Bit Error Rate Calculation for Satellite Communication Systems. Martin Dšttling 1, Simon Saunders 2

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Bit Error Rate Calculation for Satellite Communication Systems. Martin Dšttling 1, Simon Saunders 2"

Transcription

1 Bi Error Rae Calculaion for Saellie Communicaion Sysems Marin Dšling, Simon Saunders : Insiu fÿr Hšchsfrequenzechni und Eleroni (IHE) Universiy of Karlsruhe, Kaisersra e, 768 Karlsruhe, Germany Phone: Ê57, Fax: Ê8Ê65 : Cenre of Communicaion Sysem Research (CCSR) Universiy of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GUÊ5XH, Unied Kingdom Phone: , Fax: ABSTRACT Simulaions are mandaory o infer he performance of land mobile saellie (LMS) communicaion sysems. For sysem availabiliy calculaions a versaile wo-level simulaion approach is proposed, which separaes linlevel and sysem-level simulaions []. The former aims a deriving saisics of coded bi error rae (BER) from propagaion models, whereas he laer uses he resuls of he lin-level simulaion o calculae he service availabiliy saisics for dedicaed operaional scenarios. This paper oulines a lin level simulaion ool, which convers ime series of effecive symbol energy per specral noise densiy (E s / ) ino raw BER, coded BER and frame error rae (). The lin-level simulaion includes E s / -o-ber conversion, random bi error generaion, de-inerleaving, error correcion, calculaion of coded BER/, as well as visualisaion of resuls. The sofware is compared o analyical upper and lower bounds on BER/ and resuls in lieraure. Moreover an exemplary lin-level simulaion is performed and discussed. The goal of his conribuion is o approximae he funcion of channel coding wihou using expensive and ime-consuming commercial sysem simulaion pacages. Thus he sofware can be easily inerfaced wih various LMS channel models. LIK-LEVEL SIMULATIO APPROACH The lin-level simulaion is based on ime series of effecive E s / as inpu, which are provided by a LMS propagaion model. For each ime series of inpu daa he mean values of bi energy per specral noise densiy (E b / ), BER and are calculaed. Addiionally saisics of inermediae resuls can be displayed and sored. Fig.Ê depics an overview of he implemenaion. The E s / values are assumed o be provided a channel symbol rae and o include all effecs of sysem noise, muli-user inerference and iner-symbol inerference. Thus E s / is relaed o he signal-o-noise raio by E s ()= B sys S Rs () isi mai + () + (), () R R where S() is he received signal power, sys () he sysem noise, B he noise bandwidh, isi () he equivalen noise due o iner-symbol inerference, mai () he muliuser inerference, R s he channel symbol rae and R c he chiprae for CDMA sysems. This generic definiion allows o invesigae ime division muliple access (TDMA), frequency division muliple access (FDMA) and code division muliple access (CDMA) sysems as well as combinaions of hese access schemes. While for TDMA/FDMA sysem noise will be he limiing facor of E s /, mai is dominan in CDMA sysems. For TDMA/FDMA schemes (R c Ê=ÊR s ) mai represens coand neighbouring channel inerference. Inpu sysem parameers Eb/ ime series general seings Resul: <Eb/ > <BER> <> Fig. : *.ma () s ebnober.m calculaion of raw BER codeword/bi error generaor de-inerleaver linsim.m cwgen.m deinerl.m errcorr.m error correcion (bloc code) calcber.m calculaion of coded BER/ c *.ma oupu.m Plo *.ma oupu.m Plo *.ma oupu.m Overview of he lin level simulaion Plo Eb/ saisics raw BER saisics coded BER/ saisics

2 The corresponding informaion bi energy per specral noise densiy (E b / ) is calculaed according o he modulaion index M and he code rae RÊ=Ê/n: Eb ()= R log M Es. () For BPSK and QPSK he raw bi error rae BER r is obained by [] BER r Eb erfc. (3) ()= The codeword generaor deermines he number of bis for each ime sep, generaes he corresponding number of codewords of size bpcw bis and generaes random bi errors according o he acual value of BER r (). Subsequenly, he bis are de-inerleaved using a bloc deinerleaver wih user-defined parameers bloc lengh and inerleaving deph. The implemenaion of coding and error correcion follows a sraighforward sraegy: for each codeword a maximum of m e bi errors are correced, where m e = ( d ) min (4) wih d min denoing he minimum Hamming disance of he bloc code. A main advanage of his approach is ha i simply based on d min, which is abulaed for various codes in open lieraure, e.êg. []. I requires no deailed nowledge of he code's properies (e.êg. ransfer funcion, sae diagram, or weigh disribuion). The mean BER and mean afer decoding is now approximaed by simply couning all remaining bi or frame errors. oe ha he decoder may decide for he correc codeword even if he number of bi errors n e is greaer han m e. Thus (4) leads o an upper bound of BER/. COMPARISO WITH AALYTICAL BOUDS O BER Bloc Codes The performance of he above simulaion approach is invesigaed by comparisons wih analyical upper bounds on. Several bounds for bloc coding can be found in [] and are lised here for convenience. For hard decision decoding he is calculaed by () n n m BER b m = e, (5) ( n m) BERb, () b,, m m ( ) where BER R E b b, ()= erfc. (6) Eq.Ê5 holds wih equaliy for perfec codes. A pair of lower and upper bounds based on d min is given by: b, () dmin d m= min + dmin m BERb, m, (7) ( dmin m) ( BERb, () ) b, 3 b, () A furher upper bound is b, 4 ( ) ( ). (8) () [ 4 BERb, () ( BERb, () )] For sof decision decoding may be used. b, 5 ( ) () Eb erfc R dmin dmin. (9) () Wihou in-deph nowledge of he code srucure, he BER for he bloc codes can no be obained. However, he mean BER can be approximaed assuming for each frame error half of he codeword bis o be in error. Thus BER b,i Ê Ê.5nÊáÊ b,i. These analyical bounds are compared o he simulaion approach oulined above. To allow comparisons wih lieraure, he Golay(3,) code is used, which is a perfec code. Fig. shows ha he simulaion is in excellen agreemen wih he exac expression (5). However, he simulaion considers he effec of inerleaving, which is no included in he analyical expression. In his example, he emporal sampling resuls in a minimum resolvable of 3ÊáÊ -4 for he simulaion, which explains he sligh deviaions from he exac soluion for low.

