To generate a broadband light source by using mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes

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1 To generate a broadband light source by using mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes Cheng-Ling Ying 1, Yu-Chieh Chi 2, Chia-Chin Tsai 3, Chien-Pen Chuang 3, and Hai-Han Lu 2a) 1 Department of Electronic Engineering, Jin-Wen Institute of Technology Taipei, 231, Taiwan, Republic of China 2 Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Republic of China 3 Institute of Industrial Education, National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Republic of China a) Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a type of broadband light source (BLS) based on mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (F-P LDs). By mutually injection-locked F-P LDs, we realized a BLS with flatness and multimode output spectrum. The proposed BLS generates a 100 GHz spaced optical frequency comb with fifteen modes, ranging from 1532 to 1544 nm with a flatness of < 4dB. Consequently, the mutually injection-locked F-P LDs light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. Keywords: broadband light source, Fabry-Perot laser diode, mutually injection-locked Classification: Photonics devices, circuits, and systems References [1] R. Goto, T. Goto, H. Kasuya, M. Mori, and K. Yamane, Mutual injection locking between two DFB LDs which lase at frequencies separated by one Fabry-Perot mode spacing, Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 17, pp , [2] H. Sanjoh, H. Yasaka, Y. Sakai, K. Sato, H. Ishii, and Y. Yoshikuni, Multiwavelength light source with precise frequency spacing using a modelocked semiconductor laser and an arrayed waveguide grating filter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 6, pp , [3] Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T, Kuri, and K. Kitayama, Wavelength-Division- Multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontiunnm light source, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp , [4] H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, and C. H. Lee, A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 8, pp ,

2 [5] S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp , [6] C.-H. Chang, L. Chrostowski, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Injection locking of VCSELs, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp , Introduction With rapid growth of demand for broadband, high speed, and low-cost internet services, much attention has been paid to apply the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology to subscriber access networks in terms of so-called WDM-passive optical network (WDM-PON). It has been widely recognized that success of the WDM-PON in entering the broadband network market depends on development of low-cost optical components, especially for WDM light sources. In previous studies, light-emitting diode (LED) can be fabricated at a low-cost and modulated directly. However, its output power is insufficient to accommodate many channels. In advanced WDM, a large number of wavelength channels are packed into an optical fiber with narrow channel spacing, which is called a dense-wdm (DWDM) system. As the number of the WDM channels increases, both reducing the cost of light source and controlling the wavelength of all channels become hot issues. Therefore, it is desirable that the light source of all the channels is replaced by a low-cost multimode light source that simultaneously generates several WDM light sources. Recently, several multimode light sources have been proposed, including distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs) [1], mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) [2], and supercontinuum continuous (SC) optical source [3]. They are still expensive solutions even though generating a wide range and large number channels. To overcome these problems, F-P LD light sources are proposed [4, 5]. They are cost-effective solutions to reduce the installation and management costs. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a type of broadband light source based on mutually injection-locked F-P LDs. By mutual injection between two F-P LDs, we realized a BLS with flatness and multimode output spectrum. The proposed multimode light source generates a 100 GHz spaced optical frequency comb with fifteen modes, ranging from 1532 to 1544 nm and with a flatness of < 4 db. The mutually injection-locked F- P LDs light source could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. Such a technique could be potentially employed to WDM-PON systems. 2 Experimental setup Figure 1 shows the configuration of using two F-P LDs associated with mutual injection to generate multimode spectrum. The system consists of two F-P LDs, a 50 : 50 optical coupler, and two optical isolators. The reflectivity of 258

3 Fig. 1. The configuration of using two F-P LDs associated with mutual injection. the front facet and the mode spacing of the F-P LD are 1% and 100 GHz, respectively. The fiber length between two F-P LDs is 50 cm. The F-P LD is manipulated at continuous wave (CW) mode, with a threshold current of 10 ma. As F-P LD1 is served as an optical injection source, it injects light into an injection-locked laser F-P LD2 via a 2 2 optical coupler. The output of each F-P LD was passed through an optical isolator, with a-55 db isolation. Two optical isolators were used in mutual injection-locked branch in order to keep the injection light-wave direction. We realized an unpolarized BLS by polarization multiplexing with two polarization controllers (PCs) and a polarization beam combiner (PBC). Two PCs were used to adjust the polarization states of the injection light. The output spectra of F-P LDs were measured with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). 3 Experimental results and discussions The outer boundary of the locking range for laser under light injection is given by [6] d<± k c S i 2π S (1 + α2 ) (1) where the frequency detuning d = f inj f free (f inj is the frequency of injection source laser, f free is the frequency of free running injection-locked laser), k c is the coupling coefficient, S i S is the injection ratio, and α is the linewidth enhancement factor. An optimum locking can be achieved if the frequency of the injection source laser is lower than the free running injection-locked laser frequency, i.e., negative detuning. Within the locking range, the frequency of injection-locked laser is locked nearly to the frequency of injection source laser. However, outside the locking range, severe oscillation occurs. When mutual injection-locked occurs, the frequency of the injection source laser (F-P LD1) is slightly lower than that of the injection-locked laser (F-P LD2). Within the locking rang, the frequency of injection-locked laser is locked nearly to the frequency of the injection source laser. Figure 2 shows the measured optical spectra of two F-P LDs before mutual injection. The 3-dB 259

4 Fig. 2. The measured optical spectra of two F-P LDs before mutual injection. linewidth of each F-P LD is less than 0.06 nm, and the wavelength difference between F-P LD1 and F-P LD2 is 0.12 nm. The pyramidal profile spectra of free-running F-P LDs are unsuitable for using in multi-wavelength light source, because of un-flat spectra. As mutual injection-locking happens, the central wavelength of F-P LD1 is injected into F-P LD2, and the central wavelength of F-P LD2 is launched into F-P LD1 and locked within the locking range. The wavelength means each mode of the spectral envelope. The higher peak modes (central modes) of F-P LD1 are injected into right side of the lower peak modes (side-modes) of F-P LD2. The output powers of the side-modes are increased largely at both sides, and the output powers of central modes are increased limited Thereby, a flat mutually injection-locked spectrum can be obtained. The optimal injection-locking condition is found when the detuning between two F-P LDs wavelength is nm. Figure 3 shows two flat output spectra of two F-P LDs without PBC multiplexing. Flat spectrum due to polarizationmultiplexing of the different spectrums is shown in Fig. 4. Finally, the proposed BLS generates a 100 GHz spaced comb with fifteen modes, ranging from 1532 to 1544 nm and with a flatness of < 4dB. The proposed low-cost BLS could provide flat spectrum profile of the channel to satisfy signal transmission performance in WDM system. This allows fifteen modes with carrier frequency in the certain range generated at different wavelengths destined for different base stations. Such a technique could be potentially employed Fig. 3. The flat optical spectra of two F-P LDs without PBC multiplexing. 260

5 Fig. 4. Optical spectrum after mutually injection-locked. to WDM systems. 4 Conclusions In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a type of mutually injectionlocked F-P LDs approach to stabilize the lasing spectrum. The multimode light source generates a 100 GHz spaced optical frequency comb with fifteen modes, ranging from 1532 to 1544 nm and with a flatness of < 4dB. This allows fifteen modes with carrier frequency in the certain range to be generated at different wavelengths destined for different base stations. Such a technique could be relatively simple and cost-effective compared with other demonstrated light source schemes. 261

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