Negative frequency communication

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Negative frequency communication"

Transcription

1 Negaive frequency communicaion Fanping DU Qing Huo Liu arxiv:2.43v5 [cs.it] 26 Sep 2 Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Duke Universiy Absrac Specrum is he mos valuable resource in communicaion sysem, bu unforunaely, so far, a half of he specrum has been wased. In his paper, we will see ha he negaive frequency no only has a physical meaning bu also can be used in communicaion. In fac, he complee descripion of a frequency signal is a roaing complex-frequency signal, in a complee descripion, posiive and negaive frequency signals are wo disinguishable and independen frequency signals, hey can carry differen informaion. Bu he curren carrier modulaion and demodulaion do no disinguish posiive and negaive frequencies, so half of he specrum resources and signal energy are wased. The complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion, proposed by his paper, use he complex-frequency signal as a carrier signal, he negaive and posiive frequency can carry differen informaion, so he specrum resources are fully used, he signal energy carried by complex-carrier modulaion is focused on a cerain band, so he signal energy will no be los by he complex-carrier demodulaion. Inroducion According o Shannon formula: C = W log (+S/N) 2 ()

2 where C is he channel capaciy, W is he channel bandwidh, S is he signal power, and N is he noise power. We can see ha he mos effecive way o increase he channel capaciy is increasing bandwidh, and enhance he signal-o-noise raio can also increase he channel capaciy. In curren communicaion sysems, o ake full advanage of he specrum, carrier modulaion echnology is used. The principle of curren carrier modulaion is shown in Fig., he real par of he baseband complex signal muliplied by cos() and he imaginary par muliplied by sin(), hen add, as he following formula: s CB () = Re{s BB () e i } (2) where s CB () is he modulaion signal, e i is he carrier signal, s BB () is he baseband complex signal, Re is o ake he real par. Obviously in he curren carrier modulaion, alhough he baseband signal is complex, he carrier signal is complex, bu he modulaion signal is aken he real par, so a real signal is sen. In his paper i is called real-carrier modulaion. In fac, he real-carrier modulaion echnology wases a half of he specrum resources and he signal energy, ha is because of he incorrec undersanding and using of negaive frequency. So far, in all curren communicaion sysems, including wireless, cable and fiber he available bandwidh is defined in he posiive specrum. For example, he bandwidh defined in he laes version of LTE proocol, see [2], negaive specrum is no used. So o make full use of specrum resources, we mus firs recify he undersanding of he negaive frequency. 2 Complex-frequency signal The negaive frequency has a physical meaning, see []. As shown in Fig. 2, we define he angle of counerclockwise roaion as +θ, he angle of clockwise roaion as θ, so he definiion of angular frequency is: = dθ() d 2 (3)

3 = d( θ()) d By (3), (4) we can see ha he posiive angular frequency corresponds o he speed of counerclockwise roaion, he negaive angular frequency corresponds o he speed of clockwise roaion, so negaive angular frequency does no due o he negaive ime, bu due o negaive angle, posiive and negaive frequency represen wo differen direcions of roaion in a plane, here are wo kinds of frequencies is essenially because of he angle is defined in a plane, a plane has wo sides. Wih he undersanding of he physical meaning of negaive frequency, hen how o disinguish beween posiive and negaive frequencies, or how o describe hese wo direcions of roaions in a plane? Tha is he Euler formula: (4) e ±i = cos()±i sin() (5) As shown in Fig. 3, e i and e i are wo kinds of complex-frequency signals, corresponding o he negaive and posiive frequency signals. Alhough in he ime-complex direc produc space, i is easy o disinguish posiive and negaive frequency signals, bu in ime-real direc produc space, he projecion of posiive and negaive frequency signals are he same real-frequency signal cos(), ha is: Re{e i } = Re{e i } = cos() (6) So when we see a real-frequency signal, we can no disinguish i beween posiive or negaive frequency signals from is projecion, he probabiliy of he frequency signal being negaive or posiive is equal, i is /2, ha is: cos() = (e i +e i )/2 (7) Similarly: sin() = i (e i e i )/2 (8) Therefore, a real-frequency signal cos() or sin() is no complee, he complee descripion of a frequency signal mus be a roaing complex-frequency signal e ±i, in complee 3

4 descripion, he negaive frequency signal e i and posiive frequency signal e ı are wo disinguishable and independen frequency signals, hey can carry differen informaion. In his paper, we define he posiive frequency, which direcion of roaion mee he righ hand rule as he R-frequency. We define he negaive frequency, which direcion of roaion mee he lef hand rule as he L-frequency. Unless oherwise cied, his paper will use he erms L-frequency and R-frequency, L-band and R-band insead of he posiive frequency and negaive frequency, posiive band and negaive band. 3 Real-carrier modulaion and demodulaion In his secion, we will see ha he curren real-carrier modulaion echnology occupies all he L-band and R-band in he specrum, so a half of he specrum resources are wased, and he curren real-carrier demodulaion echnology only receives one of he L-band or R-band, so a half of he signal energy is los. 3. Real-carrier modulaion The principle of curren real-carrier modulaion is as formula (2). I is modulaed by he R-frequency signal e ı, according o he formula (7) and (8): s CB () = Re{s BB () e i } = Re{s BB ()} cos() Im{s BB ()} sin() = Re{s BB ()} (e i +e i )/2 Im{s BB ()} i (e i e i )/2 (9) = (Re{s BB ()} Im{s BB ()} i) e i /2+(Re{s BB ()}+Im{s BB ()} i) e i /2 = s BB () e i /2+s BB () e i /2 where s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is he baseband signal, s BB () is he conjugaed baseband signal, e i is he R-frequency signal. According o he muliplicaion of wo signals in ime domain is equivalen o heir convoluion in frequency domain, i can be seen from he above equaion ha he real-carrier modulaion will move he baseband o he 4

