Optical phase-locked loop for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with fiber lasers

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1 Optical phase-locked loop for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection with fiber lasers Keisuke Kasai a), Jumpei Hongo, Masato Yoshida, and Masataka Nakazawa Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai , Japan a) Abstract: We have developed an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) that can operate over 500 km. The coherent transmitter is a 1.54 µm 13 C 2 H 2 frequency-stabilized CW fiber ring laser with a frequency stability of and a linewidth of 4 khz. To obtain wide band operation with a bandwidth of 1 GHz, we fabricated a high-speed fiber laser as a local oscillator. By using these fiber lasers, the OPLL circuit successfully generated an intermediate frequency signal with a phase error variance of rad. Keywords: optical phase-locked loop, coherent transmission, fiber laser, frequency stabilization Classification: Photonics devices, circuits, and systems References [1] M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, and J. Hongou, 20 Msymbol/s, 64 and 128 QAM coherent optical transmission over 525 km using heterodyne detection with frequency-stabilized laser, Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 12, pp , [2] R. C. Steele, Optical phase-locked loop using semiconductor laser diodes, Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 2, pp , [3] K. Kikuchi, T. Okoshi, M. Nagamatsu, and N. Henmi, Degradation of bit-error rate in coherent optical communications due to spectral spread of the transmitter and the local oscillator, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 6, pp , [4] O. Ishida, H. Toba, and Y. Tohmori, 0.04 Hz relative optical-frequency stability in 1.5 mm distributed-bragg-reflector (DBR) laser, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, no. 12, pp , [5] K. Kasai, A. Suzuki, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, Perfomance improvement of an acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) frequency-stabilized fiber laser, IEICE ELEX., vol. 3, no. 22, pp , [6] A. Suzuki, Y. Takahashi, and M. Nakazawa, Polarization-maintained, ultra narrow FBG filter with 1.3 GHz linewidth, EOS annual meeting 2006, TOM 2, Extremes in optical communications,

2 [7] D. W. Allan, Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, no. 2, pp , [8] T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum, Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 16, pp , Introduction Precise optical phase control of light sources is very important for coherent optical transmission with heterodyne detection and coherent optical measurements [1]. With such applications, the optical frequency difference between a transmitter and a local oscillator (LO) must be kept constant in order to obtain a stable intermediate frequency (IF) signal. In a heterodyne detection system, the use of a high-speed optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is a key technique for automatic frequency control. Some experiments on OPLLs have already been reported that used laser diodes as a transmitter and an LO [2, 3, 4]. These experiments indicated that reduction of the phase noise (linewidth) of the two lasers and the high long-term frequency stability of the transmitter were very important factors as regards realizing a precise OPLL. Of the many available lasers, the fiber laser is an attractive candidate for an OPLL because of its low phase noise (narrow linewidth). We have been developing a frequency-stabilized light source using a fiber laser and a 13 C 2 H 2 absorption line, and have achieved a frequency stability as high as [5]. In addition, the laser has advantages such as a narrow linewidth and an output beam without any frequency modulation. These characteristics enable us to apply the laser immediately to an OPLL system. In this paper, we report for the first time, an OPLL system for coherent transmission over 500 km that we realized by using a 13 C 2 H 2 frequencystabilized fiber laser as a transmitter and a free-running high-speed fiber laser as an LO. We successfully obtained an IF signal with a low phase error variance of rad. 2 A 13 C 2 H 2 frequency-stabilized fiber laser as a transmitter Figure 1 shows the configuration of a 13 C 2 H 2 frequency-stabilized fiber ring laser used as a transmitter. The laser has two main parts. One is a tunable, polarization-maintained single-frequency fiber ring laser. The other is a laser frequency stabilization unit. The fiber laser is composed of a 1.48 µm LD, a polarization-maintained (PM) EDF, a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) coupler, an output coupler, a PM optical circulator, and a 1.5 GHz ultra-narrow PM fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter [6]. The FBG filter makes it possible to realize single-frequency operation by selecting only one longitudinal mode among many oscillation modes. The laser has two kinds of frequency controllers. One is a drum-type PZT with EDF wound around it. The other is a multi-layer PZT (MLP) on which an FBG 78

