RECENTLY, studies have begun that are designed to meet

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "RECENTLY, studies have begun that are designed to meet"

Transcription

1 838 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2007 Design of a Fiber Bragg Grating External Cavity Diode Laser to Realize Mode-Hop Isolation Toshiya Sato Abstract Recently, a unique approach has been reported in which optical signal degradation is suppressed by realizing modehop isolation. This paper analyzes the mode-hop isolation condition in fiber Bragg grating type external-cavity diode lasers (FBG- ECDL). As a result, it has become possible to determine whether mode-hop isolation could be achieved. Moreover, it was verified experimentally that the mode-hop isolation of FBG-ECDLs was actually achieved with this method. The analytical method described in this paper is very useful for designing the uncooled ECDLs whose mode-hop must be isolated. Index Terms Gratings, laser stability, nonlinearities, optical fiber communication, semiconductor lasers. I. INTRODUCTION RECENTLY, studies have begun that are designed to meet the demand for simple, compact and economical wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) light sources for direct modulation that do not require temperature control [1], [2]. In addition, studies are also underway with the aim of narrowing the wavelength channel spacing, namely stabilizing the lasing wavelength, in such uncooled WDM light sources [3], [4]. One promising WDM light source is the uncooled external-cavity diode laser (UC-ECDL), which employs a unique approach using a nonlinear optical gain (NOG) effect [5], [6]. When ECDLs are used under uncooled conditions, mode-hop cannot be entirely suppressed. Then the ECDL might fall into lasting mode-hop, and it has been reported that the bit error rate of the optical signal output from an ECDL increases greatly [3], [7]. However, it has been clarified theoretically and confirmed experimentally that this bit error rate degradation can be suppressed and disregarded when the lasting mode-hop is suppressed and the mode-hop is isolated [8]. In this paper, I describe a theoretical and quantitative analysis of the requirements of mode-hop isolation by using NOG effect. Section II describes the parameters that decide the requirements of the mode-hop isolation (MHI), and how the MHI condition is determined. Section III analyzes the dependence of first order optical gain (FOG) on wavelength and carrier density, and provides an analytical expression of the practical FOG of an external cavity type diode laser. Here, the FOG is needed to estimate the NOG and thus provide the mode-hop isolation condition. In addition, the carrier density and the photon density in the active region of the gain medium are discussed based on the ECDL rate equations. Moreover, the NOG estimation procedure is described. Manuscript received December 5, 2006; revised February 23, The author is with the Photonics Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Kanagawa , Japan ( Digital Object Identifier /JQE Section IV analyzes the loss spectrum of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), which is the external cavity mirror in the laser cavity, and discusses the variation in the intra-cavity loss originating in the FBG under direct modulation. Section V presents model calculations for the MHI condition and describes an experimental verification showing that the mode-hop of the FBG-EDCL, which was designed to satisfy the MHI condition, is isolated. II. REQUIREMENT OF MODE-HOP ISOLATION In conventional single-mode ECDLs, the reflection bandwidth of the external resonator mirror (ERM) is designed to be very narrow in relation to the longitudinal mode spacing (LMS), as seen in Fig. 1-I, so that the side modes are suppressed simply by the loss difference, which originates in the ERM, between the lasing mode and the side mode. This is based on the premise that conventional ECDLs are temperature controlled to maintain an optimal temperature so that the lasing mode is located at the bottom of the ERM loss profile. Let us assume that the conventional ECDLs are operated without temperature control. The reflection wavelength peak of the ERM and the longitudinal lasing mode wavelength shift corresponding to the temperature change. Then both the lasing mode and the adjoining dominant side mode are located on the steep loss slopes of the ERM loss profile, because the LMS is wide in relation to the reflection bandwidth of the ERM. In addition, the losses in the two dominant modes become comparable around certain specific temperatures that are called mode hopping temperatures as seen in Fig. 1-II. When the ECDL is modulated directly, the movement of the longitudinal mode wavelengths is synchronized with the direct modulation. As a result, a large loss reversal is repeated between the two dominant modes, and the lasing mode hops repeatedly in synchrony with the direct modulation. Moreover, the loss at the lasing mode fluctuates greatly and the optical power also fluctuates, leading to degradation in the optical signals from the ECDL. This optical signal degradation is well known as mode-hopping noise [9]. Here, the following condition, which is not accorded special attention, is usually satisfied in conventional ECDLs where is the difference between the nonlinear gain effect on the adjoining dominant side mode and that on the lasing mode (1) (2) /$ IEEE

2 SATO: DESIGN OF A FIBER BRAGG GRATING EXTERNAL CAVITY DIODE LASER TO REALIZE MODE-HOP ISOLATION 839 Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of I: single-mode operation and II: repetitive mode-hop mechanism of a conventional ECDL. and is the loss reversal between the lasing mode and the adjoining dominant side mode when the wavelength positions of these modes are balanced centering on the peak wavelength of the ECM s reflection profile as seen in Fig. 2. Expression (1) is one of the necessary conditions for the repetitive mode hops that synchronize with the direct modulation. Therefore, the following mode hop isolation condition can be derived as the opposite condition of expression (1) (3) When it is assumed that the nonlinear gain effect is fixed, can be tuned so that it is sufficiently small. In addition, the mode hop isolation condition (expression (3)) can be satisfied by designing the reflection bandwidth (RBW) so that it is wide compared with the longitudinal mode spacing (LMS), (it is usually narrow compared with the LMS), or by designing the LMS so that it is narrow compared with the RBW, (it is usually wide compared with the RBW). In this case, as long as the amplitude of the repeated loss reversal synchronized with the direct modulation between the two adjoining dominant modes is suppressed to a small value compared with, the lasing mode does not hop (Fig. 3-I). Furthermore, mode-hop occurs only once when the loss reversal becomes larger than at some critical temperature. (Fig. 3-II-1), and then the lasing becomes very stable because the loss reversal is canceled out (Fig. 3-II-2). Namely, in this case, the mode-hop is isolated. Moreover, the low level of the optical signal is controlled in order to suppress the optical signal degradation at isolated mode-hop (IMH) by minimizing the difference between the optical output powers before and after the IMH, within a range where the NGS can work so efficiently that the side mode can be adequately suppressed [8]. III. NONLINEAR GAIN EFFECT A. Effective First-Order Optical Gain in External-Cavity Diode Laser In order to estimate the NOG effect, we must estimate both the carrier density and the optical power (photon density) in the active region of the semiconductor gain medium by using the Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of a loss reversal. rate equations of the laser. Then we must understand the relationship between the FOG and the carrier density both quantitatively and simply. It is widely known that the FOG can be obtained simply as a function of the carrier density by using a linear approximation [11]. And the linear approximation is based on an assumption, in which lasing wavelength is almost always tuned to the maximum gain wavelength. However, we cannot use a linear approximation with the ECDL, because the lasing wavelength is almost always fixed at the reflection peak wavelength (RPW) of the external-cavity mirror (ECM). In this section, we obtain a new approximation of the relationship between the FOG and the carrier density for the ECDL. The FOG of the semiconductor laser media can be estimated by using a first order microscopic polarization which is determined based on perturbation theory, and becomes as follows: (6) (4) (5) (7)