5 R-band and L-band, and he signal energy is divided equally. Therefore, afer being modulaed by he R-frequency signal e i and aking he real par, he R-bandsignal is he same as he baseband signal, and he ampliude is a half, he L-band signal is conjugaed symmery o he baseband signal, and he ampliude is also a half. Similarly, if i is modulaed by he L-frequency signal e i : s CB () = Re{s BB () e i } = s BB () e i /2+s BB () e i /2 () where s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is he baseband signal, s BB () is he conjugaed baseband signal, e i is he L-frequency signal. Therefore, afer modulaed by he L-frequency signal e i and ake he real par, he L-band signal is he same as he baseband signal, and he ampliude is a half, he R-band signal is conjugaed symmery o he baseband signal, and he ampliude is also a half. In summary, he real-carrier modulaion occupies all he L-band and R-band, and he informaion on he L-band and R-band are conjugaed symmeric, no independen, and he signal energy is a half on each side. Furhermore, currenly people regard one of he bands as a image frequency componen, as if i is no realiy, in fac, he image frequency is caused by using he incomplee realfrequency signal as he carrier signal. A demo of band move of he real-carrier modulaion is shown in Fig. 4, modulaed by he R-frequency signal, ampliude specrum. 3.2 Real-carrier demodulaion The curren real-carrier demodulaion also assumed o receive a real signal, so i is deal as a real signal. As he real-carrier modulaion does no disinguish L-frequency and R- frequency, so he modulaion signal maybe modulaed by he L-frequency signal or he R-frequency signal, here assume he modulaion signal is modulaed by he R-frequency signal, as formula (9). 5

6 If demodulaed by he L-frequency signal e i, according o he formula (9): s RBB () = s CB () e i = (s BB () e i /2+s BB () e i /2) e i () = s BB () e 2 i /2+s BB ()/2 where s RBB () is he demodulaion signal, s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is he baseband signal, s BB () is he conjugaed baseband signal, e i is he L-frequency signal. Afer demodulaion, he L-band s BB () /2 is moved o wo imes far away and he R-band s BB ()/2 is moved o he baseband, afer a low-pass filer, he L-band signal energy is discarded. Similarly, if demodulaed by he R-frequency signal e i, according o he formula (9): s RBB () = s CB () e i = (s BB () e i /2+s BB () e i /2) e i (2) = s BB () e 2 i /2+s BB () /2 where s RBB () is he demodulaion signal, s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is he baseband signal, s BB () is he conjugaed baseband signal, e i is he R-frequency signal. Afer demodulaion, he R-band s BB ()/2 is moved o wo imes far away and he L-band s BB () /2 is moved o he baseband, afer a low-pass filer, he R-band signal energy is discarded. Bu he reserved L-band signal is conjugaed o original signal. Alhough informaion on he L-band and R-band is conjugaed, bu filering ou one of hem will los a half of signal energy. A demo of band move of he real-carrier demodulaion is shown in Fig. 5, demodulaed by he L-frequency signal, ampliude specrum. 4 Complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion As menioned earlier, he complee descripion of a frequency signal is a roaing complexfrequency signal, in a complee descripions, he L-frequency signal e i and R-frequency 6

7 signal e i are wo disinguishable and independen frequency signals, so hey can carry differen informaion. Therefore, we can modulae he baseband signals by he L-frequency or R-frequency signal, in order o disinguish from he real-carrier modulaion, i is called complex-carrier modulaion in his paper. Because here are wo kinds of frequencies, so here are wo kinds of complex-carrier modulaions, in his paper he modulaion using he L-frequency signal is called L-complex modulaion, he modulaion using he R-frequency signal is called R-complex modulaion. In his secion, we will see ha compared wih he real-carrier modulaion, he complexcarrier modulaion uses he disinguishable and independen L-frequency signal e i and R-frequency signal e i as he carrier signal, hey can carry differen informaion, so he specrum resources are full used, he signal energy carried by complex-carrier modulaion is focused on a cerain band, so he signal energy will no be los by he complex-carrier demodulaion. 4. Complex-carrier modulaion There are wo kinds of complex-carrier modulaion, L-complex modulaion and R-complex modulaion. The principle of L-complex modulaion is as he following formula: s CB () = s BB () e i = (Re{s BB ()} +i Im{s BB ()}) (cos() i sin()) = (Re{s BB ()} cos()+im{s BB ()} sin())+i (Im{s BB ()} cos() Re{s BB ()} sin()) (3) where s CB () is he complex-carrier modulaion signal, s BB () is baseband signal, e i is he L-frequency signal. Similarly, he principle of R-complex modulaion is as he following formula: s CB () = s BB () e i = (Re{s BB ()} +i Im{s BB ()}) (cos() +i sin()) = (Re{s BB ()} cos() Im{s BB ()} sin())+i (Im{s BB ()} cos() +Re{s BB ()} sin()) (4) where s CB () is he complex-carrier modulaion signal, s BB () is baseband signal, e i is he R-frequency signal. 7

8 Bandmove ofhel-complexmodulaionisshown infig. 6. Bandmove ofher-complex modulaion is similar and omied. The L-frequency and R-frequency are wo disinguishable and independen frequency signals, so hey can carry differen informaion. The band move of carrying wo differen informaion is shown in Fig. 7, he baseband A and B are moved o L-band and R-band separaely. According o he formula (3) he principle of L-complex modulaion is shown in Fig. 8: I can be seen from he figure, he real par and he imaginary par of he L-complex modulaion signal are modulaed separaely, hey are wo orhogonal signals in space, so he L-complex modulaion signals in he ransmission medium are he lef roaing complex signals. The principle of R-complex modulaion is similar and omied. 4.2 Complex-carrier demodulaion In essence, he principle of complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion are he same, hey are simply band moves, bu in opposie direcions. So he L-complex modulaion signal is demodulaed by he R-frequency signal, and he R-complex modulaion signal is demodulaed by he L-frequency signal. The L-complex modulaion signal is demodulaed by he R-frequency signal as he following formula: s RBB () = s CB () e i = (s BB () e i ) e i = s BB () (5) where s RBB () is he demodulaion signal, e i is he R-frequency signal, s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is baseband signal. The band move of he demodulaion for he L-complex modulaion signal is shown in Fig. 9. The R-complex modulaion signal is demodulaed by he L-frequency signal as he following formula: s RBB () = s CB () e i = (s BB () e i ) e i = s BB () (6) 8

9 where s RBB () is he demodulaion signal, e i is he L-frequency signal, s CB () is he modulaion signal, s BB () is baseband signal. The band move of he demodulaion for he R-complex modulaion signal is similar and omied. The differen informaion on he L-band and R-band can be demodulaed separaely, as shown in Fig Essence of complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion As menioned earlier, in essence, he principle of complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion are he same, hey are band moves. So in his paper, we use a single word band-move insead of he modulaion and demodulaion. Furhermore, band-move is a ransformaion, i is he roaional speed ransform in ime domain, he move ransform in frequency domain. Like he reference sysem ransform, we can see, he frequency is a relaive value, is value is relaed o he reference frequency, as he following formula: e i = e i e ic = e i(+c) (7) where e i is he frequency afer ransform, e i is he frequency before ransform, e ic is he reference frequency. Thus, a negaive frequency can become a posiive frequency afer he band-move ransform, which also confirms, on he oher hand, ha he negaive frequency has a physical meaning, and he sign of a frequency is relaed o he reference frequency. The ransformaion has he following properies: : The addiive propery, one band-move is equivalen o he sum of several band-moves, as he following formula: s CB () = s BB () e i e i 2 = s BB () e i( + 2 ) (8) where s CB () is he band-move signal, s BB () is he original signal. 2: The commuaive propery, he resul of several band-moves has nohing o do wih 9

