4 Field Effect transistors - FETs First, why are we using still another transistor? BJTs had a small problem - the input signal was a current I B which was small but not that small. This was the control signal. Typically we would prefer that we control with a voltage directly. This has an added benefit. If the device control only depends on a voltage signal we can design it so it draws little or NO current! This means that when we attach it to something like a thermocouple, it will not disturb the input since it is drawing no power. In other words the input impedance of the circuit is large.
5 Comparison : FET Gate Drain Source Gate Voltage Drain current Drain-source voltage Voltage BJT Base Collector Emitter Base current Collector current Collector-Emitter
6 LECTURE NO. - 42
7 Flavors of FETs PMOS njfet Log I D NMOS V DG I D njfet FET V DS V GS I S V GS The basic way to think of an FET is that there is a current I D = I S that is flowing through a channel that is controlled by a voltage V GS. Since the channel offers resistance to the flow it has a voltage drop V DS. These three parameters completely characterize the device. V P V T V T V P The above shows difference between different types of FETs. The important thing to note is that the shapes are the same! We will focus on the blue curves, where electrons are the carriers.
8 Junction FETs
9 Source Drain Source The arrows show current flow from the drain to source.
10 How a JFET transistor works? When the gate is negative,it repels the electron in the N- channel. So there is no way for electrons to flow from source to drain. When the negative voltage is removed from Gate,the electrons can flow freely from source to drain.so the transistor is on.
15 Junction FETs
16 LECTURE NO. - 43
17 Junction FETs - characteristic curves Here we see the results of make the GS junction more reverse biased. This is a parabola given by I D k V V 2 GS P
18 where k is a constant and VP is the pinch-off or threshold voltage. Note that the curve extends only to zero volts. This is because the junction is normally only reverse-biased to prevent damage if large current flow through the GS junction.
19 Regions of JFET operation: Cut-off region: The transistor is off. There is no conduction between the drain and the source when the gate-source voltage is greater than the cut-off voltage. (I D = 0 for V GS > V GS,off) Active region (also called the Saturation region): The transistor is on. The drain current is controlled by the gate-source voltage (V GS ) and relatively insensitive to V DS. In this region the transistor can be an amplifier.
20 Ohmic region: The transistor is on, but behaves as a voltage controlled resistor. When V DS is less than in the active region, the drain current is roughly proportional to the source-drain voltage and is controlled by the gate voltage.
21 Junction FET - current source V DD R Load R S
23 The curve is not effected much by the value of VDS unless it gets too small. This means that we can apply a voltage to the gate and get exactly the same current for very different voltage drops across DS channel. The circuit above is a self-biased voltage controlled current source. If RS is 4k, then from the plot above 1 ma will flow resulting in VGS = -4 V. Regardless of the value of Rload (within the limits of the power supply VDD) exactly 1 ma will be delivered. The only downside of this circuit is that the load is not grounded on either end, but that can be fixed.
24 Common Specifications. IDSS is the drain current in the active region for VGS = 0. (ID source shorted to gate) VGS,off is the minimum VGS where ID = 0. VGS,off is negative for n-channel and positive for p-channel.. gm is the transconductance, the change in ID with VGS and constant VDS.
25 When Vgs = 0, the relation between Vds and Ids is shown in Fig below.from this figure we can clearly view that Id will be increased with Vds until it maintains at a constant value. This constant value is called Idss, wherein the footnote ds means the current from drain to source, and the last s means it is under the status that drain-gate are short-circuit (Vgs = 0).
27 Pinch off voltage :
28 Junction FETs - characteristic curves (2) Linear Saturation Linear 2 Saturation I I D D k V 2k GS V P 2 V V DS GS VP VDS 2
29 Like the BJT there are two regions of operation - saturation and linear (also called triode). Amplifier applications live in the saturation region; switching and variable resistor applications live in the linear region. Although we will not discuss amplifiers, note that the drain current is dependent on VGS in a linear fashion and could be used to make a circuit with voltage gain.
