# ECEN689: Special Topics in Optical Interconnects Circuits and Systems Spring 2016

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1 ECEN689: Special Topics in Optical Interconnects Circuits and Systems Spring 016 Lecture 7: Transmitter Analysis Sam Palermo Analog & Mixed-Signal Center Texas A&M University

2 Optical Modulation Techniques Due to it s narrow frequency (wavelength) spectrum, a single-longitudinal mode (SLM) laser source often generates the optical power that is modulated for data communication Two modulation techniques Direct modulation of laser External modulation of continuous-wave (CW) DC laser with absorptive or refractive modulators

3 Directly Modulated Laser Directly modulating laser output power Simplest approach Introduces laser chirp, which is unwanted frequency (wavelength) modulation This chirp causes unwanted pulse dispersion when passed through a long fiber 3

4 Externally Modulated Laser External modulation of continuous-wave (CW) DC laser with absorptive or refractive modulators Adds an extra component Doesn t add chirp, and allows for a transform limited spectrum 4

5 Extinction Ratio In optical communication systems, a finite optical power is generally transmitted for a zero symbol due to Laser turn-on delay below threshold current External modulator non-idealities and driver voltage swing limitations The ratio between the one, P 1, and zero, P 0, power is the extinction ratio Extinction Ratio P1 ER = P 0 5

6 Extinction Ratio Power Penalty Optical receiver sensitivity is often specified in terms of the average optical power necessary for the target BER P = ( P 1 + P 0 ) For the same average optical power, a finite extinction ratio reduces the signal swing that the receiver sees, which is what really determines the BER To restore the original signal swing, more average transmitted power is necessary, quantified by an extinction ratio power penalty ER + 1 PP = ER 1 6

7 Extinction Ratio Power Penalty PP = An ER ER ER = (6.99dB) results in PP = = 1.5 (1.76dB) 7

8 What About the Extra Zero-Level Noise? Note the that the most commonly used extinction ratio power penalty expression neglects the increased zero level noise, which is OK for p-i-n receivers PP ER = ER However, if we have an APD or optical amplifier in the system the power penalty will be larger In the limit where the detector noise dominates over the amplifier noise the power penalty becomes much worse PP = ER ER ER ER

9 Average Power vs Optical Modulation Amplitude (OMA) Sensitivity If we specify receiver sensitivity as an average power quantity, then the extinction ratio power penalty must be calculated in link budgeting Another approach is to specify receiver sensitivity in terms of optical modulation amplitude (OMA) OMA = P 1 P 0 This ideally obviates any extinction ratio penalty in the case of constant noise As data rate rise and lower extinction ratios are in use, more systems are specifying receiver sensitivity in terms of OMA 9

10 Spectral Linewidth An ideal optical TX consisting of a monochromatic laser and perfect intensity modulator produces a signal with an ideal AM spectrum Carrier wavelength plus two sidebands The commonly-used baseband NRZ signaling has a sinc shape with full 3dB-bandwidth of ~B and a distance between the first two nulls of B 3dB Bandwidth 10

11 Transform Limited Pulses 3dB Bandwidth In this ideal modulation case, we have what are called transform limited pulses The optical spectral linewidth can be computed as λ λ λ = f B c c 10Gb/s modulation in a 1550nm system produces the following transform - limited spectral linewidth Δλ = ( 1550nm) ( 10 GHz) = 80 pm m s 11

12 Chirp 3dB Bandwidth Most real transmitters also have additional unwanted frequency modulation called chirp The linewidth in this case can be approximated as λ λ B α + 1 c whereα is the chirp parameter or linewidth enhancement factor. 10Gb/s modulation in a 1550nm system with α = 4 produces the following spectral linewidth Δλ ( 1550nm) ( GHz) pm m s = 330 1

13 Source-Limited Linewidth The previous two cases of transform-limited and chirp-limited linewidth assumed that the laser had a much smaller linewidth than the modulation signal Single-longitudinal mode (single-mode) lasers can satisfy this condition However, many systems use multiple-longitudinal mode (multi-mode) lasers where the linewidth (>1nm) can be much wider than the modulation Here the TX linewidth is simply approximated by the linewidth of the unmodulated source λ S λ λ S 13

14 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: Transform-Limited Pulses We try and limit the chromatic dispersion spreading of Gaussian pulses to 1 T = D λ L B 1 L D λ B c L For the transform-limited pulses case D λ B However, given the nonlinear communication channel, this is only an approximation. A more useful expression for 1dB dispersion penalty (1550nm) is 17 ps / L D ( nm km) 6000( Gb / s) Transmission distance decreases as 1/(B ) B km 14

15 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: Chirped Pulses If we have a transmitter with chirp, then the linewidth increases and the maximum distance reduces c L α + 1 D λ B Again, given the nonlinear communication channel, this is only an approximation. A more useful expression for 1dB dispersion penalty (1550nm) is L 1 17 ps / α + 1 D ( nm km) 6000( Gb / s) B Transmission distance decreases as 1/(B ) km 15

16 Chromatic Dispersion Limits: Source-Limited Linewidth If the optical source s linewidth is much wider than the modulation bandwidth, the maximum length is 1 L D λ B Now the transmission distance only decreases as 1/(B) S Source-Limited Chirped-Pulses Transform-Pulses 16

17 Optical Sources for Chip-to-Chip Links Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) Ring-Resonator Modulator (RRM) 17

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