10 he orders, as he following formula: s CB () = s BB () e i e i 2 = s BB () e i 2 e i (9) where s CB () is he band-move signal, s BB () is he original signal. So he ransformaions of band-move make up a coninuous Abel group. 5 Circularly polarized elecromagneic signal From his secion, we will see ha he circularly polarized elecromagneic signals are exacly he complex-frequency signals, he righ-hand and lef-hand circularly polarized elecromagneic signals correspond o he R-frequency and L-frequency signals. As we all know, ligh is elecromagneic wave, and he righ-hand circularly polarized ligh wavefron is described as he following formula: E = A e i( 2π x/λ+φ) (2) where E is elecric vecor, A is he elecric inensiy, is he angular frequency, x is he propagae disance, λ is he wavelengh, φ is he iniial phase. Assume we observed his ligh a a cerain place, ha means x is a consan, so 2π x/λ+φ is a consan, i can be seen as a iniial phase φ, so he (2) can be change o he following formula: E = A e i( 2π x/λ+φ) = A e i+φ = A cos(+φ )+i A sin(+φ ) = A e iφ e i (2) I is a R-frequency e ı which has a iniial phase φ and a non-normalized ampliude A. Also we can see i conains a real par A cos(+φ ) and a imaginary par A sin(+φ ), so he righ-hand circularly polarized ligh is a complex-frequency signal, and he real par and imaginary par are orhogonal in space, ha means we can send a complex-frequency signal by a circularly polarized signal. The righ-hand circularly polarized ligh is shown in Fig., i is he same as he Fig. 3.

11 Similarly, we can see he lef-hand circularly polarized ligh is he R-frequency signal. Furhermore, he linearly polarized elecromagneic signal is he real-frequency signal. So we can send ou he R-band and L-band signals by he righ-hand and lef-hand circularly polarized elecromagneic signals. By he way, formula (2) is a soluion of Schrodinger equaion, as shown in Fig., we can see, here i has a clearly physical meaning, i means orhogonal in space, no imaginary. 6 Conclusions In summary, we draw he following conclusions: : Negaive specrum exiss, bu is wased. 2: A complee descripion of a frequency signal is a roaing complex-frequency signal, in a complee descripion, R-frequency signal and L-frequency signal are wo disinguishable and independen frequency signals. 3: Curren real-carrier modulaion don disinguish beween R-frequency signal and L-frequency signal, so R-band and L-band are boh occupied. 4: Curren real-carrier demodulaion only receive one band, so half of he energy will be los. 5: Image frequency is caused by he real-carrier modulaion and demodulaion. 6: Complex-carrier modulaion use he complex-frequency signal as a carrier signal, so i can carry differen informaion on L-band and R-band, he specrum resources are fully used. 7: Complex-carrier demodulaion can receive he whole signal energy, so he channel capaciy is higher. 8: Frequency is a relaive concep, i is relaive o he selecion of reference frequency. 9: Complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion is essenially a ransformaion, make up a coninuous Abel group. : Circularly polarized elecromagneic signal is he complex signal, while linearly po-

12 larized signal is he real signal. In fac, he concepion of complex-carrier is jus like he subcarrier in OFDM, bu expanded o he RF range. Due o he complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion echnology can make full use of he specrum, and do no discard he signal energy, herefore, facing wih he scarce of he specrum resources, we sure ha he complex-carrier modulaion and demodulaion echnology will become he mainsream of he nex-generaion communicaion echnology. For example, in he curren LTE echnology, if he wo code-words are modulaed by he L-band and R-band separaely, hen clearly he channel capaciy will be grealy improved. For anoher example, if up-link and down-link are modulaed by he L-band and R-band separaely, hen up-link and down-link can communicae using he same frequency a he same ime. References [] Chen, Huaichen, Fang Haiyan, On The Physical Meaning of Negaive Frequency in Specrum, Journal of Elecrical & Elecronic Educaion, Jan. 28 [2] 3GPP TS 36. V9.5., Oc. 2 2

13 cos( ) Re{ sbb()} s () BB Spli + s () CB Im{ sbb()} sin( ) Figure : Principle of real-carrier modulaion. 3

14 +θ θ Figure 2: Definiion of he angle. 4

15 exp(iw) exp( iw) cos(w) cos( w) Figure 3: Posiive and negaive frequency signals and heir projecions. 5

16 F( ) Baseband F( ) F( ) F( ) C C Carrier frequency Modulaion band (before ake real par) C /2 C Modulaion band (afer ake real par) Figure 4: Band move of he real-carrier modulaion. F( ) C /2 F( ) C Modulaion band C F( ) Carrier frequency 2 C /2 Baseband Figure 5: Band move of he real-carrier demodulaion. 6

17 F( ) F( ) baseband C F( ) L-frequency C L-band modulaion Figure 6: Band move of he L-complex modulaion. 7

18 F( ) F( ) Baseband A F( ) Baseband B F( ) C R-frequency C F( ) L-frequency C C R-band and L-band Figure 7: Band move of modulaing wo differen informaion. 8

19 cos( ) Re{ sbb()} s () BB Spli + Re{ scb()} Im{ sbb()} sin( ) sin( ) Re{ sbb()} Spli + Im{ scb()} Im{ sbb()} cos( ) Figure 8: Principle of L-complex modulaion. 9

20 F( ) C F( ) L-band modulaion F( ) C R-frequency baseband Figure 9: Band move of he demodulaion for he L-complex modulaion signal. F( ) C F( ) C R-band and L-band F( ) C R-frequency C F( ) L-frequency F( ) Baseband A Baseband B Figure : Band move of demodulaing wo differen informaion. 2

21 Figure : Circularly polarized elecromagneic signal. 2

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras

Chapter 2 Summary: Continuous-Wave Modulation. Belkacem Derras ECEN 44 Communicaion Theory Chaper Summary: Coninuous-Wave Modulaion.1 Modulaion Modulaion is a process in which a parameer of a carrier waveform is varied in accordance wih a given message (baseband)

More information

UNIT IV DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME

UNIT IV DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME UNI IV DIGIAL MODULAION SCHEME Geomeric Represenaion of Signals Ojecive: o represen any se of M energy signals {s i (} as linear cominaions of N orhogonal asis funcions, where N M Real value energy signals

More information

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

Lecture 11. Digital Transmission Fundamentals CS4/MSc Compuer Neworking Lecure 11 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Compuer Neworking, Copyrigh Universiy of Edinburgh 2005 Digial Transmission Fundamenals Neworks consruced ou of Links or ransmission

More information

OpenStax-CNX module: m Elemental Signals. Don Johnson. Perhaps the most common real-valued signal is the sinusoid.

