21. (i) Briefly explain the evolution of fiber optic system (ii) Compare the configuration of different types of fibers. or 22. (b)(i) Derive modal eq

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1 Unit-1 Part-A FATIMA MICHAEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Senkottai Village, Madurai Sivagangai Main Road, Madurai [An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution] DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 1. A point sorce of ligth is 12 cm below the surface of a large body of water (n = 1.33). What is the radius of the largest circle on the water surface through which the light can emerge? 2. Consider a parabolic index waveguide with n1 =1.75,n2 = and core radius 25 micro meter. Calculate the numerical aperture at the axis and at a point 20 micro meter from the axis 3. Define numerical aperture of a step index fiber 4. Define mode-field diameter 5. Commonly available single mode fibers have beat lengths in the range 10 cm < Lp <2 m. What range of refractive index diffrences does this correspond to? (for wavelength = 1300 nm) 6. Define mode field diameter 7. What is the fundamental parameter of a single mode fiber? 8. A step index fiber has a normalized frequency V = 26.6 at 1300 nm wavelength. If the core radius is 25 pm, find the numerical aperture Part-B 9. (i) Diacuss the signal distortion in single mode fibers (ii) Discuss pulse broadening in graded index fibers with necessary equations 10. (I) Discuss the propagation modes in single -mode fiber (ii) Discuss the structure of graded index fiber 11. (i) What is meant by 'material dispersion'? Derive its expression (ii) Discuss the pulse broadening in graded index fiberss 12. (a) What are fiber modes? Explain mode theory for optical fibers in detail. Or (b) Compare Single mode fibers and Graded index fibers. Explain the requirements for fiber materials. Unit Write the expression for the effective number of modes guided by a curved multimode fiber of radius 'a' 14. Define normalized propagation constant 15. Give expression for the effective number of modes guided by a curved multimode fiber 16. What are the causes of absorption 17. Find the coupling loss for two fibers having core refractive index profiles alpha E = 2.0 and alpha R = What causes mode coupling 19. Mention the two causes of intra-modal dispersion. 20. Define fiber loss. M.MAHARAJA,AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

2 21. (i) Briefly explain the evolution of fiber optic system (ii) Compare the configuration of different types of fibers. or 22. (b)(i) Derive modal equation 23. (ii) Discuss the modes in step- index fibers 24. (a) (i) What is meant by material dispersion? (ii) Derive an expression for material dispersion (iii) Derive the expression for wave guide dispersion (b) Discuss the pulse broadening in graded index fibers 25. (i) List the advantages of optical fiber comminication (ii) Draw the elements of an optical fiber transmission link and explain 26. (i) Discuss the mode theory of circular waveguide 27. (a) Discuss various kinds of losses that an optical signal might suffer while propagating through fiber, Which is most important one? What is the effect of these losses on light power and pulse shape? (b) What is mode coupling? Discuss pulse broadening in Gl fibers. Unit Draw the three key transistion process involved in laser action 29. Write the concept of indirect bandgap semiconductor materials 30. What is meant by hetero junction? 31. What is meant by indirect band gap semi conductor material? 32. Give example for direct and indirect semiconductor materials 33. Calculate the ratio of stimulated emission rate to the spontaneous emission rate for a lamp operating at a temperature of 100 K. Assume average operating wavelength is 0.5 micro meter Compare LED and LASER. 34. What is meant by population inversion 35. (a) Draw the structures of edge-emitting LED and surface emitting LED and explain the operation (b) (i)discuss the LASER diode principle, modes and threshold conditions 36. (a) Draw the structure of edge emitting and surface emitting LEDs and explain (b) Discuss the laser diode structures and radiation patterns 37. (a)(i) What is meant by heterojunction? Give example. (ii) Derive the internal quantum efficiency of an LED 38. (b) (i) Explain optical feedback and laser oscillation. 39. (ii) Derive the threshold condition for lasing 40. (a) With neat diagram explain the construction and working of high radiance surface emitting LED. (b) Discuss about modulation of Laser diodes. Why thermoelectric cooler are used in Laser diodes? Unit Define responsivity of photodiode. 42. Define quantum efficiency of a photodetector 43. Define responsivity 44. A given APD has a quantum efficiency of 65 % at a wavelength of 90 nm. If 0.5 micro watt of optical power produces a multiplied photocurrent of 10 micro Ampere, find the multiplication 45. Define long wavelength cutoff of a photodiode 46. What is meant by quantum limit? 47. A photodiode is constructed of GaAs, which has band gap energy of 1.43 ev at 300 K. What is meant by long wavelength cutoff? 48. What are the benefits of a trans-impedance amplifier? M.MAHARAJA, AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