3 Fig. 1. A 13 C 2 H 2 frequency-stabilized fiber laser. is laid. When these controllers operate synchronously with a phase sensitive detection circuit, the laser frequency is continuously tuned over 2 GHz without mode hopping. In the external frequency stabilization unit, we employed a phase sensitive detection circuit with an LN frequency modulator, a 13 C 2 H 2 (3 Torr) cell, a photo detector (PD), a double balanced mixer (DBM), an electrical amplifier, and a low pass filter (LPF). The feedback circuit consisted of proportional and integral (PI) controls. With these set-ups, we can detect any frequency deviation of the fiber laser from the center frequency of the P(10) linear absorption line, which has a center wavelength of nm and a spectral width of 500 MHz. The DBM generates a voltage error signal that is proportional to the frequency deviation, and the error signal is fed back to the PZT to control the laser frequency. The laser output power was 4.5 mw for a pump power of 200 mw. The frequency stability of the laser estimated from the square root of the Allan variance [7] was (2.6 khz) for an integration time, τ of 1 s, and (4 khz) for a τ of 100 s. The linewidth measured with the delayed self-heterodyne detection method [8] was approximately 4 khz. 3 OPLL for coherent transmission using heterodyne detection Figure 2 shows our experimental set-up for OPLL. This system is composed of an LO, a PD, a DBM, a synthesizer, and two feedback circuits. A 13 C 2 H 2 frequency-stabilized fiber ring laser is used as a transmitter, and a free running fiber laser is used as an LO whose configuration is almost the same as that of the transmitter except that an LN modulator was used for the high-speed tracking of the IF signal. The LO linewidth is also approximately 4 khz. The signal from the transmitter is coupled to a 525 km transmission fiber (DSF 75 km 7 spans) with a coupled power of 5dBm. After the transmission, the signal is heterodyne-detected with the LO signal. The phase of the beat signal (IF signal: f IF = f trans f lo ) is compared with the phase of the reference signal from the synthesizer (f syn ) by the DBM and the difference between them is fed back to the LO through the feedback circuits. 79

4 Fig. 2. Experimental OPLL set-up for coherent transmission. A phase noise of the OPLL is mainly dominated by the loop bandwidth. The bandwidth of the fiber laser shown in Fig. 1 was determined by the response characteristic of the PZT, and therefore we have improved the LO response time by using an LN modulator. With this configuration, we could obtain an FM bandwidth of the LO up to 1 GHz. We also used a PZT tuner to compensate for slow frequency drifts caused by a temperature fluctuation. These two feedback circuits have loop-filters with different bandwidths. One is a broadband filter ( 1 MHz) for fast frequency tuning with the LN modulator, the other is a narrow band filter ( 10 khz) for slow frequency tuning with the PZT. The IF signal is measured with an electrical spectrum analyzer through the PD. 4 Experimental result Figure 3 (a) and (b) show the IF spectrums measured with the electrical spectrum analyzer with a 2 khz span and a 2 MHz span, respectively. The IF spectrum was stable at a reference frequency of 1.5 GHz. The linewidth of the spectrum was less than 10 Hz, which was below the measurement resolution as shown in Fig. 3 (a). In Fig. 3 (b), the noise signals were observed at about 150 khz. This was due to the relaxation oscillation of both fiber lasers. Figure 3 (c) shows the single sideband (SSB) phase noise spectrum measured with the electrical spectrum analyzer. The phase noise variance (RMS) of the IF signal estimated by integrating the SSB noise spectrum was only rad, which indicated that a stable OPLL operation was successfully achieved under a low phase noise condition. We also measured the phase noise variance (RMS) for back-to-back and 150 km transmission and obtained values of and rad, respectively. The IF signal degradation resulted from the decrease in the S/N of the transmitted signal caused by ASE noise accumulation from the EDFA repeaters. 80

5 Fig. 3. IF signal characteristics. (a) IF signal spectrum, Horizontal: 500 Hz/div. (b) IF signal spectrum, Horizontal: 500 khz/div. (c) SSB phase noise spectrum. 5 Conclusion We have successfully achieved an OPLL system for coherent transmission over 500 km using heterodyne detection, in which we used a 13 C 2 H 2 frequencystabilized fiber ring laser as a transmitter and a high-speed free running fiber laser with an LN modulator as an LO. With this configuration, we obtained an IF signal with a phase error variance of only rad. 81

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