inactive ) which in their inactive mode ( = 1 ) they don t influence the data bus. The latter feature allows the outputs to be connected directly to the bus; without the = 0 signal, they don t interfere with the normal operation of the bus. 6

7 Since we do not want to bother with a µp, we operate the ADC in a simplified mode: the input is connected to the output and is connected to 0. As a result, when the ADC is done with one conversion, it sets the digital outputs and starts the next conversion. Strictly speaking, one has to provide a way to start the first conversion after power-up; usually, transients due to the power-up will take care of this. Note: If your circuit is not working, it may be that the first conversion has not started. Look at on the scope. There should be many small, quick spikes appearing on it. If not, you must signal the first conversion. To do this, momentarily short to ground with a second wire. Problem D2.5 - Digital Voltmeter We can use the ADC to build a simple 2-digit DVM (Figure 12.3). Use the 25k potentiometer and a DC input signal between 0 and 5 V. Figure 12.3 Circuit of a 2-digit DVM Note that the display is hexadecimal; it shows 1,2,3...8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F. 7

9 Figure

11 Figure 12.6 A simple ADC circuit Note that the op amp is running at full open-loop gain and is used as a voltage comparator. The resistordiode combination in its output limits the signal driving the gate. TTL gates don t like 12 V input signals. Questions Problem D2.10 (See Section 12.5) Calculate the transfer function of the active filter as a function of the component values R and C. Student Evaluation of Lab Report After completeing the lab write up but before turning the lab report in, please fill out the Student Evaluation of the Lab Report [2]. Source URL: Links [1] [2] 11

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