3 Frame Error Rae Fig. : Eb/ in db exac, Eq. 5 upper bound, Eq. 7 lower bound, Eq. 8 upper bound, Eq. 9 upper bound, Eq. simulaion simulaion and analyical bounds for he (3,) Golay bloc code Convoluional Codes For convoluional codes wih nown ransfer funcion an upper bound on he BER for sof decision Vierbi decoding is derived in []: BER R d E b c, d erfc ()< β, () d= d free where β d is a facor obained from he derivaive of he code ransfer funcion []. For large E b / values he asympoic performance is given by βd free Eb BERc, ()< erfc R dfree () If he code ransfer funcion is no nown he convoluional channel coding heorem may be used [], [3] which yields he ensemble average error rae of a convoluional code on a discree memoryless channel: ( ) [ ] KR ()/ R BERc, 3()< R R (), (3) ( R ( ) R)/ R Alhough our simulaion ool is based on a bloc-coding approach, i is applied o convoluional codes for comparison purposes. Therefore "equivalen" bloc codes are searched by assuming ha d min Ê Êd free. The codeword lengh n is approximaed by he Ploin upper bound and he Gilber-Varsharmow lower bound, which yield a lower bound n min and upper bound n max, respecively []. Fig. 3 depics he BER predicions for a RÊ=Ê/3, KÊ=Ê3 convoluional code. For his code he ransfer funcion is given in [], which allows o calculae also he upper bound in (). For he simulaion a RÊ=Ê/3, d min Ê=Ê8 bloc code wih n max Ê=Ê46 or n min Ê=Ê4 is used. The minimum resolvable BER is ÊáÊ -5. For shor convoluional codes he convoluional channel-coding heorem (3) is a very loose upper bound and can no be used for sysem simulaion. The asympoic bound () differs from he igh upper bound () for E b / less han 5ÊdB and should herefore only be used for higher values. However, if he code ransfer funcion is no nown, () is he only possible analyical bound. Fig. 3 shows ha he simulaion based on he "equivalen" bloc code wih n max ouperforms () for low E b /. The n min curve is oo opimisic. A similar comparison is performed for a RÊ=Ê3/4, KÊ=Ê7 convoluional code, as i is used by Iridium (Fig. 4). The firs five erms of he weigh disribuion for his code are aen ino accoun for he calculaion of () [4]. The resul agrees exacly wih lieraure [5]. The simulaion is again closer o he igh upper bound of () han he asympoic curve () for E b / less han 5ÊdB. The above comparison show ha he simulaion approach, alhough based on bloc coding algorihms, can also be used for convoluional coding, and is able o provide realisic and igh upper bounds on BER. This is especially imporan for low E b / values, which resul in coded BERÊ Ê -3 and in cases, where he exac code ransfer funcion is no nown. Addiionally, in conras o he analyical bounds, he effec of de-inerleaving is considered in he simulaion. - where K is he consrain lengh and R is he cu-off rae defined in [], [3]: R R E b log e. (4) ()= + Unforunaely, () holds no for small E b / values, where RÊ>ÊR (). Bi Error Rae Eb/ in db Eq. Eq. Eq. 3 simulaion, nmin simulaion, nmax Fig. 3: BER predicions for a RÊ=Ê/3, KÊ=Ê3 convoluional code

4 - Table : Simulaion parameers Bi Error Rae Eb/ in db Fig. 4: Eq. Eq. Eq. 3 simulaion, nmin simulaion, nmax BER predicions for a RÊ=Ê3/4, KÊ=Ê7 convoluional code (Iridium) RESULTS AD APPLICATIO As an applicaion he lin-level simulaion ool is used o calculae coded BER saisics for an exemplary simulaion run of he Iridium sysem in a rural area. Fig. 5 shows opography, land use and mobile rajecory. The landscape in he proximiy of Karlsruhe, Germany shows a ypical non-urban mixure of errain and land use elemens. The mobile rajecory is depiced as a whie arrow: i sars in he hilly area and eners he Rhine Valley, passing foresed, open and buil-up areas. Two differen operaional scenarios are considered: a high-speed applicaion (e.êg. high-speed rain) wih mean mobile velociy of 6m/s and a pedesrian waling a m/s. The simulaion used he LMS propagaion model, which is described in deail in [6], [7]. For boh scenarios hree E b / ime series are calculaed and compared, assuming: a) no power conrol (), b) power conrol (), and c) power conrol and saellie handover o miigae shadowing (Ê+ÊHO). open/agriculure meadow deciduous fores coniferous fores dense urban m m urban indusrial sree waer mobile pah heigh in m 3 mean mobile speed pedesrian scenario m/s high-speed scenario 6m/s ime resoluion ms 5ms sar Ð climax Ð end elevaion of visible saellies signalling delay power conrol saellie handover <8 ÊÐÊ39.6 ÊÐÊ Ð 3. Ð <8.9 Ð.9 Ð <8 <8 Ð.9 Ð ÊÐÊ45.8 ÊÐÊ Ð 5.5 Ð <8 x round rip ime 5ms processing ime 3-bi power conrol ±db dynamic range updae inerval >5ms 6dB hyseresis updae inerval >5ms The effec of signalling delay on power conrol and handover efficiency is included in he simulaions. TableÊ liss he main simulaion parameers; a comprehensive descripion of he power conrol and handover simulaion algorihm is given in [8]. The Iridium mobile lin parameers of [9] are used. A arge value of E b / Ê=Ê8.dB is assumed for line-of-sigh [9]. The resuling E b / ime series for he pedesrian and high-speed applicaion are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, respecively. For he pedesrian scenario, fading and ligh shadowing can be power conrolled; saellie handover allows o miigae some of he blocages (especially beween Ê=Ê3s and Ê=Ê45s). For he high-speed scenario, however, power conrol and handover are inefficien, since he channel sae has already changed before a sysem reacion (which is subjec o he signalling delay) occurs. Fig. 8 shows he corresponding hisograms and Fig. 9 he complemenary cumulaive disribuion funcions (CCDF). For he calculaion of he coded BER, () and () are used. An addiional modem implemenaion loss of db is considered [9]. The resuling CCDFs for () are depiced in Fig. and numerical values are given in TableÊ. Fig. 5: Topography, land use and mobile rajecory in he Rhine Valley near Karlsruhe, souhern Germany In he pedesrian scenario, he arge BER of - is exceeded by 45.4% wihou power conrol and by 9.% if power conrol is considered. This indicaes ha linlevel simulaions mus include he effec of power conrol o yield realisic BER saisics. Furhermore, i