30 Transfer Characteristic Curve
31 Another characteristic curve for JFET is transfer characteristic curve. This is a variation curve of drain current Id corresponding to gate-source voltage Vgs while the drain-source voltage Vds is constant. Two points, Idss and Vp are the most important points in this transfer characteristic curve. When these two points are fixed in the coordinate axes, the remaining points can be looked up from this transfer characteristic curve or can be solved from the formula
32 Id = Idss(1- Vgs/Vp)2. From this formula,we can calculate Vgs = 0, Id = Idss, Id = 0, Vgs = Vp. The design of JFET is typically designed in the middle between Vp and Idss of the transfer curve.
33 Id = Idss(1- Vgs/Vp)2. From this formula,we can calculate Vgs = 0, Id = Idss, Id = 0, Vgs = Vp. The design of JFET is typically designed in the middle between Vp and Idss of the transfer curve.
34 Drain-Source Characteristic Curve Drain-Source Characteristic Curve of JFET.
35 If Vgs is increased (it's more negative to n-channel), depletion will be immediately generated in the channel so that the current required to pinch off the channel will be decreased. The curve corresponding to Vgs = -1V is shown in Fig. From this result we can find out that the gate voltage functions as a controller capable of decreasing the drain current (at a specific voltage Vds). If Vgs is more positive for p-channel JFET, the drain current will be decreased from Idss.If Vgs is continuously increased, the drain current will be decreased correspondingly. When Vgs reaches a certain value, the drain current will be decreased to zero and will be independent of the value of Vds. The gate-source voltage at this time is called pinch-off voltage which is usually denoted as Vp or Vgs (cutoff). From Fig we can find out that Vp is a negative voltage for n-channel FET and a positive voltage for p-channel FET.
36 LECTURE NO. - 45
37 How a MOSFET Transistor works? In MosFET, the Gate is insulated from p-channel or n-channel. This prevents gate current from flowing, reducing power usage. When the Gate is positive voltage,it allows electrons to flow from drain to source.in this case transistor is on.
38 MOSFET The metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a device used to amplify or switch electronic signals. It is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. The MOSFET is composed of a channel of n-type or p-type semiconductor material (see article on semiconductor devices), and is accordingly called an NMOSFET or a PMOSFET (also commonly nmosfet, pmosfet).
39 P-channel N-channel JFET MOSFET enh MOSFET dep
40 MOSFET operation Metal oxide semiconductor structure
41 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET This device is the reason that there are warning labels on almost all computer hardware - static-sensitive device; handle with care. Memory in most cases turn out to be MOSFET switches, as is most of the circuitry on the CPU (incidentally the change in operating voltage for the CPU was a result of changing from BJTs to MOSFETs). As with the JFET there is an additional layer (literally the wafer that it was grown on) that is normally not an external contact - it is internally connected to the source.
42 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET We are only going to talk about the enhancement mode, which as the nice feature that as you apply a more and more positive control voltage V GS the current increases. There is also a threshold voltage V T.
43 LECTURE NO. - 46
44 How does it work? There is no conduction between the source and drain normally (VGS = 0) because regardless of what voltage VDS you apply there is a reverse biased PN junction. Even apply a voltage VGS does not appear from the structure to have an obvious effect since it is not even attached - there is a thin SiO2 insulating layer in between! This gate oxide incidentally is very important - it is one of the current limitations on how fast computers run!
45 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET(2) However when you apply a positive voltage the oxide behaves like a capacitor - since positive charge builds up on one side, there must be an equal and opposite charge on the other side.
46 This charge must come from the substrate. Since it is P- type there are not many electrons but those that are present are all sucked up to the gate oxide. This creates a region that is very thin, but very rich in electrons, converting P-type to N-type locally. This channel is enhanced by applying higher positive biases. While there are many applications for MOSFETs (remember they are just like JFETs with the threshold voltage shifted higher) The dominant application is a switch. Most of digital electronics is based on low power switches and most DC power supplies are based on high power switches.
