LASER DIODE MODULATION AND NOISE

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1 > 5' O ft I o Vi LASER DIODE MODULATION AND NOISE K. Petermann lnstitutfiir Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitdt Berlin Kluwer Academic Publishers i Dordrecht / Boston / London KTK Scientific Publishers / Tokyo

2 CONTENTS PREFACE xi Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ' 1 Chapter 2 BASIC LASER CHARACTERISTICS Double heterostructure characteristics Direct and indirect semiconductors Energy-and momentum conservation Semiconductor materials for direct and indirect semiconductors Emission and absorption Density of photon oscillation states Principal mechanisms of radiative transitions Carrier lifetime and lifetime of spontaneous emission Gain and stimulated emission Lasing characteristics of Fabry Perot-type lasers Lasing conditions Dynamic characteristics of laser operation Light current characteristics, threshold current and quantum efficiency Basic laser structures Modifications for the spontaneous emission term Dynamic single-mode laser structures DFB laser characteristics 47 References 52 Chapter 3 LONGITUDINAL MODE SPECTRUM OF LASING EMISSION 59

3 vi Contents 3.1 Multimode rate equations Spectral envelope for Fabry Perot-type lasers (linear gain) Influence of nonlinear gain on the spectral characteristics Symmetric nonlinear gain Asymmetric nonlinear gain Nonlinear gain, conclusions 75 References 76 Chapter 4 INTENSITY-MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DIODES Modulation characteristics by studying single-mode rate equations Turn-on delay Rate equations, small signal analysis Relaxation oscillation damping Upper limits for the modulation bandwidth of laser diodes Influence of lateral carrier diffusion on relaxation oscillation damping Modulation bandwidth limits due to parasitic elements Examples for high speed modulation of laser diodes Modulation and longitudinal mode spectrum Transient spectra of laser diodes Lasing spectra under high speed modulation Dynamic single-mode condition Modulation with binary signals Harmonic and intermodulation distortions (without fibre interaction) Harmonic and intermodulation distortions for low modulation frequencies Harmonic and intermodulation distortions for high modulation frequencies 113 References 114 Chapter 5 FREQUENCY-MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DIODES Relation between intensity-modulation and frequency modulation Current/frequency-modulation characteristics Chirp effects in directly modulated laser diodes 125

4 Contents vii Spectral line broadening due to laser chirping Chirp-reduction by proper pulse shaping Time-bandwidth product of chirped pulses Transmission of chirped pulses over single-mode fibres Possibilities of modifying the chirp parameter a Dispersion of the chirp parameter a Chirp of laser diodes, coupled to optical cavities 136 References 141 Chapter 6 INSTABILITIES AND BISTABILITY IN LASER DIODES Repetitive self-pulsations due to lateral instabilities Instability and bistability in laser diodes with segmented contacts 147 References 150 Chapter 7 NOISE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLITARY LASER DIODES Relative intensity noise (RIN) Basic properties of noise signals Definition and measurement of RIN Requirement of RIN for intensity modulated systems Introduction of the spontaneous emission noise Intensity noise of laser diodes Intensity noise of laser diodes by studying singlemode rate equations Mode partition noise Mode partition noise analysis for nearly single-mode lasers Mode-hopping noise //-intensity noise Statistics of intensity noise Statistics of amplified spontaneous emission Probability density distribution for the total laser light output Statistics of mode partition noise Turn-on jitter in laser diodes Mode partition noise for the transmission of pulse-code modulated (PCM)-signals Multimode lasers The mode partition coefficient A: Nearly single-mode lasers 194

5 viii Contents 7.6 Phase and frequency noise Phase and frequency noise characterization in general Spectral line shape for white frequency noise Spectral line shape for 1//-frequency noise Frequency noise and spectral linewidth for singlemode laser diodes Power-independent contribution to the linewidth of laser diodes Correlation between FM-noise and AM-noise 207 References 208 Chapter 8 NOISE IN INTERFEROMETERS INCLUDING MODAL NOISE AND DISTORTIONS Noise in interferometers Complex degree of coherence s " Interferometric noise analysis for single-mode lasers Interferometric set-ups for measuring the linewidth and the degree of coherence Interferometric noise analysis for multimode lasers Modal noise Modal noise for monochromatic light sources Modal noise for single-mode lasers with finite spectral linewidth Modal noise for multimode laser diodes Modal distortions Modal noise and distortions in single-mode fibres 243 References 246 Chapter 9 SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS WITH OPTICAL FEEDBACK Amplitude and phase conditions for laser diodes with external cavities Short external reflectors for longitudinal mode stabilization Emission frequency shifts due to optical feedback Single external cavity mode condition Spectral linewidth for laser diodes with external optical feedback Dynamics of laser diodes with external reflections Derivation of the time-dependent electric field Modulation characteristics of external-cavity lasers Laser diodes with distant reflections 271

6 Contents ix Classification of feedback regimes Phase and frequency noise of laser diodes with distant reflectors Intensity noise in laser diodes with distant reflectors Coherence collapse Tolerable feedback levels 282 References 285 Chapter 10 LASER DIODES WITH NEGATIVE ELECTRONIC FEEDBACK Modulation characteristics of laser diodes with negative electronic feedback Linewidth narrowing and phase noise reduction with negative electronic feedback 294 References. 296 Chapter 11 CIRCUITRY FOR DRIVING THE LASER DIODE Schemes for stabilizing the bias current Laser drivers with optoelectronic integration 302 References 305 APPENDIX 306 INDEX 308

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