3 840 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2007 Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of mode-hop isolation I: lasing mode preservation state and II: mode-hop isolation mechanism of an ECDL. Fig. 4. FOG dependence on both wavelength and carrier density. CURVE-I: Gain coefficient curve at maximum gain wavelength,. CURVE-II: Gain coefficient curve at 1550 nm. Fig. 5. FOG dependence on carrier density. CURVE-I: Gain coefficient curve at maximum gain wavelength. CURVE-II: Gain coefficient curve at 1550 nm. where,,, and are the optical amplitude of the lasing mode, the 3-D standing wave function, the effective index for the optical field, and the electric dipole matrix element, respectively. and indicate the zeroth-order population of the electron in the conduction and valence band, and agree with the Fermi Dirac distribution of a conduction band in quasiequilibrium under a lasing condition and that of a valence band. Fig. 4 shows a numerical calculation result for the FOG of InGaAsP InP bulk type semiconductor laser media. The effective mass of an electron in the conduction band and the effective mass of a hole in the valence band, estimated for In Ga As P ev [11] were used in this calculation. Simultaneously, we assumed that, the intra-band relaxation time, and the neutral condition of the charge is satisfied. Then, carrier density can be estimated by where,, and are the density-of-states, the Fermi Dirac distribution in the conduction band, and the bandgap energy at the band edges. CURVE-I in Fig. 4 is a trace of the gain peak for each carrier density, and CURVE-II is a trace of the gain at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Here, it is assumed that the RPW of ECM is 1550 nm. Fig. 5 shows CURVE-I and CURVE-II on a 2-D graph giving the relationship between the FOG and the carrier density. When (8) Fig. 6. Approximation of FOG at 1550 nm by using analytical expression (8). CURVE-II: numerical calculation. CURVE-III: approximation by using (8). CURVE-IV: approximation error. we deal with a Fabry Perot type diode laser, the FOG characteristic of CURVE-I is important, and the following linear approximation is useful [10] (9) (10) On the other hand, when we deal with an ECDL, the FOG characteristic of CURVE-II is very important, because the RPW of the ECM does not depend on the carrier density and the lasing wavelength is almost always fixed at a stable RPW. Then it is

4 SATO: DESIGN OF A FIBER BRAGG GRATING EXTERNAL CAVITY DIODE LASER TO REALIZE MODE-HOP ISOLATION 841 clear that a linear approximation cannot be used, but we can use the following new useful approximation (11) CURVE-III in Fig. 6 shows an approximation obtained by using (11) (CURVE-III), and the fitting parameters are as follows: Here, the CURVE-IV (red line) in Fig. 6 shows the approximation error. We confirmed that fitting by using (11) can give a good approximation in the carrier density region between m and m. B. Carrier Density, Photon Density and Nonlinear Gain Effect Under Lasing Conditions With an ECDL, the photon density and the carrier density in the active region of the semiconductor laser medium are subject to the following laser rate equations: Here, we can obtain the threshold gain that the SOA must provide in the cavity by solving (12) as follows: (16) With laser oscillation, the optical gain is fixed at the threshold gain and then the carrier density is also fixed at the threshold density. Therefore, the carrier density and the quasi-fermi level under lasing conditions can be estimated by calculating them at the threshold gain based on (10), (11), and (16). In addition, the photon density under lasing conditions can be estimated by solving (13) as follows: (17) By using the parameters mentioned above, we can estimate the symmetric third-order microscopic polarization (18) (12) (13) where,,, and are the confinement factor, SOA length, cavity length, and photon lifetime in the cavity, respectively.,, and are the current injected into the SOA, the quantum efficiency, and the volume of the SOA s active region. Here, it is important to take account of the localization of both the carrier and the optical gain at the SOA section in the cavity. The photon lifetime in the cavity also reflects the external cavity structure and can be expressed as follows: (14) where,, and are the loss of the SOA, the fiber loss, and the coupling loss between the SOA and fiber, respectively. Moreover, is the effective total loss of the cavity mirrors (both the HR end of the SOA and the external cavity mirror), and can be expressed by using both the reflection ratio of the mirrors and as follows: (15) In addition, is a compensation factor that takes the gap between the lasing wavelength and the reflection peak wavelength of the FBG into consideration. and symmetric third-order gain [6], [10] IV. MAXIMUM VALUE OF LOSS REVERSAL BETWEEN ADJACENT LONGITUDINAL MODES UNDER DIRECT MODULATION (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) When the index of a FBG used as an external cavity mirror can be expressed as (24), shown at the bottom of the page, the reflection-wavelength characteristics induced by the Bragg if otherwise (24)

5 842 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2007 Fig. 7. Calculated reflection ratio based on the coupled-mode theory. I: FWHM = 0:2 nm. II: FWHM = 0:4 nm. grating can be estimated by numerically solving the following differential equation based on coupled-mode theory [12], [13]: (25) (26) (27) where,,, and are the reflection ratio, the local average refractive index, the peak-to-peak index variation, the phase, and the Bragg frequency, respectively. And the normalized axial dimension is expressed by the nominal Bragg wave number and propagation axis as With an FBG type external-cavity diode laser (FBG-ECDL), only the reflection characteristic in the region extremely close to the reflection peak dominates the lasing mode. Therefore, an FBG with a particularly complex structure is not needed for the FBG-ECDL. So the simplest FBG, namely one whose structural parameters are, respectively, constant and (28) are used for the ECDL. Here, (24) and (26) become simple as follows: if otherwise (29) (30) and the reflection ratio can be estimated by solving the (30) for under the boundary condition (31) As mentioned above, the reflection wavelength characteristics of an FBG-type cavity mirror can be estimated numerically when the structural parameters are determined. However, in order to analyze the MHI conditions, it is preferable that the FBG s reflection characteristic be given by such dominant characteristic parameters as the reflection peak wavelength, peak reflection ratio, and reflection bandwidth, in the form of an analytical expression. Furthermore, it is even better if the MRLD can be given in the form of an analytical expression. Fig. 7 shows the numerically estimated reflection wavelength characteristics of a uniform FBG. In this calculation, the structural parameters are tuned so that the reflection peak wavelength, full-width half-maximum (FWHM), and peak reflection ratios become 1550 nm, 0.2 nm for I, 0.4 nm for II, and from 5% to 95% in 5% steps, respectively. We can see in these calculation results that as the peak reflection ratio becomes larger, the top region of the reflection profile becomes flatter when the FWHM of the reflection ratio is fixed. As a result, it is difficult to obtain an analytical expression that can provide precise approximation over the whole peak reflection ratio region and over the whole wavelength region. However, we can obtain a precise

