# Effect of Signal Direct Detection on Sub-Carrier Multiplexed Radio over Fiber System

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2 II. THEORY In theory analysis we will consider frequency spectrum of a signal at different stages. Fig. 1 shows the frequency domain representation of an amplitude modulated signal [5]. In amplitude modulation, amplitude of a high frequency carrier signal is varied according to the message signal. In this figure x(t) represents the time domain of message signal and X(f) is how this signal x(t) is represented in frequency domain. After amplitude modulation signal is given by g(t) which is the time domain representation of amplitude modulated signal and frequency domain representation of this amplitude modulated signal can be expressed as G(f). This fig. shows message signal before and after modulation and we can see modulation in time domain shifts spectrum of message signal in frequency domain according to carrier frequency at ±f C. For our work fig. 2(a) shows frequency spectrum of data (baseband) signal having frequency f B which is used to transmit. In the first step of transmission pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) generator is used to generate baseband signal. This baseband signal is then used to modulate a high frequency RF carrier of frequency f C using electrical modulation which will shift this spectrum of data signal at frequency f C. After this shifting lower and upper frequencies of this spectrum will become f C -f B and f C +f B respectively, as shown in fig. 2(b). Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) is used for this electrical modulation. DPSK is the noncoherent version of PSK and it eliminates the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver [4]. Figure 2 (a): Frequency spectrum of baseband signal Figure 2 (b): Frequency spectrum after electrical modulation Figure 1: Amplitude modulated signal This representation can be expressed in mathematical form as well. If X(f) and G(f) are the fourier transforms (FT) of signals x(t) and g(t) respectively, then G(f)= 1/2*A C [δ(f-f C ) + δ(f+f C )] Where µ is the modulation index, + 1/2*µ*A C [X(f-f C ) + X(f+f C )] Figure 2 (c): Frequency spectrum after optical modulation Electrically modulated signal is then passed through Band Pass Filter (BPF) to remove unwanted frequency components. This filtered signal is used to modulate carrier light of an optical source which is laser diode having frequency f O using an external modulator called mach zehnder modulator (MZM). This optical modulation will again shift vertical axis of electrically modulated signal at frequency f O and the frequency of upper sideband of the optical signal will become f O +f C as shown in fig. 2(c). Now lower and upper frequencies of this upper sideband will become f O +f C -f B and f O +f C +f B respectively. This optical upper sideband can be filtered using an optical band pass filter (OBPF) having frequency f O +f C and bandwidth 1.5*f B. This optical signal is then transmitted through the channel which is a single mode fiber (SMF). At receiving end an optical amplifier is used to amplify attenuated optical signal and then this signal is passed through optical band pass filter (OBPF) to filter the upper sideband of optical signal which is then applied to the PIN photo-detector. This photodetector demodulate filtered optical signal and convert this optical signal directly into a baseband signal. A low pass filter (LPF) is used to remove higher frequency components and at the output of LPF data signal is detected and output is observed. Copyright to IJARCCE

3 Figure 3: Simulation setup III. SIMULATION SETUP Fig. 3 shows the simulation setup for three users. Three pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) generators are used to generate three different data signals. These data are used to modulate three different electrical carriers having frequencies 10 GHz, 15 GHz and 20 GHz respectively. To remove unwanted frequencies these signals are passed through band pass filters (frequencies same as carrier frequencies and bandwidth= 1.5*Bit Rate). These signals are then combined using electrical power combiner and this combined signal is used to modulate an optical carrier of frequency THz using mach zehnder modulator (MZM). This modulated signal is then transmitted through the single mode fiber. At receiver end signal is amplified using optical amplifier and then an optical power splitter is used to split this optical signal into three signals. These optical signals are then passed through optical band pass filters (frequencies THz, THz, THz respectively and bandwidth= 1.5*Bit Rate). These filtered signals are then applied to photo-detectors which will convert these optical signals directly into baseband signals. Low pass filters (LPFs) are used to filter higher frequency components. And at the outputs of LPFs we will get data which was initially transmitted. IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Simulation setup discussed above is simulated for two different cases. In first case number of users and bit rate are kept constant and outputs are observed by varying fiber length. In second case number of users and fiber length are kept constant and outputs are observed with respect to bit rate. The values of Max. Q Factor and Min. BER against fiber length and bit rate are plotted on the graphs. A. Case 1: 3 Users at 2 Gbps In this case fiber length is varied from 10 km to 40 km and outputs are compared for four different values of fiber length as shown in table 1. These values are plotted on graphs. From the graphs shown in fig. 4(a) and 4(b) we can observe the value of Max. Q Factor is decreasing and the value of Min. BER is increasing with the increase in fiber length. Maximum variation in output is observed for fiber length km and minimum variation is for fiber length km. TABLE 1 Parameter Max. Q Factor Min. BER Fiber Length (km) e e e e-013 Copyright to IJARCCE

4 Again from the graphs shown in fig. 5 (a) and 5 (b) we can observe the value of Max. Q Factor is decreasing and the value of Min. BER is increasing with the increase in bit rate. The variations in output for bit rate Gbps and Gbps are quite similar but variation in output for Gbps is less than these two. Figure 4 (a): Max. Q Factor Vs Fiber Length Figure 5 (a): Max. Q Factor Vs Bit Rate Figure 4 (b): Min. log of BER Vs Fiber Length B. Case 2: 3 Users for 25 km Here bit rate is varied from 0.5 Gbps to 2 Gbps and outputs are compared for four different values of bit rate as shown in table 2. These values are plotted on graphs as well. Parameter TABLE 2 Max. Q Factor Min. BER Bit Rate (Gbps) e e e e-016 Figure 5 (b): Min. log of BER Vs Bit Rate V. CONCLUSION Direct detection of baseband signal has been simulated. Here electronic components are reduced and need for electrical demodulation has been eleminated. Optical signal is directly converted into baseband signal using only one optical demodulation module at receiver. This makes system simpler, cheaper and more broadband. Performance of the Copyright to IJARCCE

5 system is observed and compared by varying fiber length and bit rate. Outputs are still better than required values. So there is a possibility to increase number of users, bit rate, fiber length or other parameter to further improve system configuration and its performance. REERENCES [1] Johny, J, Shashidharan, S, Design and Simulation of a Radio Over Fiber System and its Performance Analysis, in ICUMT, St. Petersburg, pp , Oct [2] J, Kumar, M, Bharti, Y, Singh, Sub-Carriers Multiplexing at Various Data Rates on Radio Over Fiber Systems, IJARECE-VOL-2-ISSUE , Oct [3] Y, Song, X, Zheng, H, Zhang, Y, Guo, and B, Zhou, All-Optical Subcarrier Demodulation in Up-Link of WDM mm-wave Radio-Over- Fiber System, IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 9, MAY 1, [4] Communication Systems by Simon Haykin 4th Edition. [5] Introduction to Communications, Lecture 9: Amplitude Modulation [6] Radio over Fiber, [7] R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. Allen, K. Demarest and D. Richards, "Subcarrier Multiplexing for High-Speed Optical Transmission", JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 20, NO. 3, MARCH [8] Gutierrez-Martinez, C., Santos-Aguilar, J., Multiplexing Microwave Subcarriers on Dispersive-Channel Radio over Fiber Systems, in Mic. Pho. Int. Top. Meet., Noordwijk, pp , Sept Copyright to IJARCCE

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