5 is obvious ha he difference beween BER wih and wihou power conrol diminishes as he mobile speed increases. For he high-speed scenario his difference is only around %. Considering he differen curves obained for he differen mobile speeds, i can be concluded ha he simulaion is also sensiive o he consideraion of mobile speed and signalling delay. Saellie handover reduces he probabiliy of exceeding he arge BER from 9.% o.7% in he pedesrian applicaion. The handover rae is 5ÊáÊ - Hz. For he high-speed applicaion, saellie handover is no appropriae o miigae shadowing: in his paricular case, he mean BER increases. This can be explained as follows: due o he signalling delay and he high mobile speed, he channel sae o he differen saellies have already changed a handover compleion ime. Thus erroneous handover occur, i.êe. handover ha lead o a communicaion via a sub-opimal saellie. Table compares he difference beween he asympoic formula () and he upper bound of (), including he firs five erms of he code weigh disribuion. The asympoic formula is oo opimisic wih relaive errors in mean BER up o 53%. COCLUSIO A simulaion sofware o obain coded BER/ from ime series of E s / is oulined. I compares analyical upper and lower bounds on BER/ o values calculaed by a simulaion sofware. Major advanages of he simulaion sofware are he applicabiliy for low E s / values and ha no deailed informaion on he code srucure is necessary. Lin-level simulaions are performed for he Iridium mobile lin, which indicae ha mobile speed, power conrol and handover sraegies mus be included in LMS sysem simulaion, since he PDF of E b / and as a resul he CDF of coded BER are very sensiive o his parameers. Furhermore, he probabiliy densiy of E b / does no follow simple analyical disribuions, which highlighs he necessiy of realisic ime series simulaion. ACKOWLEDGEMETS Pars of his wor were carried ou while M. Dšling was visiing he CCSR, Universiy of Surrey. M. Dšling graefully acnowledges he funding by he Commission of he European Communiies in he framewor of COSTÊ55, which made his wor possible. REECES [] S. Saunders, "Mobile Projec Group Simulaion Approach Definiion", COST 55 Radiowave Propagaion Modelling for ew SaCom Services a Ku-Band and above, oordwij, The eherlands, CP639, Ocober, 998 [] J. G. Proais, Digial Communicaions, Third Ediion, McGraw-Hill, Inc., ew Yor, 995 [3] A. J. Vierbi, J. K. Omura, Principles of Digial Communicaions and Coding, McGraw-Hill, Inc., ew Yor, 979 [4] D. Haccoun, G. BŽgin, "High-Rae Puncured Convoluional Codes for Vierbi and Sequenial Decoding," IEEE Trans. on Communicaions, vol. 37, no., pp.ê3-5, 989 [5] J. B. Cain, G. C Clar, Jr., J. M. Geis, "Puncured convoluional codes of Rae (n-)/n and Simplified Maximum Lielihood Decoding," IEEE Trans. on Informaion Theory, vol. IT-5, no., pp.ê97-, 979 [6] IMST, DLR, IHE, Land Mobile Saellie Propagaion Model for on-urban Areas, Final Repor, European Space Agency Conrac o. AO/-3/96L/B, March, 998. [7] M. Dšling, A. Jahn, J. Kunisch, S. Buonomo, "A Versaile Channel Simulaor for Land Mobile Saellie Applicaions," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. VTC'98, 998, pp.ê3-7. [8] M. Dšling, T. Zwic, W. Wiesbec, "Invesigaion of Saellie Diversiy and Handover Sraegies in Land Mobile Saellie Sysems based on a Ray Tracing Propagaion Model," acceped for publicaion in Proc. Sixh In. Mobile Saellie Conf. IMSC'99, Oawa, Canada, 999, in press [9] J. Habeha, "Simulaion Tes Case 6: IRIDIUM Mobile Lin L-Band Sysem Requiremens", COST 55 Radiowave Propagaion Modelling for ew SaCom Services a Ku-Band and above, oordwij, The eherlands, CP636, Ocober, 998

6 Eb/ in db ime in s + HO Fig. 6: E b / ime series for he pedesrian scenario Eb/ in db ime in s + HO Fig. 7: E b / ime series for he high-speed scenario.. percenage of ime HO percenage of ime HO Eb/ in db Eb/ in db Fig. 8: Hisogram of E b / for pedesrian (lef) and high-speed (righ) scenario

7 probabiliy Eb/ > abscissa HO Eb/ in db probabiliy Eb/ > abscissa HO Eb/ in db Fig. 9: CCDF of E b / for pedesrian (lef) and high-speed (righ) scenario probabiliy BER > abscissa HO coded BER probabiliy BER > abscissa HO coded BER Fig. : CCDF of coded BER for pedesrian (lef) and high-speed (righ) scenario Table : Simulaion resuls pedesrian scenario high-speed scenario Eq.Ê Eq.Ê Eq.Ê Eq.Ê mean coded BER.3ÊáÊ -.33ÊáÊ -.9ÊáÊ -.48ÊáÊ - 3.9áÊ -.76ÊáÊ -.36ÊáÊ -.ÊáÊ - + HO 5.66ÊáÊ -3 4.ÊáÊ -3.5ÊáÊ -.5ÊáÊ - probabiliy coded BERÊ>Ê % 36.5% 4.% 34.% 9.% 7.% 9.6% 6.% + HO.7%.% 3.5% 8.6% probabiliy coded BERÊ>Ê % 44.% 44.7% 4.%.% 8.7% 3.6% 8.6% + HO.%.5% 35.3% 3.6%

The Influence of Propagation Environment in a Live GSM Network

The Influence of Propagation Environment in a Live GSM Network The Influence of Propagaion Environmen in a ive GSM Nework Yu-Huei Tseng, Wen-Shyang Hwang, *Ce-Kuen Shieh Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering, Naional Kaohsiung Universiy of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung,

More information

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals CS4/MSc Compuer Neworking Lecure 11 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Compuer Neworking, Copyrigh Universiy of Edinburgh 2005 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Neworks consruced ou of Links or ransmission

More information

Signal Characteristics

Signal Characteristics Signal Characerisics Analog Signals Analog signals are always coninuous (here are no ime gaps). The signal is of infinie resoluion. Discree Time Signals SignalCharacerisics.docx 8/28/08 10:41 AM Page 1

More information

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications Because of he grea number of indusrial buses now available he majoriy of indusrial measuremen echnology applicaions sill calls for he sandard analog curren nework. The reason for his lies in he fac ha

More information

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009 ECMA-373 2 nd Ediion / June 2012 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Reference number ECMA-123:2009 Ecma Inernaional 2009 COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT Ecma Inernaional 2012 Conens Page 1 Scope...