6 SATO: DESIGN OF A FIBER BRAGG GRATING EXTERNAL CAVITY DIODE LASER TO REALIZE MODE-HOP ISOLATION 843 Fig. 8. Calculated reflection ratio (red lines): based on the coupled-mode theory and (blue lines): by using approximation expression (32). analytical expression as following Gaussian function when we consider only the important region of the peak reflection ratio (equal or less than 30%) and the important wavelength region (half of the FWHM around the peak wavelength) for the FBG that is used for UC-ECDL (32) where,,, and CF are the peak reflection ratio, Bragg wavelength, FWHM, and a compensation coefficient, respectively. Fig. 8 I IV show the reflection wavelength characteristics estimated by using the analytical expression (32) and those estimated numerically based on the coupled-mode theory. The combinations of peak reflection ratio and FWHM in these calculations are (5%, 0.2 nm) for I, (5%, 0.4 nm) for II, (95%, 0.2 nm) for III, and (95%, 0.4 nm) for IV, respectively. As seen in these figures, there are large calculation errors when using the analytical expression in the high peak reflection ratio region or in the wavelength region far from the peak wavelength. Fig. 9 shows the calculation errors for each case, where the peak reflection ratios are tuned from 5% to 95% in 5% steps. In these calculations, the FWHMs are 0.2 nm for I-1, I-2 and 0.4 nm for II-1, II-2. These calculations confirmed that the calculation errors are less than 0.11 db, and the calculation results obtained by using the analytical expression (32) are good approximations when the peak reflection ratio is limited to below 30%, and when we accept that the significant wavelength region is limited to half of the FWHM around the peak wavelength. Here, the can be derived based on the analytical expression (32) as follows: (33) where and are the wavelength variation width of the lasing mode under direct modulation and the longitudinal mode spacing, respectively. V. CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS It is expected that such structural parameters as the reflection bandwidth of the ERM and the longitudinal mode spacing (LMS) will prove very important as regards realizing mode-hop isolation in an ECDL. Therefore, we analyed the dependence of the MHI condition on these parameters based on the conclusions drawn in Sections III and IV. Curves I and II in Fig. 10 show the calculated with of 0.2 and 0.4 nm, and curves III and IV show the calculated with injection currents of 1.3 and 1.5. The following values are used in these calculations,, MHz,, where the value was estimated experimentally. In addition, lines V and VI show the 7-GHz position of the LMS, and the LMS position of a conventional FBG type ECDL nm [14]. Here, it is assumed that the LMS should be increased above 7 GHz to suppress the interference between the adjoining longitudinal modes under 2.5 Gb/s direct modulation. These calculations suggest that the mode-hop cannot be isolated in a conventional ECDL because the MHI condition (3)cannot be satisfied. It is also expected that the mode-hop can be isolated if the structural parameters of the FBG-ECDL are tuned so that they satisfy the MHI condition. In fact, optical signal degradation caused by repetitive mode-hop has been reported in a conventional FBG type ECDL [3], [7]. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the FBG type ECDL, which is designed for uncooled use ( nm, nm), achieves mode-hop isolation [4]. The FBG used for the UC-ECDL is a commercially available uniform grating. And the FWHM of the reflection spectrum and the reflection ratio at the

7 844 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2007 Fig. 9. Approximation error calculated by using approximation expression (32). I-1 and I-2: FWHM = 0:2 nm, II-1, and II-2: FWHM = 0:4 nm. Fig. 10. Mode-hop isolation condition. I and II: calculated. III and IV: calculated. V: 7-GHz position of LMS. VI: LMS of conventional FBG- ECDL. Fig. 11. Optical reflection spectrum of an external cavity mirror (FBG). Fig. 12. Observed isolated mode-hop. I: whole optical signal output from UC-ECDL. II: beat signal with output optical signal lasing in mode-1, which predominates before mode-hop. III: beat signal with output optical signal lasing in mode-2, which predominates after mode-hop. peak are about 0.4 nm (see Fig. 11) and 0.2, respectively. Fig. 12 shows the output signals from the UC-ECDL, and Fig. 12-I, Fig. 12-II and Fig. 12-III show the entire optical signal that was directly detected, the beat signal with output optical signal

8 SATO: DESIGN OF A FIBER BRAGG GRATING EXTERNAL CAVITY DIODE LASER TO REALIZE MODE-HOP ISOLATION 845 to satisfy the MHI condition. The analytical method described in this paper is very useful for designing a UC-ECDL whose mode-hop needs isolating. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank H. Oohashi, K. Kato, Y. Akatsu, and H. Itou for their continuous encouragement. REFERENCES Fig. 13. Optical spectra before and after the isolated mode-hop. lasing in mode-1, and the beat signal with output optical signal lasing in mode-2, respectively. These figures reveal the moment at which the lasing mode hopped from mode-1 to mode-2. These measurements of the optical signal output from the UC-ECDL proved that the mode-hop was isolated. Fig. 13 shows the optical spectra before and after the mode-hop was isolated, and it was confirmed that a good side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) characteristic was preserved except when an isolated mode-hop occurred. VI. CONCLUSION This paper described the principle and presented a quantitative analysis of mode-hop isolation based on the NOG effect. Mode-hop isolation is needed to suppress the optical signal deterioration induced by repetitive mode-hop in an uncooled directly modulated ECDL. We investigated the dependence of the FOG on carrier density in an ECDL whose lasing wavelength is extremely stable, and provided a new approximate expression for the FOG instead of the conventional linear approximation. The symmetric third order gain effect in an ECDL can be estimated by using both the analytical results for the ECDL s laser rate equations and the new approximate expression for the FOG. Moreover, we derived an analytical expression for the MRLD as a result of our analysis of the reflection wavelength characteristics of the FBG that constitutes the external cavity mirror. By using the above-mentioned results, it became possible to predict whether the MHI condition can be satisfied or not based on such parameters as the longitudinal mode spacing, the reflection bandwidth of the FBG, and the optical power in the active region of the semiconductor laser gain medium. It was confirmed by quantitative analysis that the conventional ECDL, which fall into repetitive mode-hop under uncooled conditions, does not satisfy the MHI condition. In addition, we confirmed experimentally that we could isolate the mode-hop of an ECDL made [1] R. J. C. Campbell et al., Wavelength stable uncooled fiber grating semiconductor laser for use in an all optical WDM access network, Electron. Lett., vol. 32, pp , [2] L. A. Buckman et al., Demonstration of small-form-factor WWDM transceiver module for 10 Gb/s local area networks, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp , May [3] T. S. Sato et al., An uncooled external cavity diode laser for coarse-wdm access network systems, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp , Jul [4] T. Sato, Suppression of mode-hop induced optical signal deterioration in an external cavity diode laser with a fiber Bragg grating for uncooled WDM applications, Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 18, pp , [5] M. N. Nakamura et al., Longitudinal-mode behaviors of mode-stabilized Al Ga As injection lasers, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 9, pp , [6] M. Yamada, Transverse and longitudinal mode control in semiconductor injection lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 6, pp , Jun [7] T. Tanaka et al., Hybrid-integrated external-cavity laser without temperature-dependent mode hopping, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 9, pp , Sep [8] T. Sato, Bit-error performance of a newly designed external-cavity diode laser for uncooled WDM applications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 7, pp , Jul [9] N. Chinone, T. Kuroda, T. Ohtoshi, T. Takahashi, and T. Kajimura, Mode-hopping noise in index-guided semiconductor lasers and its reduction by saturable absorbers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 8, pp , Aug [10] M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model Gain and gain-suppression in semiconductor lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 5, pp , May [11] N. K. Dutta, Calculated absorption, emission, and gain in In Ga As P, J. Appl. Phys, vol. 51, no. 12, pp , [12] K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp , Aug [13] C. R. Giles, Lightwave applications of fiber Bragg grating, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp , Aug [14] J. Hashimoto, T. Takagi, T. Kato, G. Sasaki, M. Shigehara, K. Murashima, M. Shiozaki, and T. Iwashima, Fiber-Bragg-grating external cavity semiconductor laser (FGL) module for DWDM transmission, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp , Sep Toshiya Sato is with the Photonics Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone corporation, Atsugi, Japan, and has been engaged in research on semiconductor lasers for optical communication systems in Dr. Sato is a member of the Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers.