OpenStax-CNX module: m Elemental Signals. Don Johnson. Perhaps the most common real-valued signal is the sinusoid. OpenSax-CNX module: m0004 Elemenal Signals Don Johnson This work is produced by OpenSax-CNX and licensed under he Creaive Commons Aribuion License.0 Absrac Complex signals can be buil from elemenal signals,

More information

Wrap Up. Fourier Transform Sampling, Modulation, Filtering Noise and the Digital Abstraction Binary signaling model and Shannon Capacity

Wrap Up. Fourier Transform Sampling, Modulation, Filtering Noise and the Digital Abstraction Binary signaling model and Shannon Capacity Wrap Up Fourier ransorm Sampling, Modulaion, Filering Noise and he Digial Absracion Binary signaling model and Shannon Capaciy Copyrigh 27 by M.H. Perro All righs reserved. M.H. Perro 27 Wrap Up, Slide

More information

ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Continuous-Time Signals

ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Continuous-Time Signals Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering Universiy of Arkansas ELEG 3124 SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Ch. 1 Coninuous-Time Signals Dr. Jingxian Wu wuj@uark.edu OUTLINE 2 Inroducion: wha are signals and sysems? Signals

More information

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering

Communication Systems. Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering COMM 704: Communicaion Lecure : Analog Mulipliers Dr Mohamed Abd El Ghany Dr. Mohamed Abd El Ghany, Mohamed.abdel-ghany@guc.edu.eg nroducion Nonlinear operaions on coninuous-valued analog signals are ofen

More information

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.)

(This lesson plan assumes the students are using an air-powered rocket as described in the Materials section.) The Mah Projecs Journal Page 1 PROJECT MISSION o MArs inroducion Many sae mah sandards and mos curricula involving quadraic equaions require sudens o solve "falling objec" or "projecile" problems, which

More information

Chapter 4: Angle Modulation

Chapter 4: Angle Modulation Tes 2 Review Tes 2 Review Professor Deepa Kundur Universiy of Torono Reference: Secions: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 of 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6 S. Haykin and M. Moher,

More information

Chapter 4: Angle Modulation

Chapter 4: Angle Modulation Tes 2 Review Tes 2 Review Professor Deepa Kundur Universiy of Torono Reference: Secions: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 of 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6 S. Haykin and M. Moher,

More information

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications

4 20mA Interface-IC AM462 for industrial µ-processor applications Because of he grea number of indusrial buses now available he majoriy of indusrial measuremen echnology applicaions sill calls for he sandard analog curren nework. The reason for his lies in he fac ha

More information

Errata and Updates for ASM Exam MLC (Fourteenth Edition) Sorted by Page

Errata and Updates for ASM Exam MLC (Fourteenth Edition) Sorted by Page Erraa for ASM Exam MLC Sudy Manual (Foureenh Ediion) Sored by Page 1 Erraa and Updaes for ASM Exam MLC (Foureenh Ediion) Sored by Page Pracice Exam 7:25 (page 1386) is defecive, Pracice Exam 5:21 (page

More information

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER

EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER EXPERIMENT #4 AM MODULATOR AND POWER AMPLIFIER INTRODUCTION: Being able o ransmi a radio frequency carrier across space is of no use unless we can place informaion or inelligence upon i. This las ransmier

More information

3. Carrier Modulation Analog

3. Carrier Modulation Analog 3. Carrier Modulaion Analog Modulaion is he process of using an informaion signal (such as voice or music) o aler some propery of a higher frequency waveform which can hen be efficienly radiaed by reasonably

More information

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits

4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits 4/5/011 secion 4_5 Biasing in MOS Amplifier Circuis 1/ 4.5 Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuis eading Assignmen: 8086 Now le s examine how we C bias MOSFETs amplifiers! f we don bias properly, disorion can

More information

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester

Memorandum on Impulse Winding Tester Memorandum on Impulse Winding Teser. Esimaion of Inducance by Impulse Response When he volage response is observed afer connecing an elecric charge sored up in he capaciy C o he coil L (including he inside

More information

Ultrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Sections of Distributed Clutter

Ultrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Sections of Distributed Clutter Ulrawideband Normalized Radar Cross Secions o Disribued Cluer Ram M. Narayanan Deparmen o Elecrical Engineering The Pennsylvania Sae Universiy Universiy Park, PA 68, USA ram@engr.psu.edu Absrac Theoreical

More information

Digital Encoding And Decoding

Digital Encoding And Decoding Digial Encoding And Decoding Dr. George W Benhien Augus 13, 2007 Revised March 30, 2010 E-mail: george@gbenhien.ne 1 Inroducion Many elecronic communicaion devices oday process and ransfer informaion digially.

More information

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications

Optical phase locked loop for transparent inter-satellite communications Opical phase locked loop for ransparen iner-saellie communicaions F. Herzog 1, K. Kudielka 2,D.Erni 1 and W. Bächold 1 1 Communicaion Phoonics Group, Laboraory for Elecromagneic Fields and Microwave Elecronics,

More information

A New Voltage Sag and Swell Compensator Switched by Hysteresis Voltage Control Method

A New Voltage Sag and Swell Compensator Switched by Hysteresis Voltage Control Method Proceedings of he 8h WSEAS Inernaional Conference on ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS, HIGH VOLTAGES, ELECTRIC MACHINES (POWER '8) A New Volage Sag and Swell Compensaor Swiched by Hyseresis Volage Conrol Mehod AMIR

More information

Transmit Beamforming with Reduced Feedback Information in OFDM Based Wireless Systems

Transmit Beamforming with Reduced Feedback Information in OFDM Based Wireless Systems Transmi Beamforming wih educed Feedback Informaion in OFDM Based Wireless Sysems Seung-Hyeon Yang, Jae-Yun Ko, and Yong-Hwan Lee School of Elecrical Engineering and INMC, Seoul Naional Universiy Kwanak

