Elements of Optical Networking

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1 Bruckner Elements of Optical Networking Basics and practice of optical data communication With 217 Figures, 13 Tables and 93 Exercises Translated by Patricia Joliet VIEWEG+ TEUBNER

2 VII Content Preface V 1 Introduction 1 2 Light What is light? Duality of waves and particles Wave viewpoint Ray viewpoint 2.3 Power and energy of electromagnetic waves 3 Fibers Light propagation in waveguide structures Guided waves in layers Guided waves in glass fibers Light transmission in glass fibers, multi-mode and single-mode fibers Glass fibers Light propagation in glass fibers, angle of acceptance, numerical aperture Transversal modes in glass fibers, mixing of modes Single-Mode-Condition, in glass fibers Mode-Field Diameter Attenuation in glass fibers UV absorption Rayleigh scattering Absorption in water absorption Attenuation coefficient versus wavelength in glass fibers Dispersion and dispersion compensation in glass fibers Concept and consequences of dispersion Mechanisms of dispersion Modal dispersion Material dispersion Waveguide dispersion Chromatic dispersion Bandwidth-Length-Product (PMD) Dispersions compensation Types of glass fibers 47

3 VIII Content 4 Fiber connections, couplers and switches Plugs and splices Splices Plugs Basic function of couplers and switches Couplers Coupler types Front face couplers Surface area couplers Switches Mechanical switching Electro-optical switching Mechano-optical switching Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) Thermal switch 68 5 Optical transmitters Basic elements of semiconductor transmitters Active Element Band structure of semiconductors, direct and indirect transitions Material choice Light emission in semiconductors, LED Recombination in semiconductors Line width p-n-junction as basic structure, LED Semiconductor transmitters - basic structure Double-hetero-structure laser (DH-Diode) Structure (MQW) Resonators Fabry-Perot Laser Dynamical Single-Mode Laser (DSM) Laser properties characteristic, temperature behaviour, degradation Spectrum of semiconductor lasers Radiation characteristics Selected laser types for optical networks with DFB resonator as edge-emitting diode Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) as surface-emitting diode 92 6 Modulation of laser light Tasks and problems of laser modulation Methods modulation in optical communication technology Amplitude modulation, power modulation (AM, PM) Pulse-Amplitude modulation 95

4 Content Pulse-Position modulation (PPM) Pulse-Code modulation (PCM) Direct modulation of semiconductor lasers External modulation of semiconductor lasers Phase and frequency modulation Intensity or power modulation Optical receivers Basics of receivers pin-diode Avalanche photo diode (APD) Noise in receivers, Bit-Error Rate (BER) Shot noise Intensity noise Thermal noise (Nyquist noise) Multiplication noise Bit-Error Rate Optical heterodyne 8 Elements of optical networks 8.1 Optical amplifiers Erbium doped fiber amplifier Amplification in erbium doped glass fibers Noise Spontaneous Emission (ASE) Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and EDFA Experimental realization of EDFA Other rare earth doped amplifiers Raman optical amplifier The Raman Effect Stokes shift, amplification spectrum Experimental realization Problems in Raman amplifiers Noise in Raman amplifiers Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Optical elements for multiplexers and demultiplexers Optical filters for multiplexers and demultiplexers Filter based on interference Fabry-Perot filter Fiber-Bragg-Grating Waveguide Grating Routers (WGR) Optical isolator Optical circulator Optical (OADM) Optical Cross-Connectors 142

5 Content 9 Measurements in glass fibers and optical transmission systems Measurements in glass fibers Measurement refractive index profiles Near field scanning Refracted near field technique Measurement of fiber attenuation Cut-back and substitution methods Backscattering, OTDR method Dispersion measurement Measurements in time range Measurements in frequency range Measurement of quality data transfer Measurements of the bit-error ratio, receiver sensitivity Eye diagram Nonlinearities in glass fibers Nonlinearities in optics Nonlinear effects in glass fibers Nonlinear scattering effects in glass fibers Third order nonlinear effects in glass fibers, Chirp in glass fibers Polarization-Dispersion-Management with nonlinearities Reduction of chirp Use of chirp Active compensation of dispersion Solitons 11 Passive and active networks Topologies of communication 173 Methods of multiplexing 174 Space multiplex 175 Time multiplex Wavelength multiplex WDM systems Signal regeneration 185 Solutions of exercises 186 References Index

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