Lecture 6 Fiber Optical Communication Lecture 6, Slide 1

Lecture 6 Fiber Optical Communication Lecture 6, Slide 1 Lecture 6 Optical transmitters Photon processes in light matter interaction Lasers Lasing conditions The rate equations CW operation Modulation response Noise Light emitting diodes (LED) Power Modulation

More information

SEMICONDUCTOR lasers and amplifiers are important

SEMICONDUCTOR lasers and amplifiers are important 240 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 28, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2010 Temperature-Dependent Saturation Characteristics of Injection Seeded Fabry Pérot Laser Diodes/Reflective Optical Amplifiers Hongyun

More information

Elimination of Self-Pulsations in Dual-Clad, Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Lasers

Elimination of Self-Pulsations in Dual-Clad, Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Lasers Elimination of Self-Pulsations in Dual-Clad, Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Lasers 1.0 Modulation depth 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Laser 3 Laser 2 Laser 4 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Absorbed pump power (W) Laser 1 W. Guan and J. R.

More information

R. J. Jones Optical Sciences OPTI 511L Fall 2017

R. J. Jones Optical Sciences OPTI 511L Fall 2017 R. J. Jones Optical Sciences OPTI 511L Fall 2017 Semiconductor Lasers (2 weeks) Semiconductor (diode) lasers are by far the most widely used lasers today. Their small size and properties of the light output

More information

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a Fabry-Perot laser.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a Fabry-Perot laser. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a Fabry-Perot laser. Figure 1. Shows the structure of a typical edge-emitting laser. The dimensions of the active region are 200 m m in length, 2-10 m m lateral width and

More information

Introduction Fundamentals of laser Types of lasers Semiconductor lasers

Introduction Fundamentals of laser Types of lasers Semiconductor lasers ECE 5368 Introduction Fundamentals of laser Types of lasers Semiconductor lasers Introduction Fundamentals of laser Types of lasers Semiconductor lasers How many types of lasers? Many many depending on

More information

Basic concepts. Optical Sources (b) Optical Sources (a) Requirements for light sources (b) Requirements for light sources (a)

Basic concepts. Optical Sources (b) Optical Sources (a) Requirements for light sources (b) Requirements for light sources (a) Optical Sources (a) Optical Sources (b) The main light sources used with fibre optic systems are: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) Semiconductor lasers (diode lasers) Fibre laser and other compact solid-state

More information

Wavelength switching using multicavity semiconductor laser diodes

Wavelength switching using multicavity semiconductor laser diodes Wavelength switching using multicavity semiconductor laser diodes A. P. Kanjamala and A. F. J. Levi Department of Electrical Engineering University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 989-1111

More information

Stable dual-wavelength oscillation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser at room temperature

Stable dual-wavelength oscillation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser at room temperature Stable dual-wavelength oscillation of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser at room temperature Donghui Zhao.a, Xuewen Shu b, Wei Zhang b, Yicheng Lai a, Lin Zhang a, Ian Bennion a a Photonics Research Group,

More information

RADIO-OVER-FIBER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON DFB LD WITH MAIN AND 1 SIDE MODES INJECTION-LOCKED TECHNIQUE

RADIO-OVER-FIBER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON DFB LD WITH MAIN AND 1 SIDE MODES INJECTION-LOCKED TECHNIQUE Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 7, 25 33, 2009 RADIO-OVER-FIBER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON DFB LD WITH MAIN AND 1 SIDE MODES INJECTION-LOCKED TECHNIQUE H.-H. Lu, C.-Y. Li, C.-H. Lee,

More information

CHAPTER 5 FINE-TUNING OF AN ECDL WITH AN INTRACAVITY LIQUID CRYSTAL ELEMENT

CHAPTER 5 FINE-TUNING OF AN ECDL WITH AN INTRACAVITY LIQUID CRYSTAL ELEMENT CHAPTER 5 FINE-TUNING OF AN ECDL WITH AN INTRACAVITY LIQUID CRYSTAL ELEMENT In this chapter, the experimental results for fine-tuning of the laser wavelength with an intracavity liquid crystal element

More information

Timing Noise Measurement of High-Repetition-Rate Optical Pulses

Timing Noise Measurement of High-Repetition-Rate Optical Pulses 564 Timing Noise Measurement of High-Repetition-Rate Optical Pulses Hidemi Tsuchida National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8568 JAPAN Tel: 81-29-861-5342;

More information

Active mode-locking of miniature fiber Fabry-Perot laser (FFPL) in a ring cavity

Active mode-locking of miniature fiber Fabry-Perot laser (FFPL) in a ring cavity Active mode-locking of miniature fiber Fabry-Perot laser (FFPL) in a ring cavity Shinji Yamashita (1)(2) and Kevin Hsu (3) (1) Dept. of Frontier Informatics, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences The University

More information

Optodevice Data Book ODE I. Rev.9 Mar Opnext Japan, Inc.

Optodevice Data Book ODE I. Rev.9 Mar Opnext Japan, Inc. Optodevice Data Book ODE-408-001I Rev.9 Mar. 2003 Opnext Japan, Inc. Section 1 Operating Principles 1.1 Operating Principles of Laser Diodes (LDs) and Infrared Emitting Diodes (IREDs) 1.1.1 Emitting Principles

More information

Multiwavelength Single-Longitudinal-Mode Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser. Citation IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 2013, v. 25, p.

Multiwavelength Single-Longitudinal-Mode Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser. Citation IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 2013, v. 25, p. Title Multiwavelength Single-Longitudinal-Mode Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser Author(s) ZHOU, Y; Chui, PC; Wong, KKY Citation IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 2013, v. 25, p. 385-388 Issued Date 2013 URL http://hdl.handle.net/10722/189009

More information

The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser. Dimitrios Mandridis

The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser. Dimitrios Mandridis CREOL Affiliates Day 2011 The Theta Laser A Low Noise Chirped Pulse Laser Dimitrios Mandridis dmandrid@creol.ucf.edu April 29, 2011 Objective: Frequency Swept (FM) Mode-locked Laser Develop a frequency

More information

LASER Transmitters 1 OBJECTIVE 2 PRE-LAB

LASER Transmitters 1 OBJECTIVE 2 PRE-LAB LASER Transmitters 1 OBJECTIVE Investigate the L-I curves and spectrum of a FP Laser and observe the effects of different cavity characteristics. Learn to perform parameter sweeps in OptiSystem. 2 PRE-LAB