More information

TU Delft. Digital color imaging & Digital color image processing. TU Delft. TU Delft. TU Delft. The human eye. Spectrum and Color I

TU Delft. Digital color imaging & Digital color image processing. TU Delft. TU Delft. TU Delft. The human eye. Spectrum and Color I Digial color imaging & Digial color image processing The human eye Lucas J. van Vlie www.ph.n.udelf.nl/~lucas TNW: Faculy of Applied Sciences IST: Imaging Science & Technology PH: Digial Color Imaging

More information

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH

A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH Progress In Elecromagneics Research Leers, Vol. 21, 129 137, 2011 A NEW DUAL-POLARIZED HORN ANTENNA EXCITED BY A GAP-FED SQUARE PATCH S. Ononchimeg, G. Ogonbaaar, J.-H. Bang, and B.-C. Ahn Applied Elecromagneics

More information

unmodulated carrier phase refference /2 /2 3π/2 APSK /2 3/2 DPSK t/t s

unmodulated carrier phase refference /2 /2 3π/2 APSK /2 3/2 DPSK t/t s The PSK Modulaion - PSK is a modulaion ha modifies he phase of a carrier signal, a he beginning of he symbol period, wih a value ha depends on he mulibi ha has o be modulaed - i exhibis a good resilience

More information

When answering the following 25 questions, always remember that there is someone who has to grade them. So please use legible handwriting.

When answering the following 25 questions, always remember that there is someone who has to grade them. So please use legible handwriting. 38963, VU Mobile Kommunikaion Miderm Exam: Insiu für Nachrichenechnik und Hochfrequenzechnik When answering he following 5 quesions, always remember ha here is someone who has o grade hem So please use

More information

Communications II Lecture 5: Effects of Noise on FM. Professor Kin K. Leung EEE and Computing Departments Imperial College London Copyright reserved

Communications II Lecture 5: Effects of Noise on FM. Professor Kin K. Leung EEE and Computing Departments Imperial College London Copyright reserved Communicaions II Lecure 5: Eecs o Noise on FM Proessor Kin K. Leung EEE and Compuing Deparmens Imperial College London Copyrigh reserved Ouline Recap o FM FM sysem model in noise Derivaion o oupu SNR Pre/de-emphasis

More information

Chapter 2. The Physical Layer

Chapter 2. The Physical Layer Chaper 2 The Physical Layer The Physical Layer Defines he mechanical, elecrical and iming inerfaces o he nework Transmission media - guided (copper and fiber opics) - wireless (radio erresrial) - saellie

More information

OFDMA for Access Networks: Optical Setup

OFDMA for Access Networks: Optical Setup OFDMA or Access Neworks: Opical Seup Johannes von Hoyningen-Huene Lehrsuhl ür Nachrichen- und Überragungsechnik CAU Kiel Workshop der ITG-Fachgruppe 5.3.1 Kiel, 10.2.2015 Moivaion or OFDMA in Opical Access

More information

Mobile Communications Chapter 3 : Media Access

Mobile Communications Chapter 3 : Media Access Moivaion Can we apply media access mehods from fixed neworks? Mobile Communicaions Chaper 3 : Media Access Moivaion SDMA, FDMA, TDMA Aloha Reservaion schemes Collision avoidance, MACA Polling CDMA SAMA

More information

Laboratory #2. Spectral Analysis of Digital Baseband Signals. SYSC 4600 Digital Communications

Laboratory #2. Spectral Analysis of Digital Baseband Signals. SYSC 4600 Digital Communications Laboraory #2 Speral Analysis of Digial Baseband Signals SYSC 4600 Digial Communiaions Deparmen of Sysems and Compuer Engineering Fauly of Engineering Carleon Universiy Oober 206 Deparmen of Sysems & Compuer

More information

The Relationship Between Creation and Innovation

The Relationship Between Creation and Innovation The Relaionship Beween Creaion and DONG Zhenyu, ZHAO Jingsong Inner Mongolia Universiy of Science and Technology, Baoou, Inner Mongolia, P.R.China, 014010 Absrac:Based on he compleion of Difference and

More information

Adaptive Antenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission

Adaptive Antenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission Adapive Anenna Array for Reliable OFDM Transmission Shinsuke Hara Deparmen of Elecronics, Informaion Sysem And Energy Engineering, Graduae School of Engineering, Osaka Universiy Conens of This Presenaion

More information

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit

10. The Series Resistor and Inductor Circuit Elecronicsab.nb 1. he Series esisor and Inducor Circui Inroducion he las laboraory involved a resisor, and capacior, C in series wih a baery swich on or off. I was simpler, as a pracical maer, o replace

More information

Computer Graphic with Matrices Math 308A Project

Computer Graphic with Matrices Math 308A Project Compue Gaphic wih Maices Mah 38A Pojec Suden: Wei-Liang Chen Suden #: 3292 Dae: Dec 3 d, 2 Pofesso: James King Imagine ha ou ae dawing a picue b hand o compue. The picue we daw b compue ae called compue

More information

High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter using a Center-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Rectifier

High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converter using a Center-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Rectifier , pp.267-278 hp://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijca.2014.7.4.23 High Power Full-Bridge DC-DC Converer using a Cener-Tapped Transformer and a Full-Wave Type Recifier Min-Gi Kim, Geun-Yong Park, Doo-HeeYoo and Gang-YoulJeong

More information

Multipath. Introduction. Theory. Multipath 7.1

Multipath. Introduction. Theory. Multipath 7.1 Mulipa 7. Mulipa Inroducion Tere are wo caracerisics o radio cannels a presen serious diiculies or elecommunicaion sysems. One is e remendous dynamic range a mus be accommodaed due o e large cange in pa

More information

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009

ECMA-373. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) 2 nd Edition / June Reference number ECMA-123:2009 ECMA-373 2 nd Ediion / June 2012 Near Field Communicaion Wired Inerface (NFC-WI) Reference number ECMA-123:2009 Ecma Inernaional 2009 COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT Ecma Inernaional 2012 Conens Page 1 Scope...