More information

Wrap Up. Fourier Transform Sampling, Modulation, Filtering Noise and the Digital Abstraction Binary signaling model and Shannon Capacity

Wrap Up. Fourier Transform Sampling, Modulation, Filtering Noise and the Digital Abstraction Binary signaling model and Shannon Capacity Wrap Up Fourier ransorm Sampling, Modulaion, Filering Noise and he Digial Absracion Binary signaling model and Shannon Capaciy Copyrigh 27 by M.H. Perro All righs reserved. M.H. Perro 27 Wrap Up, Slide

More information

Mobile Communications Chapter 3 : Media Access

Mobile Communications Chapter 3 : Media Access Moivaion Can we apply media access mehods from fixed neworks? Mobile Communicaions Chaper 3 : Media Access Moivaion SDMA, FDMA, TDMA Aloha Reservaion schemes Collision avoidance, MACA Polling CDMA SAMA

More information

Transmit Beamforming with Reduced Feedback Information in OFDM Based Wireless Systems

Transmit Beamforming with Reduced Feedback Information in OFDM Based Wireless Systems Transmi Beamforming wih educed Feedback Informaion in OFDM Based Wireless Sysems Seung-Hyeon Yang, Jae-Yun Ko, and Yong-Hwan Lee School of Elecrical Engineering and INMC, Seoul Naional Universiy Kwanak

More information

Universal microprocessor-based ON/OFF and P programmable controller MS8122A MS8122B

Universal microprocessor-based ON/OFF and P programmable controller MS8122A MS8122B COMPETENCE IN MEASUREMENT Universal microprocessor-based ON/OFF and P programmable conroller MS8122A MS8122B TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND INSTRUCTION FOR USE PLOVDIV 2003 1 I. TECHNICAL DATA Analog inpus

More information

Table of Contents. 3.0 SMPS Topologies. For Further Research. 3.1 Basic Components. 3.2 Buck (Step Down) 3.3 Boost (Step Up) 3.4 Inverter (Buck/Boost)

Table of Contents. 3.0 SMPS Topologies. For Further Research. 3.1 Basic Components. 3.2 Buck (Step Down) 3.3 Boost (Step Up) 3.4 Inverter (Buck/Boost) Table of Conens 3.0 SMPS Topologies 3.1 Basic Componens 3.2 Buck (Sep Down) 3.3 Boos (Sep Up) 3.4 nverer (Buck/Boos) 3.5 Flyback Converer 3.6 Curren Boosed Boos 3.7 Curren Boosed Buck 3.8 Forward Converer

More information

MAP-AIDED POSITIONING SYSTEM

MAP-AIDED POSITIONING SYSTEM Paper Code: F02I131 MAP-AIDED POSITIONING SYSTEM Forssell, Urban 1 Hall, Peer 1 Ahlqvis, Sefan 1 Gusafsson, Fredrik 2 1 NIRA Dynamics AB, Sweden; 2 Linköpings universie, Sweden Keywords Posiioning; Navigaion;

More information

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras ECEN 44 Communicaion Theory Chaper Summary: Coninuous-Wave Modulaion.1 Modulaion Modulaion is a process in which a parameer of a carrier waveform is varied in accordance wih a given message (baseband)

More information

When answering the following 25 questions, always remember that there is someone who has to grade them. So please use legible handwriting.

When answering the following 25 questions, always remember that there is someone who has to grade them. So please use legible handwriting. 38963, VU Mobile Kommunikaion Miderm Exam: Insiu für Nachrichenechnik und Hochfrequenzechnik When answering he following 5 quesions, always remember ha here is someone who has o grade hem So please use

More information

Adaptive Antenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission

Adaptive Antenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission Adapive Anenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission Shinsuke Hara Deparmen of Elecronics, Informaion Sysem And Energy Engineering, Graduae School of Engineering, Osaka Universiy Conens of This Presenaion

More information

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester Memorandum on Impulse Winding Teser. Esimaion of Inducance by Impulse Response When he volage response is observed afer connecing an elecric charge sored up in he capaciy C o he coil L (including he inside

More information

Foreign Fiber Image Segmentation Based on Maximum Entropy and Genetic Algorithm

Foreign Fiber Image Segmentation Based on Maximum Entropy and Genetic Algorithm Journal of Compuer and Communicaions, 215, 3, 1-7 Published Online November 215 in SciRes. hp://www.scirp.org/journal/jcc hp://dx.doi.org/1.4236/jcc.215.3111 Foreign Fiber Image Segmenaion Based on Maximum

More information

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter 160 Journal of Power Elecronics, Vol. 5, No. 2, April 2005 JPE 5-2-9 A Harmonic Circulaion Curren Reducion Mehod for Parallel Operaion of U wih a Three-Phase Inverer Kyung-Hwan Kim, Wook-Dong Kim * and

More information

Negative frequency communication

Negative frequency communication Negaive frequency communicaion Fanping DU Email: dufanping@homail.com Qing Huo Liu arxiv:2.43v5 [cs.it] 26 Sep 2 Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Duke Universiy Email: Qing.Liu@duke.edu Absrac

More information

the next step in tyre modeling

the next step in tyre modeling Igo Besselink Applicaions of SWIFT-Tyre: he nex sep in yre modeling TNO Auomoive TNO Auomoive: applicaions of SWIFT-Tyre November 2001 1 Conens Relaion beween MDI and TNO Auomoive New developmens for ADAMS

More information

BOUNCER CIRCUIT FOR A 120 MW/370 KV SOLID STATE MODULATOR

BOUNCER CIRCUIT FOR A 120 MW/370 KV SOLID STATE MODULATOR BOUNCER CIRCUIT FOR A 120 MW/370 KV SOLID STATE MODULATOR D. Gerber, J. Biela Laboraory for High Power Elecronic Sysems ETH Zurich, Physiksrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Swizerland Email: gerberdo@ehz.ch This

More information

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications Opical phase locked loop for ransparen iner-saellie communicaions F. Herzog 1, K. Kudielka 2,D.Erni 1 and W. Bächold 1 1 Communicaion Phoonics Group, Laboraory for Elecromagneic Fields and Microwave Elecronics,

More information

Architectures for Resource Reservation Modules for Optical Burst Switching Core Nodes *

Architectures for Resource Reservation Modules for Optical Burst Switching Core Nodes * 4. ITG-Fachagung Phoonic Neworks, May 5. - 6., 2003, Leipzig, Germany Archiecures for Resource Reservaion Modules for Opical Burs Swiching Core Nodes * Sascha Junghans, Chrisoph M. Gauger Universiy of

More information

Programmable DC Electronic Load 8600 Series

Programmable DC Electronic Load 8600 Series Daa Shee Programmable DC Elecronic Load The programmable DC elecronic loads provide he performance of modular sysem DC elecronic loads in a compac benchop form facor. Wih fas ransien operaion speeds and

More information

Generating Polar Modulation with R&S SMU200A

Generating Polar Modulation with R&S SMU200A Rohde & Schwarz producs: SMU00 Generaing Polar Modulaion wih R&S SMU00 Polar modulaion is a mehod where digial modulaion is realized as a combinaion of phase and ampliude modulaion, raher han using an

More information

A New Voltage Sag and Swell Compensator Switched by Hysteresis Voltage Control Method