More information

Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber

Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber H. Ahmad 1, S. Shahi 1 and S. W. Harun 1,2* 1 Photonics Research Center, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 Department

More information

Highly Reliable 40-mW 25-GHz 20-ch Thermally Tunable DFB Laser Module, Integrated with Wavelength Monitor

Highly Reliable 40-mW 25-GHz 20-ch Thermally Tunable DFB Laser Module, Integrated with Wavelength Monitor Highly Reliable 4-mW 2-GHz 2-ch Thermally Tunable DFB Laser Module, Integrated with Wavelength Monitor by Tatsuya Kimoto *, Tatsushi Shinagawa *, Toshikazu Mukaihara *, Hideyuki Nasu *, Shuichi Tamura

More information

Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode

Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode Cost-effective wavelength-tunable fiber laser using self-seeding Fabry-Perot laser diode Chien Hung Yeh, 1* Fu Yuan Shih, 2 Chia Hsuan Wang, 3 Chi Wai Chow, 3 and Sien Chi 2, 3 1 Information and Communications

More information

Single-Frequency, 2-cm, Yb-Doped Silica-Fiber Laser

Single-Frequency, 2-cm, Yb-Doped Silica-Fiber Laser Single-Frequency, 2-cm, Yb-Doped Silica-Fiber Laser W. Guan and J. R. Marciante University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics The Institute of Optics Frontiers in Optics 2006 90th OSA Annual

More information

A broadband fiber ring laser technique with stable and tunable signal-frequency operation

A broadband fiber ring laser technique with stable and tunable signal-frequency operation A broadband fiber ring laser technique with stable and tunable signal-frequency operation Chien-Hung Yeh 1 and Sien Chi 2, 3 1 Transmission System Department, Computer & Communications Research Laboratories,

More information

Evaluation of RF power degradation in microwave photonic systems employing uniform period fibre Bragg gratings

Evaluation of RF power degradation in microwave photonic systems employing uniform period fibre Bragg gratings Evaluation of RF power degradation in microwave photonic systems employing uniform period fibre Bragg gratings G. Yu, W. Zhang and J. A. R. Williams Photonics Research Group, Department of EECS, Aston

More information

Doppler-Free Spetroscopy of Rubidium

Doppler-Free Spetroscopy of Rubidium Doppler-Free Spetroscopy of Rubidium Pranjal Vachaspati, Sabrina Pasterski MIT Department of Physics (Dated: April 17, 2013) We present a technique for spectroscopy of rubidium that eliminates doppler

More information

Synchronization in Chaotic Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers

Synchronization in Chaotic Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers Synchronization in Chaotic Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers Natsuki Fujiwara and Junji Ohtsubo Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu, 432-8561 Japan

More information

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1 Preface Telecommunication lasers have evolved substantially since the introduction of the early AlGaAs-based semiconductor lasers in the late 1970s suitable for transmitting

More information

Stabilisation of Linear-cavity Fibre Laser Using a Saturable Absorber

Stabilisation of Linear-cavity Fibre Laser Using a Saturable Absorber Edith Cowan University Research Online ECU Publications 2011 2011 Stabilisation of Linear-cavity Fibre Laser Using a Saturable Absorber David Michel Edith Cowan University Feng Xiao Edith Cowan University

More information

DBR based passively mode-locked 1.5m semiconductor laser with 9 nm tuning range Moskalenko, V.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

DBR based passively mode-locked 1.5m semiconductor laser with 9 nm tuning range Moskalenko, V.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M. DBR based passively mode-locked 1.5m semiconductor laser with 9 nm tuning range Moskalenko, V.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M. Published in: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics

More information

Low Phase Noise Laser Synthesizer with Simple Configuration Adopting Phase Modulator and Fiber Bragg Gratings

Low Phase Noise Laser Synthesizer with Simple Configuration Adopting Phase Modulator and Fiber Bragg Gratings ALMA Memo #508 Low Phase Noise Laser Synthesizer with Simple Configuration Adopting Phase Modulator and Fiber Bragg Gratings Takashi YAMAMOTO 1, Satoki KAWANISHI 1, Akitoshi UEDA 2, and Masato ISHIGURO

More information

Optical phase-coherent link between an optical atomic clock. and 1550 nm mode-locked lasers

Optical phase-coherent link between an optical atomic clock. and 1550 nm mode-locked lasers Optical phase-coherent link between an optical atomic clock and 1550 nm mode-locked lasers Kevin W. Holman, David J. Jones, Steven T. Cundiff, and Jun Ye* JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology

More information

A tunable and switchable single-longitudinalmode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity

A tunable and switchable single-longitudinalmode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity A tunable and switchable single-longitudinalmode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity Xiaoying He, 1 Xia Fang, 1 Changrui Liao, 1 D. N. Wang, 1,* and Junqiang Sun 2 1 Department of Electrical

More information

Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering 42 2 5 W i de l y T u n a b l e L a s e r T ra n s m i t te r www.lumentum.com Technical Note Introduction This technical note discusses the phenomenon and

More information

Coupling effects of signal and pump beams in three-level saturable-gain media

Coupling effects of signal and pump beams in three-level saturable-gain media Mitnick et al. Vol. 15, No. 9/September 1998/J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2433 Coupling effects of signal and pump beams in three-level saturable-gain media Yuri Mitnick, Moshe Horowitz, and Baruch Fischer Department

More information

Study of All-Optical Wavelength Conversion and Regeneration Subsystems for use in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Telecommunication Networks.

Study of All-Optical Wavelength Conversion and Regeneration Subsystems for use in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Telecommunication Networks. Study of All-Optical Wavelength Conversion and Regeneration Subsystems for use in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Telecommunication Networks. Hercules Simos * National and Kapodistrian University

More information

Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range

Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range Xinyong Dong, Nam Quoc Ngo *, and Ping Shum Network Technology Research Center, School of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nanyang

More information

ASEMICONDUCTOR optical amplifier (SOA) that is linear

ASEMICONDUCTOR optical amplifier (SOA) that is linear 1162 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 3, NO. 5, OCTOBER 1997 Numerical and Theoretical Study of the Crosstalk in Gain Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers Jinying Sun, Geert

More information

To generate a broadband light source by using mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes

To generate a broadband light source by using mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes To generate a broadband light source by using mutually injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes Cheng-Ling Ying 1, Yu-Chieh Chi 2, Chia-Chin Tsai 3, Chien-Pen Chuang 3, and Hai-Han Lu 2a) 1 Department

More information

CONTROLLABLE WAVELENGTH CHANNELS FOR MULTIWAVELENGTH BRILLOUIN BISMUTH/ERBIUM BAS-ED FIBER LASER

CONTROLLABLE WAVELENGTH CHANNELS FOR MULTIWAVELENGTH BRILLOUIN BISMUTH/ERBIUM BAS-ED FIBER LASER Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 9, 9 18, 29 CONTROLLABLE WAVELENGTH CHANNELS FOR MULTIWAVELENGTH BRILLOUIN BISMUTH/ERBIUM BAS-ED FIBER LASER H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, S. F. Norizan,

More information

Optical Amplifiers (Chapter 6)

Optical Amplifiers (Chapter 6) Optical Amplifiers (Chapter 6) General optical amplifier theory Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) Raman Amplifiers Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) Read Chapter 6, pp. 226-266 Loss & dispersion

More information

Optical phase-locked loop for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with fiber lasers

Optical phase-locked loop for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with fiber lasers Optical phase-locked loop for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with fiber lasers Keisuke Kasai a), Jumpei Hongo, Masato Yoshida, and Masataka Nakazawa Research Institute of

More information

Title. Author(s)Saitoh, Fumiya; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori. CitationOptics Express, 18(5): Issue Date Doc URL.