More information

Analog Baseband Communication Systems. Digital Baseband Communication Systems

Analog Baseband Communication Systems. Digital Baseband Communication Systems EE 421: Communicaions I Dr. Mohammed Hawa Inroducion o Digial Baseband Communicaion Sysems For more informaion: read Chapers 1, 6 and 7 in your exbook or visi hp://wikipedia.org/. Remember ha communicaion

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems MECHANICAL DATA Pinning for : 1 = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S 1926 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Opimized for Sony and

More information

EECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler

EECE 301 Signals & Systems Prof. Mark Fowler EECE 3 Signals & Sysems Prof. Mark Fowler Noe Se #8 C-T Sysems: Frequency-Domain Analysis of Sysems Reading Assignmen: Secion 5.2 of Kamen and Heck /2 Course Flow Diagram The arrows here show concepual

More information

Signal Characteristics

Signal Characteristics Signal Characerisics Analog Signals Analog signals are always coninuous (here are no ime gaps). The signal is of infinie resoluion. Discree Time Signals SignalCharacerisics.docx 8/28/08 10:41 AM Page 1

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems MECHANICAL DATA 2 Pinning for TSOP348.., TSOP344..: = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S Pinning for TSOP322.., TSOP324..: = OUT, 2 = V S, 3 = GND 3 6672 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier

More information

TSOP12.. IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems VISHAY. Vishay Semiconductors

TSOP12.. IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems VISHAY. Vishay Semiconductors TSOP1.. IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems Descripion The TSOP1.. - series are miniaurized receivers for infrared remoe conrol sysems. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, he

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems TSOP32.., TSOP34.. IR Receiver Modules for Remoe 2 3 MECHANICAL DATA Pinning: = GND, 2 = V S, 3 = OUT 94 869 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for

More information

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors

Explanation of Maximum Ratings and Characteristics for Thyristors 8 Explanaion of Maximum Raings and Characerisics for Thyrisors Inroducion Daa shees for s and riacs give vial informaion regarding maximum raings and characerisics of hyrisors. If he maximum raings of

More information

Photo Modules for PCM Remote Control Systems

Photo Modules for PCM Remote Control Systems Phoo Modules for PCM Remoe Conrol Sysems Descripion The HS38B series are miniaurized receivers for infrared remoe conrol sysems. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, he epoxy package

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems 1926 FEATURES Very low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for PCM frequency Supply volage: 2.5 V o 5.5 V Improved immuniy

More information

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems

IR Receiver Modules for Remote Control Systems IR Receiver Modules for Remoe Conrol Sysems 2 MECHNICAL DATA Pinning for TSOP44.., TSOP48..: = OUT, 2 = GND, 3 = V S Pinning for TSOP22.., TSOP24..: = OUT, 2 = V S, 3 = GND 3 6672 FEATURES Improved immuniy

More information

VS203B Lecture Notes Spring, Topic: Thin Film Interference

VS203B Lecture Notes Spring, Topic: Thin Film Interference VS03B Leure Noes Spring, 03 0 Topi: Thin Film Inerferene Thin Film Inerferene When ligh his a surfae, i an be absorbed, ransmied or refleed. Ligh an refle from any inerfae where here is a hange in refraive

More information

Cycles of Technology, Natural Resources and Economic Growth

Cycles of Technology, Natural Resources and Economic Growth Cycles of Technology, Naural Resources and Economic Growh By Susanna Lundsröm Α Deparmen of Economics Göeborg Universiy June, 22 Β Prepared for he 22 World Congress of Environmenal and Resource Economiss,

More information

Mach Zehnder Interferometer for Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Mach Zehnder Interferometer for Wavelength Division Multiplexing Mach Zehnder nerferomeer for Wavelengh Division Muliplexing Ary Syahriar Pusa Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi nformasi dan Elekronika Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi e-mail : ary@inn.bpp.go.id

More information

IR Receiver Module for Light Barrier Systems

IR Receiver Module for Light Barrier Systems New Produc IR Receiver Module for Ligh Barrier Sysems TSSP5838 1926 FEATURES Low supply curren Phoo deecor and preamplifier in one package Inernal filer for 38 khz IR signals Shielding agains EMI Supply

More information

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter

A Harmonic Circulation Current Reduction Method for Parallel Operation of UPS with a Three-Phase PWM Inverter 160 Journal of Power Elecronics, Vol. 5, No. 2, April 2005 JPE 5-2-9 A Harmonic Circulaion Curren Reducion Mehod for Parallel Operaion of U wih a Three-Phase Inverer Kyung-Hwan Kim, Wook-Dong Kim * and

More information

Digital modulation and mobile radio. Refresher topic

Digital modulation and mobile radio. Refresher topic igial modulaion and mobile radio Refresher opic igial modulaion and mobile radio When speech is ransmied using digial mobile radio, i is firs of all digiized and hen source- and channel-coded. On he one

More information

Undamped, Length Varying TLP Pulses Measurements and ESD Model Approximations

Undamped, Length Varying TLP Pulses Measurements and ESD Model Approximations Undamped, Lengh arying TLP Pulses Measuremens and ESD Model Approximaions Gonzalo Andrés Pacheco, Julio Guillermo Zola Elecronic Circuis Laboraory Elecronic Deparmen Faculy of Engineering Universiy of

More information

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter.

= f 8 f 2 L C. i C. 8 f C. Q1 open Q2 close (1+D)T DT 2. i C = i L. Figure 2: Typical Waveforms of a Step-Down Converter. Inroducion Oupu Volage ipple in Sep-Down and Sep-Up Swiching egulaors Oupu volage ripple is always an imporan performance parameer wih DC-DC converers. For inducor-based swiching regulaors, several key

More information

Efficient burst assembly algorithm with traffic prediction

Efficient burst assembly algorithm with traffic prediction Efficien burs assembly algorihm wih raffic predicion Mmoloki Mangwala, Boyce B. Sigweni and Bakhe M. Nleya Deparmen of compuer science Norh Wes Universiy, Privae Bag X2046, Mmabaho, 2735 Tel: +27 8 3892,

More information

Special Insert. Everything you wanted to know about Type B residual current circuit breakers but never dared to ask

Special Insert. Everything you wanted to know about Type B residual current circuit breakers but never dared to ask Special Inser Everyhing you waned o know abou Type B residual curren circui breakers bu never dared o ask Claudio Amadori: R&D ABB 1 Figure 1 - Marking of he Type B residual curren circui breakers Type

More information

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes

CHAPTER CONTENTS. Notes. 9.0 Line Coding. 9.1 Binary Line Codes Noes CHAPTER CONTENTS 9. Line Coding 9. inary Line Codes 9. ipolar and iphase Line Codes 9.. AMI 9... inary N Zero Subsiuion 9..3 lock Line Codes 9.3 M-ary Correlaion Codes 9.3. Q 9.3. Correlaion Coding

More information

A Bidirectional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converter With Dual Asymmetrical PWM Method