A New Voltage Sag and Swell Compensator Switched by Hysteresis Voltage Control Method Proceedings of he 8h WSEAS Inernaional Conference on ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS, HIGH VOLTAGES, ELECTRIC MACHINES (POWER '8) A New Volage Sag and Swell Compensaor Swiched by Hyseresis Volage Conrol Mehod AMIR

More information

A Bidirectional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converter With Dual Asymmetrical PWM Method

A Bidirectional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converter With Dual Asymmetrical PWM Method A Bidirecional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converer Wih Dual Asymmeral PWM Mehod Minho Kwon, Junsung Par, Sewan Choi, IEEE Senior Member Deparmen of Elecral and Informaion Engineering Seoul Naional Universiy

More information

Errata and Updates for ASM Exam MLC (Fourteenth Edition) Sorted by Page

Errata and Updates for ASM Exam MLC (Fourteenth Edition) Sorted by Page Erraa for ASM Exam MLC Sudy Manual (Foureenh Ediion) Sored by Page 1 Erraa and Updaes for ASM Exam MLC (Foureenh Ediion) Sored by Page Pracice Exam 7:25 (page 1386) is defecive, Pracice Exam 5:21 (page

More information

Demodulation Based Testing of Off Chip Driver Performance

Demodulation Based Testing of Off Chip Driver Performance Demodulaion Based Tesing of Off Driver Performance Wilfried Daehn Hochschule Magdeburg-Sendahl Fachbereich Elekroechnik Posfach 368 39 Magdeburg Phone: ++49 39 886 4673 Fa: ++49 39 886 426 Email: wilfried.daehn@compuer.org

More information

TRANSMITTING CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE IMAGES WITH WIRELESS LAN AND SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS

TRANSMITTING CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE IMAGES WITH WIRELESS LAN AND SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING- TRANSMITTING CAPSULE ENDOSCOPE IMAGES WITH WIRELESS LAN AND SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS SHAOU-GANG MIAOU 1, SHIANN-SHIUN JENG, CHEN-WAN TSUNG, CHIH-HONG HSIAO 1, TAH-YEONG LIN 3 1 Deparmen

More information

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking 25 American Conrol Conference June 8-, 25. Porland, OR, USA ThA7.2 Auo-Tuning of PID Conrollers via Exremum Seeking Nick illingsworh* and Miroslav rsić Deparmen of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

More information

Ultrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Sections of Distributed Clutter

Ultrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Sections of Distributed Clutter Ulrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Secions o Disribued Cluer Ram M. Narayanan Deparmen o Elecrical Engineering The Pennsylvania Sae Universiy Universiy Park, PA 68, USA ram@engr.psu.edu Absrac Theoreical

More information

PLL Hardware Design and Software Simulation using the 32-bit version of SystemView by ELANIX Stephen Kratzet, ELANIX, Inc.

PLL Hardware Design and Software Simulation using the 32-bit version of SystemView by ELANIX Stephen Kratzet, ELANIX, Inc. Applicaion Noe AN14A Apr 8, 1997 SysemView B Y E L A N I X PLL Hardware Design and Sofware Simulaion using he 32-bi version of SysemView by ELANIX Sephen Kraze, ELANIX, Inc. Inroducion This applicaion

More information

A3-305 EVALUATION OF FAILURE DATA OF HV CIRCUIT-BREAKERS FOR CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE. F. Heil ABB Schweiz AG (Switzerland)

A3-305 EVALUATION OF FAILURE DATA OF HV CIRCUIT-BREAKERS FOR CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE. F. Heil ABB Schweiz AG (Switzerland) 21, rue d'arois, F-75008 Paris hp://www.cigre.org A3-305 Session 2004 CIGRÉ EVALUATION OF FAILURE DATA OF HV CIRCUIT-BREAKERS FOR CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE G. Balzer * D. Drescher Darmsad Universiy of

More information

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones DATA BULLETIN MX629 DELTA MODULATION CODEC mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Feaures Mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Single Chip Full Duplex CVSD CODEC On-chip Inpu and Oupu Filers Programmable Sampling Clocks 3- or 4-bi Companding

More information

Estimating Transfer Functions with SigLab

Estimating Transfer Functions with SigLab APPLICATION NOTE Esimaing Transfer Funcions wih SigLab Accurae ransfer funcion esimaion of linear, noise-free, dynamic sysems is an easy ask for DSPT SigLab. Ofen, however, he sysem being analyzed is noisy

More information

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER INTRODUCTION: Being able o ransmi a radio frequency carrier across space is of no use unless we can place informaion or inelligence upon i. This las ransmier

More information

Distributed Multi-robot Exploration and Mapping

Distributed Multi-robot Exploration and Mapping 1 Disribued Muli-robo Exploraion and Mapping Dieer Fox Jonahan Ko Kur Konolige Benson Limkekai Dirk Schulz Benjamin Sewar Universiy of Washingon, Deparmen of Compuer Science & Engineering, Seale, WA 98195

More information

HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA-1 IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION

HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA-1 IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION VOL., NO. 5, MARCH 26 ISSN 89-668 26-26 Asian Research Publishing Nework (ARPN). All righs reserved. HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA- IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION Shamsiah Bini Suhaili

More information

Extending the Reach of Short-Reach Optical Interconnects with DSP-Free Direct-Detection

Extending the Reach of Short-Reach Optical Interconnects with DSP-Free Direct-Detection his aricle has been acceped for publicaion in a fuure issue of his journal, bu has no been fully edied. Conen may change prior o final publicaion. Ciaion informaion: DOI.9/JL.., Journal of Exending he

More information

ON PERFORMANCE BOUNDS FOR MIMO OFDM BASED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. Stefan Schwarz, Michal Šimko and Markus Rupp

ON PERFORMANCE BOUNDS FOR MIMO OFDM BASED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. Stefan Schwarz, Michal Šimko and Markus Rupp ON PERFORMANCE BOUNDS FOR MIMO OFDM BASED WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Sefan Schwarz, Michal Šimko and Markus Rupp Insiue of Telecommunicaions, Vienna Universiy of Technology Gusshaussrasse 5/389, A-1

More information

Chapter 2. The Physical Layer

Chapter 2. The Physical Layer Chaper 2 The Physical Layer The Physical Layer Defines he mechanical, elecrical and iming inerfaces o he nework Transmission media - guided (copper and fiber opics) - wireless (radio erresrial) - saellie

More information

Power losses in pulsed voltage source inverters/rectifiers with sinusoidal currents

Power losses in pulsed voltage source inverters/rectifiers with sinusoidal currents ree-wheeling diode Turn-off power dissipaion: off/d = f s * E off/d (v d, i LL, T j/d ) orward power dissipaion: fw/t = 1 T T 1 v () i () d Neglecing he load curren ripple will resul in: fw/d = i Lavg