Title. Author(s)Saitoh, Fumiya; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori. CitationOptics Express, 18(5): Issue Date Doc URL. Title A design method of a fiber-based mode multi/demultip Author(s)Saitoh, Fumiya; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori CitationOptics Express, 18(5): 4709-4716 Issue Date 2010-03-01 Doc URL http://hdl.handle.net/2115/46825

More information

High-power semiconductor lasers for applications requiring GHz linewidth source

High-power semiconductor lasers for applications requiring GHz linewidth source High-power semiconductor lasers for applications requiring GHz linewidth source Ivan Divliansky* a, Vadim Smirnov b, George Venus a, Alex Gourevitch a, Leonid Glebov a a CREOL/The College of Optics and

More information

Semiconductor Optical Active Devices for Photonic Networks

Semiconductor Optical Active Devices for Photonic Networks UDC 621.375.8:621.38:621.391.6 Semiconductor Optical Active Devices for Photonic Networks VKiyohide Wakao VHaruhisa Soda VYuji Kotaki (Manuscript received January 28, 1999) This paper describes recent

More information

Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA

Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA PRAMANA c Indian Academy of Sciences Vol. 66, No. 3 journal of March 2006 physics pp. 539 545 Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA S W HARUN 1, N Md SAMSURI 2 and H AHMAD 2 1 Faculty

More information

White Paper Laser Sources For Optical Transceivers. Giacomo Losio ProLabs Head of Technology

White Paper Laser Sources For Optical Transceivers. Giacomo Losio ProLabs Head of Technology White Paper Laser Sources For Optical Transceivers Giacomo Losio ProLabs Head of Technology September 2014 Laser Sources For Optical Transceivers Optical transceivers use different semiconductor laser

More information

Temporal coherence characteristics of a superluminescent diode system with an optical feedback mechanism

Temporal coherence characteristics of a superluminescent diode system with an optical feedback mechanism VI Temporal coherence characteristics of a superluminescent diode system with an optical feedback mechanism Fang-Wen Sheu and Pei-Ling Luo Department of Applied Physics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi

More information

Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic feedback

Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic feedback Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic feedback S. Tang, L. Illing, J. M. Liu, H. D. I. barbanel and M. B. Kennel Department of Electrical Engineering,

More information

Application Instruction 002. Superluminescent Light Emitting Diodes: Device Fundamentals and Reliability

Application Instruction 002. Superluminescent Light Emitting Diodes: Device Fundamentals and Reliability I. Introduction II. III. IV. SLED Fundamentals SLED Temperature Performance SLED and Optical Feedback V. Operation Stability, Reliability and Life VI. Summary InPhenix, Inc., 25 N. Mines Road, Livermore,

More information

S-band gain-clamped grating-based erbiumdoped fiber amplifier by forward optical feedback technique

S-band gain-clamped grating-based erbiumdoped fiber amplifier by forward optical feedback technique S-band gain-clamped grating-based erbiumdoped fiber amplifier by forward optical feedback technique Chien-Hung Yeh 1, *, Ming-Ching Lin 3, Ting-Tsan Huang 2, Kuei-Chu Hsu 2 Cheng-Hao Ko 2, and Sien Chi

More information

LASER DIODE MODULATION AND NOISE

LASER DIODE MODULATION AND NOISE > 5' O ft I o Vi LASER DIODE MODULATION AND NOISE K. Petermann lnstitutfiir Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitdt Berlin Kluwer Academic Publishers i Dordrecht / Boston / London KTK Scientific Publishers

More information

A novel tunable diode laser using volume holographic gratings

A novel tunable diode laser using volume holographic gratings A novel tunable diode laser using volume holographic gratings Christophe Moser *, Lawrence Ho and Frank Havermeyer Ondax, Inc. 85 E. Duarte Road, Monrovia, CA 9116, USA ABSTRACT We have developed a self-aligned

More information

Microwave Photonics: Photonic Generation of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Signals

Microwave Photonics: Photonic Generation of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Signals 16 Microwave Photonics: Photonic Generation of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Signals Jianping Yao Microwave Photonics Research Laboratory School of Information Technology and Engineering University of

More information

Modulation of light. Direct modulation of sources Electro-absorption (EA) modulators

Modulation of light. Direct modulation of sources Electro-absorption (EA) modulators Modulation of light Direct modulation of sources Electro-absorption (EA) modulators Why Modulation A communication link is established by transmission of information reliably Optical modulation is embedding

More information

Tunable single frequency fiber laser based on FP-LD injection locking

Tunable single frequency fiber laser based on FP-LD injection locking Tunable single frequency fiber laser based on FP-LD injection locking Aiqin Zhang, Xinhuan Feng, * Minggui Wan, Zhaohui Li, and Bai-ou Guan Institute of Photonics Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou,

More information

Physics of Waveguide Photodetectors with Integrated Amplification

Physics of Waveguide Photodetectors with Integrated Amplification Physics of Waveguide Photodetectors with Integrated Amplification J. Piprek, D. Lasaosa, D. Pasquariello, and J. E. Bowers Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of California, Santa

More information

Novel Dual-mode locking semiconductor laser for millimetre-wave generation

Novel Dual-mode locking semiconductor laser for millimetre-wave generation Novel Dual-mode locking semiconductor laser for millimetre-wave generation P. Acedo 1, C. Roda 1, H. Lamela 1, G. Carpintero 1, J.P. Vilcot 2, S. Garidel 2 1 Grupo de Optoelectrónica y Tecnología Láser,

More information

Optoelectronic Oscillator Topologies based on Resonant Tunneling Diode Fiber Optic Links

Optoelectronic Oscillator Topologies based on Resonant Tunneling Diode Fiber Optic Links Optoelectronic Oscillator Topologies based on Resonant Tunneling Diode Fiber Optic Links Bruno Romeira* a, José M. L Figueiredo a, Kris Seunarine b, Charles N. Ironside b, a Department of Physics, CEOT,

More information

Final Year Projects 2016/7 Integrated Photonics Group

Final Year Projects 2016/7 Integrated Photonics Group Final Year Projects 2016/7 Integrated Photonics Group Overview: This year, a number of projects have been created where the student will work with researchers in the Integrated Photonics Group. The projects

More information

A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser

A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser Haisheng Rong, Richard Jones,.. - Intel Corporation Ultrafast Terahertz nanoelectronics Lab Jae-seok Kim 1 Contents 1. Abstract 2. Background I. Raman scattering II.