A Bidirectional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converter With Dual Asymmetrical PWM Method A Bidirecional Three-Phase Push-Pull Converer Wih Dual Asymmeral PWM Mehod Minho Kwon, Junsung Par, Sewan Choi, IEEE Senior Member Deparmen of Elecral and Informaion Engineering Seoul Naional Universiy

More information

Starvation Mitigation Through Multi-Channel Coordination in CSMA Multi-hop Wireless Networks

Starvation Mitigation Through Multi-Channel Coordination in CSMA Multi-hop Wireless Networks Sarvaion Miigaion Through Muli-Channel Coordinaion in CSMA Muli-hop Wireless Neworks Jingpu Shi, Theodoros Salonidis, and Edward W. Knighly Deparmen of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Rice Universiy,

More information

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation

PRM and VTM Parallel Array Operation APPLICATION NOTE AN:002 M and V Parallel Array Operaion Joe Aguilar VI Chip Applicaions Engineering Conens Page Inroducion 1 High-Level Guidelines 1 Sizing he Resisor 4 Arrays of Six or More Ms 5 Sysem

More information

Electric amplifiers. Table of contents. Features. RE 30095/04.11 Replaces: Types VT 5005 to VT Component series 1X 1/8

Electric amplifiers. Table of contents. Features. RE 30095/04.11 Replaces: Types VT 5005 to VT Component series 1X 1/8 Elecric amplifiers RE 30095/04. Replaces: 05.0 /8 Types VT 5005 o VT 5008 Componen series X 558_d Table of conens Conens Page eaures Ordering code uncional descripion Block diagram / pinou: VT 5005 and

More information

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones

MX629. DELTA MODULATION CODEC meets Mil-Std DATA BULLETIN. Military Communications Multiplexers, Switches, & Phones DATA BULLETIN MX629 DELTA MODULATION CODEC mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Feaures Mees Mil-Sd-188-113 Single Chip Full Duplex CVSD CODEC On-chip Inpu and Oupu Filers Programmable Sampling Clocks 3- or 4-bi Companding

More information

EMF: Embedding Multiple Flows of Information in Existing Traffic for Concurrent Communication among Heterogeneous IoT Devices

EMF: Embedding Multiple Flows of Information in Existing Traffic for Concurrent Communication among Heterogeneous IoT Devices EMF: Embedding Muliple Flows of Informaion in Exising Traffic for Concurren Communicaion among Heerogeneous IoT Devices Zicheng Chi, Zhichuan Huang, Yao Yao, Tianian Xie, Hongyu Sun, and Ting Zhu Deparmen

More information

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release

White paper. RC223 (type B) residual-current release Whie paper (ype B) residual-curren release (ype B) residual curren release Index 1. Generals... 2 2. Applicaion descripion... 3 2.1 Applicaions...3 2.2 Applicaion examples...4 2.3 How does an operae?...6

More information

VS203B Lecture Notes Spring, Topic: Diffraction

VS203B Lecture Notes Spring, Topic: Diffraction VS03B Lecure Noes Spring, 013 011 Topic: Diffracion Diffracion Diffracion escribes he enency for ligh o ben aroun corners. Huygens principle All poins on a wavefron can be consiere as poin sources for

More information

Transformer of tgδ on MSP430F1331 single chip microcomputer WANG Han 1 CAI Xinjing 1,XiaoJieping 2,Liu weiqing 2

Transformer of tgδ on MSP430F1331 single chip microcomputer WANG Han 1 CAI Xinjing 1,XiaoJieping 2,Liu weiqing 2 2nd Inernaional Workshop on Maerials Engineering and ompuer Sciences (IWMES 205 Transformer of gδ on MSP430F33 single chip microcompuer WANG Han AI Xinjing,XiaoJieping 2,Liu weiqing 2 School of elecrical

More information

Power Efficient Battery Charger by Using Constant Current/Constant Voltage Controller

Power Efficient Battery Charger by Using Constant Current/Constant Voltage Controller Circuis and Sysems, 01, 3, 180-186 hp://dx.doi.org/10.436/cs.01.304 Published Online April 01 (hp://www.scirp.org/journal/cs) Power Efficien Baery Charger by Using Consan Curren/Consan olage Conroller

More information

IR Receiver for High Data Rate PCM at 455 khz Description

IR Receiver for High Data Rate PCM at 455 khz Description IR Receiver for High Daa Rae PCM a 455 khz Descripion The is a miniaurized receiver for infrared remoe conrol and IR daa ransmission. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, he epoxy package

More information

COMM702: Modulation II

COMM702: Modulation II COMM70: Modulaion II Leure 4 - Coheren and non-oheren inary pass-and daa ransmission Binary Digial Modulaion Sinusoidal Carrier Digial Message ASK FSK PSK Parameers o Digial Pass-and ransmission Proailiy

More information

Noncoherent Equalizer for DECT System. Master of Science Thesis in the Programme Integrated Electronic System Design XIAOYU TENG WEICHAO ZHANG

Noncoherent Equalizer for DECT System. Master of Science Thesis in the Programme Integrated Electronic System Design XIAOYU TENG WEICHAO ZHANG Noncoheren Equalizer for DECT Sysem Maser of Science Thesis in he Programme Inegraed Elecronic Sysem Design XIAOYU TENG WEICHAO ZHANG Chalmers Universiy of Technology Universiy of Gohenburg Deparmen of

More information

ECEN325: Electronics Spring 2017

ECEN325: Electronics Spring 2017 ECEN325: Elecronics Srg 207 Semiconducor n Juncion Diode Sam alermo Analog & Mixed-Signal Cener Texas A&M Universiy Announcemens & eadg HW5 due Mar. 9 azavi Ch2 (oional) Basic semiconducor device hysics,

More information

Solid State Modulators for PIII Applications

Solid State Modulators for PIII Applications Solid Sae Modulaors for P Applicaions Dr. Marcel P.J. Gaudreau, P.E., Dr. Jeffrey A. Casey, Timohy J. Hawkey, Michael A. Kempkes, J. Michael Mulvaney; Diversified Technologies, nc. Absrac One of he key

More information

Introduction to OFDM

Introduction to OFDM E225C Lecure 16 OFDM Inroducion EE225C Inroducion o OFDM asic idea» Using a large number o parallel narrow-band subcarriers insead o a single wide-band carrier o ranspor inormaion Advanages» Very easy

More information

Evaluation of the Digital images of Penaeid Prawns Species Using Canny Edge Detection and Otsu Thresholding Segmentation