3 49. (a) Draw the schematics of pin photodiode and APD and explain. (b) Explain the fundamental receiver operation in optical communication 50. (a) An InGaAs pin photodiode has the following parameters at a wavelength of 1300 nm : I D = 4 na,? = 0.9, RL = 1000 ohms and the surface leakage current is negligible. The incident optical power is 300 nw (- 35 dbm), and the receiver bandwidth is 20 MHz. Find the various noise terms of the receiver (b) Discuss the performance of digital receiver by defining the probability of error 51. (a) Discuss the principle of operation of APD wiht neat circuit diagram. Also discuss the requirements of photo detector. (b) Discuss the fundamentals of receiver operations with neat block diagram 52. (a) What is known as quantum limit? A digital fiber optic link operating at 850 nm requires a maximum BER of 10*9. Find the minimum incidental optical power Po to achieve this BER at a data rate of 10 Mb/s for a simple binary level signaling scheme. (ry: 1), [1/r : B/2]. (b) Discuss in detail digital receiver performance calculation and sensitivity calculation in detail. Unit List the sysyem requirements neede in analyzing a point -to- point link 54. Write the concept of soliton. 55. What is meant by solitron? 56. What is meant by modal noise? 57. Write the basic concept of solition generation 58. Write the concept of link power budget 59. List the key requirements needed in analyzing a link. 60. Define Modal Noise. 61. (a) Explain various types of fiber splicing techniques and fiber connectors (b) (i) Explain the operational principles of WDM 62. (ii) Explain the rise-time budget. 63. (a) (i) Discuss the operational principles of WDM 64. (ii) Describe the key features of WDM (b) Explain the rise-time budget of a fiber optic point to point link 65. (a) Draw the point-to -point fiber optic link and discuss the system considerations (b) Discuss the principle,requirement and applications of WDM 66.(a) What are the system consideration in point to point links? Explain in detail. (b) Discuss in detail Fiber splicing and connectors. Explain the operation principles of WDM. 1. List out the advantages of optical networks. 2. List out the services offered by II generation optical. 3. List out the key characteristics of optical filter. 4. What is Bragg phase matching condition? 5. Define Free spectral range. 6. Define population inversion. M.MAHARAJA, AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

4 7. What is Stark splitting? 8. Define Extinction ratio? 9. What is the application of optical switches? 10. Why wavelength converters are useful components in WDM networks? PART-B 1. Explain in detail the generation of optical networks (16) 2. Explain the operating principle of Couplers (16) 3. Describe in detail the working principle of isolators and circulators (16) 4. Explain the various grating techniques involved in optical networks (16) 5. Explain the operation of Fabry-perot filters (16) 6. Explain the operation of Mach-zehnder interferometer (16) 7. Explain Acousto-optic tunable filter (16) 8. Explain the operation of Erbium Doped fiber Amplifier (16) 9. Explain the importance of optical switches in networks (16) 10. Write the necessity of wavelength converters in optical networks? (16) UNIT-II SONET AND SDH NETWORKS PART-A 1. What are all the problems suffered by Plesiochronous digital hierarchy? 2. Define virtual tributary in SONET 3. List out the four sizes of virtual tributary. 4. What are the two types of Ring architecture? 5. What is the use of Digital cross connect? 6. What is grooming? 7. What are the classifications of physical layer interfaces for SONET in terms of Loss? 8. Define Ultra long reach systems 9. List the three important blocks of optical layer. 10. What is optical channel? PART-B 1. Discuss in detail about the problems suffered by Plesiochronous digital hierarchy? (16) 2. Explain the Multiplexing structure employed in SONET/SDH network? (16) 3.Explain the elements of SONET/SDH infrastructure? (16) 4. Write short notes on SONET/SDH layers. (16) 5. Write short notes on SONET/SDH Frame. (16) 6. Describe in detail about SONET/SDH Ring Architecture? (16) M.MAHARAJA, AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

5 7. Discuss in detail the Network management systems (16) 8. Illustrate in detail about protection mechanism (16) UNIT- III BROADCAST AND SELECT NETWORK PART-A 1. What are the functions of MAC protocol? 2. When a protocol is named as slotted Aloha/slotted Aloha protocol? 3. List the three different types of traffic classes. 4. What is Class1 traffic? 5. What is Class2 traffic? 6. What is datagram traffic? 7. List the various kinds of broadcast and select test beds. 8. What is the structure of lightning test bed? 9. What is the application of super net test bed? PART-B 1. Explain the various topologies for broadcast networks. (16) 2. Explain in detail About the MDEIA ACCESS PROTOCOL. (16) 3. Explain the various kinds of broadcast and select test beds (16) 4. Write short notes on Traffic classes. (16) UNIT-IV WAVELENGTH ROUTING NETWORKS PART-A 1. When a node is called as add/drop multiplexer node? 2. List the various conversions involved in wavelength add/drop multiplexer. 3. Define online and off line light path. 4. How do you calculate the traffic load in wavelength routing networks? 5. Listout the constraints followed by the wavelength assignment network. 6. What is Africa ONE? 7. What are the two mechanisms implemented in NTT ring test bed? PART-B 1. Describe in detail about node design for wavelength routing networks (16) 2. Explain the various traffic models of wavelength routing networks (16) 3. Discuss about the static network of wavelength routing networks (16) 4. Explain the various routing and wavelength assignment methods (16) 5. Explain the various wavelengths routing test beds M.MAHARAJA, AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

6 UNIT V HIGH CAPACITY NETWORKS PART-A 1. What is the drawback of SDM approach? 2. What is the application area incorporated with High capacity optical network? 3. Differentiate Broadcast OTDM networks with Switch-based OTDM networks 4. What are the components present in nonlinear optical loop mirror? 5. What is terahertz optical asymmetric de-mux? 6. List the various OTDM test beds. PART-B 1. Explain space division multiplexing approach, time division multiplexing approach, and wave length division multiplexing approach (16) 2. Explain the various application areas of optical networks (16) 3. Write short notes on OTDM (16) 4. Explain the synchronization techniques involved in broadcast optical network (16) 5. Explain in detail about Switch based networks. (16) 6. Discuss in detail the various OTDM test beds (16) 7. Explain about Multiplexing & Demultiplexing of OTDM (16) M.MAHARAJA, AP/ECE,Fatima Michael College of Engineering &Technology,Madurai.

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