More information

Single-mode lasing in PT-symmetric microring resonators

Single-mode lasing in PT-symmetric microring resonators CREOL The College of Optics & Photonics Single-mode lasing in PT-symmetric microring resonators Matthias Heinrich 1, Hossein Hodaei 2, Mohammad-Ali Miri 2, Demetrios N. Christodoulides 2 & Mercedeh Khajavikhan

More information

DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY (160309)

DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY (160309) DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY (160309) Introduction The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to illustrate how we may investigate tiny energy splittings in an atomic system using laser spectroscopy. As an

More information

OPTICAL generation of microwave and millimeter-wave

OPTICAL generation of microwave and millimeter-wave 804 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 54, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2006 Photonic Generation of Microwave Signal Using a Dual-Wavelength Single-Longitudinal-Mode Fiber Ring Laser Xiangfei

More information

Design of External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers to Suppress Wavelength Shift and Mode Hopping

Design of External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers to Suppress Wavelength Shift and Mode Hopping ST/03/055/PM Design o External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers to Suppress Wavelength Shit and Mode Hopping L. Zhao and Z. P. Fang Abstract In this report, a model o ernal cavity semiconductor laser is built,

More information

Study of Multiwavelength Fiber Laser in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

Study of Multiwavelength Fiber Laser in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber Study of Multiwavelength Fiber Laser in a Highly Nonlinear Fiber I. H. M. Nadzar 1 and N. A.Awang 1* 1 Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor,

More information

Degradation analysis in asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback laser diodes

Degradation analysis in asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback laser diodes Microelectronics Journal 8 (7) 74 74 www.elsevier.com/locate/mejo Degradation analysis in asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback laser diodes Han Sung Joo, Sang-Wan Ryu, Jeha Kim, Ilgu Yun Semiconductor

More information

Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 39: Optical Modulators

Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 39: Optical Modulators Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 39: Optical Modulators Prof. Utpal Das Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Laser Technology Program, Indian Institute of

More information

All-Optical Clock Division Using Period-one Oscillation of Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser

All-Optical Clock Division Using Period-one Oscillation of Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser International Conference on Logistics Engineering, Management and Computer Science (LEMCS 2014) All-Optical Clock Division Using Period-one Oscillation of Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser Shengxiao

More information

Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers with Low Noise Figure

Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers with Low Noise Figure Hideaki Hasegawa *, Masaki Funabashi *, Kazuomi Maruyama *, Kazuaki Kiyota *, and Noriyuki Yokouchi * In the multilevel phase modulation which is expected to provide the nextgeneration modulation format

More information

All-optical NRZ to RZ format and wavelength converter by dual-wavelength injection locking

All-optical NRZ to RZ format and wavelength converter by dual-wavelength injection locking 15 August 2002 Optics Communications 209 (2002) 329 334 www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom All-optical NRZ to RZ format and wavelength converter by dual-wavelength injection locking C.W. Chow, C.S. Wong *,

More information

Elements of Optical Networking

Elements of Optical Networking Bruckner Elements of Optical Networking Basics and practice of optical data communication With 217 Figures, 13 Tables and 93 Exercises Translated by Patricia Joliet VIEWEG+ TEUBNER VII Content Preface

More information

Review of Semiconductor Physics

Review of Semiconductor Physics Review of Semiconductor Physics k B 1.38 u 10 23 JK -1 a) Energy level diagrams showing the excitation of an electron from the valence band to the conduction band. The resultant free electron can freely

More information

3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117, USA ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION

3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117, USA ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION Beam Combination of Multiple Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers via Volume Bragg Gratings Chunte A. Lu* a, William P. Roach a, Genesh Balakrishnan b, Alexander R. Albrecht b, Jerome V. Moloney

More information

High brightness semiconductor lasers M.L. Osowski, W. Hu, R.M. Lammert, T. Liu, Y. Ma, S.W. Oh, C. Panja, P.T. Rudy, T. Stakelon and J.E.

High brightness semiconductor lasers M.L. Osowski, W. Hu, R.M. Lammert, T. Liu, Y. Ma, S.W. Oh, C. Panja, P.T. Rudy, T. Stakelon and J.E. QPC Lasers, Inc. 2007 SPIE Photonics West Paper: Mon Jan 22, 2007, 1:20 pm, LASE Conference 6456, Session 3 High brightness semiconductor lasers M.L. Osowski, W. Hu, R.M. Lammert, T. Liu, Y. Ma, S.W. Oh,

More information

Downstream Transmission in a WDM-PON System Using a Multiwavelength SOA-Based Fiber Ring Laser Source

Downstream Transmission in a WDM-PON System Using a Multiwavelength SOA-Based Fiber Ring Laser Source JOURNAL OF L A TEX CLASS FILES, VOL. X, NO. XX, XXXX XXX 1 Downstream Transmission in a WDM-PON System Using a Multiwavelength SOA-Based Fiber Ring Laser Source Jérôme Vasseur, Jianjun Yu Senior Member,

More information

Loop Mirror Multi-wavelength Brillouin Fiber Laser Utilizing Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Fiber Bragg Grating

Loop Mirror Multi-wavelength Brillouin Fiber Laser Utilizing Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Fiber Bragg Grating Loop Mirror Multi-wavelength Brillouin Fiber Laser Utilizing Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Fiber Bragg Grating N. A. Idris 1,2,*, N. A. M. Ahmad Hambali 1,2, M.H.A. Wahid 1,2, N. A. Ariffin 1,2,

More information

Single mode EDF fiber laser using an ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable optical filter

Single mode EDF fiber laser using an ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable optical filter Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics Vol. 53, September 2015, pp. 579-584 Single mode EDF fiber laser using an ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable optical filter N F Razak* 1, H Ahmad 2, M Z Zulkifli 2,

More information

Publication II. c [2003] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Publication II. c [2003] IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology. II Publication II J. Oksanen and J. Tulkki, On crosstalk and noise in an optical amplifier with gain clamping by vertical laser field, IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 21, pp. 1914-1919 (2003). c [2003]

More information

Investigation of InGaAsP/InP DFB and FP Laser Diodes Noise Characteristic

Investigation of InGaAsP/InP DFB and FP Laser Diodes Noise Characteristic ISSN 9 MATERIALS SCIENCE (MEDŽIAGOTYRA). Vol., No. 4. 4 Investigation of InGaAsP/InP DFB and FP Laser Diodes Noise Characteristic Jonas MATUKAS, Vilius PALENSKIS, Sandra PRALGAUSKAITĖ, Emilis ŠERMUKŠNIS

More information

Suppression of Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in OEOs

Suppression of Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in OEOs Suppression of Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in OEOs Olukayode Okusaga, 1,* James P. Cahill, 1,2 Andrew Docherty, 2 Curtis R. Menyuk, 2 Weimin Zhou, 1 and Gary M. Carter, 2 1 Sensors and Electronic

More information

Crosstalk Reduction using Cascading Configuration in Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Based Array Waveguide Grating in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Crosstalk Reduction using Cascading Configuration in Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Based Array Waveguide Grating in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications [Volume 5, Issue 1, October 214] 2 ISSN 247-3338 Reduction using Cascading Configuration in Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Based Array Waveguide

More information

22-Channel Capacity of 2.5Gbit/s DWDM-PON ONU Transmitter by Direct-Modularly Side-Mode Injection Locked FPLD