More information

EE558 - Digital Communications

EE558 - Digital Communications EE558 - Digial Communicaions Lecure 1: Inroducion & Overview Dr. Duy Nguyen Ouline 1 Course Informaion 2 Inroducion o Digial Communicaions Course Informaion 2 Adminisraion Hours and Locaion Lecures: TTH

More information

Mach Zehnder Interferometer for Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Mach Zehnder Interferometer for Wavelength Division Multiplexing Mach Zehnder nerferomeer for Wavelengh Division Muliplexing Ary Syahriar Pusa Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi nformasi dan Elekronika Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi e-mail : ary@inn.bpp.go.id

More information

UNIT IV DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME

UNIT IV DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME UNI IV DIGIAL MODULAION SCHEME Geomeric Represenaion of Signals Ojecive: o represen any se of M energy signals {s i (} as linear cominaions of N orhogonal asis funcions, where N M Real value energy signals

More information

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH Progress In Elecromagneics Research Leers, Vol. 21, 129 137, 2011 A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH S. Ononchimeg, G. Ogonbaaar, J.-H. Bang, and B.-C. Ahn Applied Elecromagneics

More information

Introduction to OFDM

Introduction to OFDM E225C Lecure 16 OFDM Inroducion EE225C Inroducion o OFDM asic idea» Using a large number o parallel narrow-band subcarriers insead o a single wide-band carrier o ranspor inormaion Advanages» Very easy

More information

Notes on the Fourier Transform

Notes on the Fourier Transform Noes on he Fourier Transform The Fourier ransform is a mahemaical mehod for describing a coninuous funcion as a series of sine and cosine funcions. The Fourier Transform is produced by applying a series

More information

Anti-Jamming Schedules for Wireless Data Broadcast Systems

Anti-Jamming Schedules for Wireless Data Broadcast Systems Ani-Jamming Schedules for Wireless Daa Broadcas Sysems Paolo Codenoi 1, Alexander Sprinson, and Jehoshua Bruck Absrac Modern sociey is heavily dependen on wireless neworks for providing voice and daa communicaions.

More information

OPERATION MANUAL. Indoor unit for air to water heat pump system and options EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1

OPERATION MANUAL. Indoor unit for air to water heat pump system and options EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1 OPERAION MANUAL Indoor uni for air o waer hea pump sysem and opions EKHBRD011ADV1 EKHBRD014ADV1 EKHBRD016ADV1 EKHBRD011ADY1 EKHBRD014ADY1 EKHBRD016ADY1 EKHBRD011ADV1+Y1 EKHBRD014ADV1+Y1 EKHBRD016ADV1+Y1

More information

Analog Baseband Communication Systems. Digital Baseband Communication Systems

Analog Baseband Communication Systems. Digital Baseband Communication Systems EE 421: Communicaions I Dr. Mohammed Hawa Inroducion o Digial Baseband Communicaion Sysems For more informaion: read Chapers 1, 6 and 7 in your exbook or visi hp://wikipedia.org/. Remember ha communicaion

More information

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors 8 Explanaion of Maximum Raings and Characerisics for Thyrisors Inroducion Daa shees for s and riacs give vial informaion regarding maximum raings and characerisics of hyrisors. If he maximum raings of

More information

RITEC, Inc. 60 Alhambra Rd., Suite 5 Warwick, RI (401) FAX (401) Powerful Ultrasonic Research Tool. A Modular Approach

RITEC, Inc. 60 Alhambra Rd., Suite 5 Warwick, RI (401) FAX (401) Powerful Ultrasonic Research Tool. A Modular Approach RITEC RAM-5 Versaile Compuer Conrolled Ulrasonic Sysem: Modular Approach allows Cusomizaion o Specific Experimenal Requiremens. High Power RF Burs Oupus as high as 5 kilowas for frequencies o 7 MHz. Three

More information

On the Security of Angle of Arrival Estimation

On the Security of Angle of Arrival Estimation On he Securiy of Angle of Arrival Esimaion Amr Abdelaziz, C. Emre Koksal and Hesham El Gamal Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering The Ohio Sae Universiy Columbus, Ohio 43201 arxiv:1607.00467v1

More information

EECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler

EECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler EECE 3 Signals & Sysems Prof. Mark Fowler Noe Se #8 C-T Sysems: Frequency-Domain Analysis of Sysems Reading Assignmen: Secion 5.2 of Kamen and Heck /2 Course Flow Diagram The arrows here show concepual

More information

Sound. Audio DSP. Sound Volume. Sinusoids and Sound: Amplitude

Sound. Audio DSP. Sound Volume. Sinusoids and Sound: Amplitude Sound Ampliude and Loudness Audio DSP Professor Deepa Kundur Universiy of Torono Sound: vibraion ransmied hrough a medium (gas, liquid, solid and plasma) composed of frequencies capable of being deeced

More information

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes Noes CHAPTER CONTENTS 9. Line Coding 9. inary Line Codes 9. ipolar and iphase Line Codes 9.. AMI 9... inary N Zero Subsiuion 9..3 lock Line Codes 9.3 M-ary Correlaion Codes 9.3. Q 9.3. Correlaion Coding

More information

ECE3204 Microelectronics II Bitar / McNeill. ECE 3204 / Term D-2017 Problem Set 7

ECE3204 Microelectronics II Bitar / McNeill. ECE 3204 / Term D-2017 Problem Set 7 EE3204 Microelecronics II Biar / McNeill Due: Monday, May 1, 2017 EE 3204 / Term D-2017 Problem Se 7 All ex problems from Sedra and Smih, Microelecronic ircuis, 7h ediion. NOTES: Be sure your NAME and

More information

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.)

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.) The Mah Projecs Journal Page 1 PROJECT MISSION o MArs inroducion Many sae mah sandards and mos curricula involving quadraic equaions require sudens o solve "falling objec" or "projecile" problems, which

More information

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering COMM 704: Communicaion Lecure : Analog Mulipliers Dr Mohamed Abd El Ghany Dr. Mohamed Abd El Ghany, Mohamed.abdel-ghany@guc.edu.eg nroducion Nonlinear operaions on coninuous-valued analog signals are ofen

More information

A New Measurement Method of the Dynamic Contact Resistance of HV Circuit Breakers

A New Measurement Method of the Dynamic Contact Resistance of HV Circuit Breakers A New Measuremen Mehod of he Dynamic Conac Resisance of HV Circui Breakers M. Landry*, A. Mercier, G. Ouelle, C. Rajoe, J. Caron, M. Roy Hydro-Québec Fouad Brikci Zensol Auomaion Inc. (CANADA) Inroducion

More information

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit Elecronicsab.nb 1. he Series esisor and Inducor Circui Inroducion he las laboraory involved a resisor, and capacior, C in series wih a baery swich on or off. I was simpler, as a pracical maer, o replace