47 MOSFET structure and channel formation Cross section of an NMOS without channel formed: OFF state
48 Cross section of an NMOS with channel formed: ON state
49 LECTURE NO. - 47
50 Modes of operation For an enhancement-mode, n-channel MOSFET the three operational modes are: Cut-off or Sub-threshold or Weak Inversion Mode When V GS < Vth: where Vth is the threshold voltage of the device. According to the basic threshold model, the transistor is turned off, and there is no conduction between drain and source. where ID0 = current at VGS = Vth and the slope factor n is given by n = 1 + CD / COX, with CD = capacitance of the depletion layer and COX = capacitance of the oxide layer. In a long-channel device, there is no drain voltage dependence of the current once VDS > > VT, but as channel length is reduced draininduced barrier lowering
51 Depletion-mode MOSFET With an appropriate voltage applied between source and drain, current will flow through the channel, as a semiconductor resistance. However, if we now apply a negative voltage to the gate, as shown to the right, it will amount to a small negative static charge on the gate. This negative voltage will repel electrons, with their negative charge, away from the gate. But free electrons are the majority current carriers in the n-type silicon channel. By repelling them away from the gate region, the applied gate voltage creates a depletion region around the gate area, thus restricting the usable width of the channel just as the pn junction did. Because this type of FET operates by creating a depletion region within an existing channel, it is called a depletion-mode MOSFET.
54 LECTURE NO. - 48
55 Enhancement type MOSFET :
59 CS & CD Amplifier :
60 CS & CD Amplifier :
64 LECTURE NO. - 49
65 How a CMOS transistor works? N-channel & P-channel MOSFETs can be combined in pairs with a common gate. When Gate (input) is high,electrons can flow in N-channel easily. So output becomes low. (opposite of input) When Gate (input) is low,holes can flow in P-channel easily. So output becomes high. (opposite of input)
66 LECTURE NO. - 50
67 Review of FET operation In general, we will use FET in saturation region. 0 V Design ckt, I D =0.4mA V D =1V, V t =2V GS V t V GD 2 20 A / V, L 10 m, W 400 m n C ox
68 Biasing Issues V GS =3V, V GS >V T To establish +1V at drain k R R I V V R S S D SS S S k R R I V V R S S D D DD D
69 Biasing (PMOS) Design ckt st. +9.9V at the source. Effective resistance r o? (Note PMOS) V GS =0, V GD =-0.1V < V t Triode region operation: 1 I D ( 1) x0.1 x ma
70 Output resistance Select: Find r DS 9.9V R D 99k 100k 0.1mA VDS 0.1V rds 1k I 0.1mA D
71 Amplifier Circuit Input signal v i Output signal v o DC bias currents I V I V D D D D 1 GS 1.5) 2 x0.25( V 2 15 R I D 1.06mA 4.4V D 15 10I D
72 Small Signal Parameters Find conductance g g m W k' n ( VGS Vt ) L 0.25( ) 0.725mA/ V Output m resistance VA 50 ro 47k I 1.06 D
73 Small Signal Gain Draw small signal equiv. R G very large > 10M, neglect Calculate gain: Input resistance: v o v v o i g g m m v gs ( R ( R D D R L R L r o o ) r ) 3.3 i1 ( vi vo) / RG vi vi i1 1 ( 3.3) 4.3 R R R in G R G / M G / M
74 Frequency response Internal and external capacitances High-frequency equivalent circuit model for the MOSFET (a) High-frequency equivalent circuit model for the MOSFET when Source is connected to Body (b)
75 Simplified Capacitance Model Notice we omit capacitance to Body!
76 MOSFET High Freq. Model W W I gm ncox VOV 2 ncox I D 2 L L V C gs 2 WLC 3 ox WL ov C ox D OV C WL gd ov C ox
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