22-Channel Capacity of 2.5Gbit/s DWDM-PON ONU Transmitter by Direct-Modularly Side-Mode Injection Locked FPLD 22-Channel Capacity of 2.5Gbit/s DWDM-PON ONU Transmitter by Direct-Modularly Side-Mode Injection Locked FPLD Yu-Sheng Liao a, Yung-Jui Chen b, and Gong-Ru Lin c* a Department of Photonics & Institute

More information

High Performance Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Fiber Modules for Non-zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers

High Performance Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Fiber Modules for Non-zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers High Performance Dispersion and Dispersion Slope Compensating Fiber Modules for Non-zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers Kazuhiko Aikawa, Ryuji Suzuki, Shogo Shimizu, Kazunari Suzuki, Masato Kenmotsu, Masakazu

More information

S Optical Networks Course Lecture 2: Essential Building Blocks

S Optical Networks Course Lecture 2: Essential Building Blocks S-72.3340 Optical Networks Course Lecture 2: Essential Building Blocks Edward Mutafungwa Communications Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P. O. Box 2300, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland Tel: +358 9

More information

3 General Principles of Operation of the S7500 Laser

3 General Principles of Operation of the S7500 Laser Application Note AN-2095 Controlling the S7500 CW Tunable Laser 1 Introduction This document explains the general principles of operation of Finisar s S7500 tunable laser. It provides a high-level description

More information

PERFORMANCE OF PHOTODIGM S DBR SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS FOR PICOSECOND AND NANOSECOND PULSING APPLICATIONS

PERFORMANCE OF PHOTODIGM S DBR SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS FOR PICOSECOND AND NANOSECOND PULSING APPLICATIONS PERFORMANCE OF PHOTODIGM S DBR SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS FOR PICOSECOND AND NANOSECOND PULSING APPLICATIONS By Jason O Daniel, Ph.D. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction...1 2. Pulse Measurements for Pulse Widths

More information

InP-based Waveguide Photodetector with Integrated Photon Multiplication

InP-based Waveguide Photodetector with Integrated Photon Multiplication InP-based Waveguide Photodetector with Integrated Photon Multiplication D.Pasquariello,J.Piprek,D.Lasaosa,andJ.E.Bowers Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of California, Santa Barbara,

More information

Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240

Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240 Lasers PH 645/ OSE 645/ EE 613 Summer 2010 Section 1: T/Th 2:45-4:45 PM Engineering Building 240 John D. Williams, Ph.D. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 406 Optics Building - UAHuntsville,

More information

Optical generation of frequency stable mm-wave radiation using diode laser pumped Nd:YAG lasers

Optical generation of frequency stable mm-wave radiation using diode laser pumped Nd:YAG lasers Optical generation of frequency stable mm-wave radiation using diode laser pumped Nd:YAG lasers T. Day and R. A. Marsland New Focus Inc. 340 Pioneer Way Mountain View CA 94041 (415) 961-2108 R. L. Byer

More information

Heterogeneously Integrated Microwave Signal Generators with Narrow- Linewidth Lasers

Heterogeneously Integrated Microwave Signal Generators with Narrow- Linewidth Lasers Heterogeneously Integrated Microwave Signal Generators with Narrow- Linewidth Lasers John E. Bowers, Jared Hulme, Tin Komljenovic, Mike Davenport and Chong Zhang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

More information

Chapter 8. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) Part II: Amplifiers

Chapter 8. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) Part II: Amplifiers Chapter 8 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) Part II: Amplifiers Introduction Traditionally, when setting up an optical link, one formulates a power budget and adds repeaters when the path loss exceeds

More information

Introduction Fundamental of optical amplifiers Types of optical amplifiers

Introduction Fundamental of optical amplifiers Types of optical amplifiers ECE 6323 Introduction Fundamental of optical amplifiers Types of optical amplifiers Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers Semiconductor optical amplifier Others: stimulated Raman, optical parametric Advanced application:

More information

Rogério Nogueira Instituto de Telecomunicações Pólo de Aveiro Departamento de Física Universidade de Aveiro

Rogério Nogueira Instituto de Telecomunicações Pólo de Aveiro Departamento de Física Universidade de Aveiro Fiber Bragg Gratings for DWDM Optical Networks Rogério Nogueira Instituto de Telecomunicações Pólo de Aveiro Departamento de Física Universidade de Aveiro Overview Introduction. Fabrication. Physical properties.

More information

The Effect of Radiation Coupling in Higher Order Fiber Bragg Gratings

The Effect of Radiation Coupling in Higher Order Fiber Bragg Gratings PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 3, NO. 4, 27 462 The Effect of Radiation Coupling in Higher Order Fiber Bragg Gratings Li Yang 1, Wei-Ping Huang 2, and Xi-Jia Gu 3 1 Department EEIS, University of Science and Technology

More information

A WDM passive optical network enabling multicasting with color-free ONUs

A WDM passive optical network enabling multicasting with color-free ONUs A WDM passive optical network enabling multicasting with color-free ONUs Yue Tian, Qingjiang Chang, and Yikai Su * State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department

More information

Simultaneous Measurements for Tunable Laser Source Linewidth with Homodyne Detection

Simultaneous Measurements for Tunable Laser Source Linewidth with Homodyne Detection Simultaneous Measurements for Tunable Laser Source Linewidth with Homodyne Detection Adnan H. Ali Technical college / Baghdad- Iraq Tel: 96-4-770-794-8995 E-mail: Adnan_h_ali@yahoo.com Received: April

More information

Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 18: Introduction to Diode Lasers - I

Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 18: Introduction to Diode Lasers - I Semiconductor Optical Communication Components and Devices Lecture 18: Introduction to Diode Lasers - I Prof. Utpal Das Professor, Department of lectrical ngineering, Laser Technology Program, Indian Institute

More information

Public Progress Report 2

Public Progress Report 2 Embedded Resonant and ModulablE Self- Tuning Laser Cavity for Next Generation Access Network Transmitter ERMES Public Progress Report 2 Project Project acronym: ERMES Project full title: Embedded Resonant

More information

Laser Diode. Photonic Network By Dr. M H Zaidi

Laser Diode. Photonic Network By Dr. M H Zaidi Laser Diode Light emitters are a key element in any fiber optic system. This component converts the electrical signal into a corresponding light signal that can be injected into the fiber. The light emitter

More information

Optimisation of DSF and SOA based Phase Conjugators. by Incorporating Noise-Suppressing Fibre Gratings

Optimisation of DSF and SOA based Phase Conjugators. by Incorporating Noise-Suppressing Fibre Gratings Optimisation of DSF and SOA based Phase Conjugators by Incorporating Noise-Suppressing Fibre Gratings Paper no: 1471 S. Y. Set, H. Geiger, R. I. Laming, M. J. Cole and L. Reekie Optoelectronics Research

More information

Optimization of Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating Reflection Spectra for Maximum Reflectivity and Narrow Bandwidth

Optimization of Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating Reflection Spectra for Maximum Reflectivity and Narrow Bandwidth ISSN (e): 225 35 Vol, 5 Issue,2 February 25 International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Optimization of Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating Reflection Spectra for Maximum Reflectivity and

More information