More information

Efficient burst assembly algorithm with traffic prediction

Efficient burst assembly algorithm with traffic prediction Efficien burs assembly algorihm wih raffic predicion Mmoloki Mangwala, Boyce B. Sigweni and Bakhe M. Nleya Deparmen of compuer science Norh Wes Universiy, Privae Bag X2046, Mmabaho, 2735 Tel: +27 8 3892,

More information

Evaluation of the Digital images of Penaeid Prawns Species Using Canny Edge Detection and Otsu Thresholding Segmentation

Evaluation of the Digital images of Penaeid Prawns Species Using Canny Edge Detection and Otsu Thresholding Segmentation Inernaional Associaion of Scienific Innovaion and Research (IASIR) (An Associaion Unifying he Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research) Inernaional Journal of Emerging Technologies in Compuaional and

More information

USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR

USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR Douglas Hulber Mahemaics Deparmen Norfol Sae Universiy 700 Par Avenue Uni 483 Norfol VA 3504-8060 dhulber@nsu.edu Inroducion. Digial imaging algorihms developed

More information

Solid-state Multi-functional Timer

Solid-state Multi-functional Timer Solid-sae Muli-funcional Timer Eigh operaing modes (H3DE-M) and four operaing modes (H3DE-S) cover a wide range of applicaions. Programmable conac enables he building of a self-holding relay circui (-

More information

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller IDL - Inernaional Digial Library Of Available a:www.dbpublicaions.org 8 h Naional Conference on Advanced Techniques in Elecrical and Elecronics Engineering Inernaional e-journal For Technology And Research-2017

More information

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1 How o Shoren Firs Order Uni Tesing Time Pior Mróz 1 1 Universiy of Zielona Góra, Faculy of Elecrical Engineering, Compuer Science and Telecommunicaions, ul. Podgórna 5, 65-246, Zielona Góra, Poland, phone

More information

The IMU/UWB Fusion Positioning Algorithm Based on a Particle Filter

The IMU/UWB Fusion Positioning Algorithm Based on a Particle Filter Inernaional Journal Geo-Informaion Aricle The IMU/UWB Fusion Posiioning Algorihm Based on a Paricle Filer Yan Wang and Xin Li * School Compuer Science and Technology, China Universiy Mining and Technology,

More information

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits 4/5/011 secion 4_5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuis 1/ 4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuis eading Assignmen: 8086 Now le s examine how we C bias MOSFETs amplifiers! f we don bias properly, disorion can

More information

AUTOMATED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE IMAGE SEGMENTATION

AUTOMATED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE IMAGE SEGMENTATION IPR IPT IGU UCI CIG ACG Table of conens Table des maières Auhors index Index des aueurs earch Recherches xi orir AUTOMATD TCHIQU FOR ATLLIT IMAG GMTATIO A. Guarnieri*, A. Veore* *CIRGO (Inerdeparmen Research

More information

TO APPEAR IN THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I: REGULAR PAPERS 1. Non-Uniform Wavelet Sampling for RF Analog-to-Information Conversion

TO APPEAR IN THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I: REGULAR PAPERS 1. Non-Uniform Wavelet Sampling for RF Analog-to-Information Conversion TO APPEAR IN THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I: REGULAR PAPERS 1 Non-Uniform Wavele Sampling for RF Analog-o-Informaion Conversion Michaël Pelissier and Chrisoph Suder Absrac Feaure exracion,

More information

49.8. Control Relays and Timers. Contents. Product Selection Guide. Timing Relays

49.8. Control Relays and Timers. Contents. Product Selection Guide. Timing Relays Conrol Relays and Timers.8 Produc Selecion Guide Noes Applies o TRN model only. Applies o TRF model only. The E5-248 is baery powered and has hree programmable rigger funcions. This produc may perform

More information

Driver Modeling and Alignment for Worst-Case Delay Noise

Driver Modeling and Alignment for Worst-Case Delay Noise Drier Modeling and Alignmen for Wors-Case Noise Supamas Sirichoiyakul, Daid Blaauw, Chanhee Oh, Rafi Ley*, Vladimir Zoloo, Jingyan Zuo Moorola Inc. Ausin, TX, *Moorola Semiconducor Israel Ld. Tel Ai, Israel

More information

Research Article Bandwidth Management in Wireless Home Networks for IPTV Solutions

Research Article Bandwidth Management in Wireless Home Networks for IPTV Solutions Digial Mulimedia Broadcasing Volume 2013, Aricle ID 474212, 7 pages hp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/474212 Research Aricle Bandwidh Managemen in Wireless Home Neworks for IPTV Soluions Tamás Jursonovics 1

More information

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release Whie paper (ype B) residual-curren release (ype B) residual curren release Index 1. Generals... 2 2. Applicaion descripion... 3 2.1 Applicaions...3 2.2 Applicaion examples...4 2.3 How does an operae?...6

More information

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter.

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter. Inroducion Oupu Volage ipple in Sep-Down and Sep-Up Swiching egulaors Oupu volage ripple is always an imporan performance parameer wih DC-DC converers. For inducor-based swiching regulaors, several key

More information

High-performance silicon photonic tri-state switch based on balanced nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer

High-performance silicon photonic tri-state switch based on balanced nested Mach-Zehnder interferometer www.naure.com/scienificrepors Received: 28 February 27 Acceped: 8 Sepember 27 Published: xx xx xxxx OPEN High-performance silicon phoonic ri-sae swich based on balanced nesed Mach-Zehnder inerferomeer

More information

Time Control Technique

Time Control Technique Time Conrol Technique muliimer Mulifuncion Relay MK 785N/2 23928 Your Advanages Up o 1 funcions in one uni Simplified sorage Increased flexibiliy Quick seing of long ime values Opions wih Pluggable Terminal

More information

Context-Aware Self-Organized Resource Allocation In Intelligent Water Informatics

Context-Aware Self-Organized Resource Allocation In Intelligent Water Informatics Ciy Universiy of ew York (CUY) CUY Academic Works Inernaional Conference on Hydroinformaics 8-1-2014 Conex-Aware Self-Organized Resource Allocaion In Inelligen Waer Informaics Kyung Sup Kwak Qinghai Yang

More information

THE Cisco visual network index report predicts a drastic

THE Cisco visual network index report predicts a drastic IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 18, NO. 7, JULY 2016 1401 Qualiy of Experience Driven Muli-User Video Sreaming in Cellular Cogniive Radio Neworks Wih Single Channel Access Zhifeng He, Shiwen Mao,

More information

Photonic temporal integrator for all-optical computing

Photonic temporal integrator for all-optical computing Phoonic emporal inegraor for all-opical compuing Radan Slavík 1,* Yongwoo Park 2, Nicolas Ayoe 3, Serge Douce 3, Tae-Jung Ahn 2,4, Sophie LaRochelle 3, and José Azaña 2 1 Insiue of Phoonics and Elecronics

More information

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation APPLICATION NOTE AN:002 M and V Parallel Array Operaion Joe Aguilar VI Chip Applicaions Engineering Conens Page Inroducion 1 High-Level Guidelines 1 Sizing he Resisor 4 Arrays of Six or More Ms 5 Sysem

More information

ADC Modeling for System Simulation

ADC Modeling for System Simulation Linköping Sudies in Science and Technology Thesis No. 07 ADC Modeling for Sysem Simulaion Kalle Folkesson LiU-TEK-LIC-003:6 Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering Linköpings universie, SE-58 83 Linköping, Sweden

More information

16.5 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES

16.5 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES 16.5 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES For reiew purposes, more examples of boh piecewise linear and incremenal analysis are gien in he following subsecions. No new maerial is presened, so readers who do no need addiional

More information

A new method for classification and characterization of voltage sags

A new method for classification and characterization of voltage sags Elecric Power Sysems Research 58 (2001) 27 35 www.elsevier.com/locae/epsr A new mehod for classificaion and characerizaion of volage sags Mladen Kezunovic *, Yuan Liao Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering,

More information

Adaptive Approach Based on Curve Fitting and Interpolation for Boundary Effects Reduction

Adaptive Approach Based on Curve Fitting and Interpolation for Boundary Effects Reduction Adapive Approach Based on Curve Fiing and Inerpolaion for Boundary Effecs Reducion HANG SU, JINGSONG LI School of Informaion Engineering Wuhan Universiy of Technology 122 Loushi Road, Wuhan CHINA hangsu@whu.edu.cn,

More information

Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for ad hoc and sensor networks: energy and latency performance

Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for ad hoc and sensor networks: energy and latency performance Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for ad hoc and sensor neworks: energy and laency performance Michele Zorzi, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ramesh R. Rao, Senior Member, IEEE o appear in he IEEE Transacions

More information

unmodulated carrier phase refference /2 /2 3π/2 APSK /2 3/2 DPSK t/t s

unmodulated carrier phase refference /2 /2 3π/2 APSK /2 3/2 DPSK t/t s The PSK Modulaion - PSK is a modulaion ha modifies he phase of a carrier signal, a he beginning of he symbol period, wih a value ha depends on he mulibi ha has o be modulaed - i exhibis a good resilience

More information

VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS

VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS VOLTAGE DOUBLER BOOST RECTIFIER BASED ON THREE-STATE SWITCHING CELL FOR UPS APPLICATIONS Raphael A. da Câmara, Ranoyca N. A. L. Silva, Gusavo A. L. Henn, Paulo P. Praça, Cícero M. T. Cruz, René P. Torrico-Bascopé

More information

EE368/CS232 Digital Image Processing Winter Homework #1 Released: Monday, January 8 Due: Wednesday, January 17, 1:30pm

EE368/CS232 Digital Image Processing Winter Homework #1 Released: Monday, January 8 Due: Wednesday, January 17, 1:30pm EE368/CS232 Digial Image Processing Winer 207-208 Lecure Review and Quizzes (Due: Wednesday, January 7, :30pm) Please review wha you have learned in class and hen complee he online quiz quesions for he

More information

Energy-Ef cient Antenna Sharing and Relaying for Wireless Networks

Energy-Ef cient Antenna Sharing and Relaying for Wireless Networks Energy-Ef cien Anenna Sharing and Relaying for Wireless Neworks J. Nicholas Laneman and Gregory W. Wornell Research Laboraory of Elecronics Massachuses Insiue of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Absrac

More information

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s) DUAL SWITCH-MODE SOLENOID DRIER HIGH CURRENT CAPABILITY (up o.5a per channel) HIGH OLTAGE OPERATI (up o 46 for power sage) HIGH EFFICIENCY SWITCHMODE OPERATI REGULATED OUTPUT CURRENT (adjusable) FEW EXTERNAL

More information

Dynamic Networks for Motion Planning in Multi-Robot Space Systems

Dynamic Networks for Motion Planning in Multi-Robot Space Systems Proceeding of he 7 h Inernaional Symposium on Arificial Inelligence, Roboics and Auomaion in Space: i-sairas 2003, NARA, Japan, May 19-23, 2003 Dynamic Neworks for Moion Planning in Muli-Robo Space Sysems

More information

Automatic people density maps generation with use of movement detection analysis

Automatic people density maps generation with use of movement detection analysis Auomaic people densiy maps generaion wih use of movemen deecion analysis M. Parzych 1, A. Chmielewska 1, T. Marciniak 1, A. Dąbrowski 1, A. Chrosowska 2, M. Klincewicz 2 1 Poznan Universiy of Technology,

More information

Starvation Mitigation Through Multi-Channel Coordination in CSMA Multi-hop Wireless Networks

Starvation Mitigation Through Multi-Channel Coordination in CSMA Multi-hop Wireless Networks Sarvaion Miigaion Through Muli-Channel Coordinaion in CSMA Muli-hop Wireless Neworks Jingpu Shi, Theodoros Salonidis, and Edward W. Knighly Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Rice Universiy,

More information

MX6895BETR. -550V Full Bridge Gate Driver INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DIVISION. Features. Description. Applications. Ordering Information

MX6895BETR. -550V Full Bridge Gate Driver INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DIVISION. Features. Description. Applications. Ordering Information -550V Full Bridge Gae Driver INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DIVISION Feaures Full Bridge Gae Driver Inernal High Volage Level Shif Funcion Negaive 550V Lamp Supply Volage 3V o 12V CMOS Logic Compaible 8V o 12V Inpu

More information

Disribued by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The conen and copyrighs of he aached maerial are he propery of is owner. 16K-Bi CMOS PARALLEL E 2 PROM FEATURES Fas Read Access Times: 200 ns Low Power CMOS

More information

A Multi-model Kalman Filter Clock Synchronization Algorithm based on Hypothesis Testing in Wireless Sensor Networks

A Multi-model Kalman Filter Clock Synchronization Algorithm based on Hypothesis Testing in Wireless Sensor Networks nd Inernaional Conference on Elecronic & Mechanical Engineering and Informaion Technology (EMEIT-) A Muli-model Kalman Filer Clock Synchronizaion Algorihm based on Hypohesis Tesing in Wireless Sensor Neworks

More information

Development of Pulse Width Modulation LED drive

Development of Pulse Width Modulation LED drive ISSN 23069392, Inernaional Journal of Technology People Developing, Vol. 2, No. 3, DEC. 2012 Developmen of Pulse Widh Modulaion LED drive YuanPiao. Lee 1 ShihKuen. Changchien 2 ChainKuo Technology Universiy,

More information