Evaluation of the Digital images of Penaeid Prawns Species Using Canny Edge Detection and Otsu Thresholding Segmentation Inernaional Associaion of Scienific Innovaion and Research (IASIR) (An Associaion Unifying he Sciences, Engineering, and Applied Research) Inernaional Journal of Emerging Technologies in Compuaional and

More information

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller

Automatic Power Factor Control Using Pic Microcontroller IDL - Inernaional Digial Library Of Available a:www.dbpublicaions.org 8 h Naional Conference on Advanced Techniques in Elecrical and Elecronics Engineering Inernaional e-journal For Technology And Research-2017

More information

Mathematics Stage 5 PAS5.2.5 Graphs of physical phenomena. Distance/time graphs

Mathematics Stage 5 PAS5.2.5 Graphs of physical phenomena. Distance/time graphs Mahemaics Sage 5 PAS5.2.5 Graphs of physical phenomena Par 2 Disance/ime graphs Number: 43664 Tile: PAS5.2.5 Graphs of physical phenomena This publicaion is copyrigh New Souh Wales Deparmen of Eucaion

More information

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s)

Obsolete Product(s) - Obsolete Product(s) DUAL SWITCH-MODE SOLENOID DRIER HIGH CURRENT CAPABILITY (up o.5a per channel) HIGH OLTAGE OPERATI (up o 46 for power sage) HIGH EFFICIENCY SWITCHMODE OPERATI REGULATED OUTPUT CURRENT (adjusable) FEW EXTERNAL

More information

USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR

USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR USING MATLAB TO CREATE AN IMAGE FROM RADAR Douglas Hulber Mahemaics Deparmen Norfol Sae Universiy 700 Par Avenue Uni 483 Norfol VA 3504-8060 dhulber@nsu.edu Inroducion. Digial imaging algorihms developed

More information

Foreign Fiber Image Segmentation Based on Maximum Entropy and Genetic Algorithm

Foreign Fiber Image Segmentation Based on Maximum Entropy and Genetic Algorithm Journal of Compuer and Communicaions, 215, 3, 1-7 Published Online November 215 in SciRes. hp://www.scirp.org/journal/jcc hp://dx.doi.org/1.4236/jcc.215.3111 Foreign Fiber Image Segmenaion Based on Maximum

More information

AM Demodulation (peak detect.)

AM Demodulation (peak detect.) AM Deodulaion (peak deec.) Deodulaion is abou recovering he original signal--crysal Radio Exaple Anenna = Long Wire FM AM Tuning Circui A siple Diode! Deodulaion Circui (envelop of AM Signal) Filer (Mechanical)

More information

HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA-1 IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION

HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA-1 IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION VOL., NO. 5, MARCH 26 ISSN 89-668 26-26 Asian Research Publishing Nework (ARPN). All righs reserved. HIGH THROUGHPUT EVALUATION OF SHA- IMPLEMENTATION USING UNFOLDING TRANSFORMATION Shamsiah Bini Suhaili

More information

Angle Modulation (Phase & Frequency Modulation) EE442 Lecture 8. Spring 2017

Angle Modulation (Phase & Frequency Modulation) EE442 Lecture 8. Spring 2017 Angle Modulaion (Phase & Frequency Modulaion) EE442 Lecure 8 Spring 2017 1 Ampliude, Frequency and Phase Modulaion Wih ew excepions, Phase Modulaion (PM) is used primarily in digial communicaion 2 Why

More information

Sound so far: 10/13/2013. Sound and stringed instruments

Sound so far: 10/13/2013. Sound and stringed instruments 0/3/203 Sound and ed insrumens Sound so far: Sound is a pressure or densiy flucuaion carried (usually) by air molecules sound wae is longdiudinal Wha is he difference beween a hud and a musical noe? ecure

More information

Effect of Modulation Schemes on Performance of OFDM based Wireless Network using Smart Antenna

Effect of Modulation Schemes on Performance of OFDM based Wireless Network using Smart Antenna Mr.Balaji G.Hogade e al. / Inernaional Journal on Compuer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) Effec of Modulaion Schemes on Performance of OFDM based Wireless Nework using Smar Anenna 1 Mr.Balaji G.Hogade,

More information

Extending the Reach of Short-Reach Optical Interconnects with DSP-Free Direct-Detection

Extending the Reach of Short-Reach Optical Interconnects with DSP-Free Direct-Detection his aricle has been acceped for publicaion in a fuure issue of his journal, bu has no been fully edied. Conen may change prior o final publicaion. Ciaion informaion: DOI.9/JL.., Journal of Exending he

More information

Extra Practice 1. Name Date. Lesson 6.1: Solving Equations Using Models

Extra Practice 1. Name Date. Lesson 6.1: Solving Equations Using Models Name Dae Maser 6.0 Era Pracice Lesson 6.: Solving Equaions Using Models. Use a model o solve each equaion. Verif he soluion. a) 7 = 56 b) 45 = 9 c) = 4 d) 9 =. Use a model o solve each equaion. Verif he

More information

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1

How to Shorten First Order Unit Testing Time. Piotr Mróz 1 How o Shoren Firs Order Uni Tesing Time Pior Mróz 1 1 Universiy of Zielona Góra, Faculy of Elecrical Engineering, Compuer Science and Telecommunicaions, ul. Podgórna 5, 65-246, Zielona Góra, Poland, phone

More information

Adaptive Approach Based on Curve Fitting and Interpolation for Boundary Effects Reduction

Adaptive Approach Based on Curve Fitting and Interpolation for Boundary Effects Reduction Adapive Approach Based on Curve Fiing and Inerpolaion for Boundary Effecs Reducion HANG SU, JINGSONG LI School of Informaion Engineering Wuhan Universiy of Technology 122 Loushi Road, Wuhan CHINA hangsu@whu.edu.cn,

More information

Dynamic Networks for Motion Planning in Multi-Robot Space Systems

Dynamic Networks for Motion Planning in Multi-Robot Space Systems Proceeding of he 7 h Inernaional Symposium on Arificial Inelligence, Roboics and Auomaion in Space: i-sairas 2003, NARA, Japan, May 19-23, 2003 Dynamic Neworks for Moion Planning in Muli-Robo Space Sysems

More information

Conductive Elastomer Waveguide Gaskets

Conductive Elastomer Waveguide Gaskets Conducive Elasomer Waveguide Gaskes WAVEGUIDE GASKES Parker Chomerics offers a selecion of EMI gaske maerials ha provide effecive EMI shielding and pressure sealing for choke, cover and conac flanges.

More information

Interconnection of PV Modules to the Utility Grid Using an Electronic Inverter Circuit

Interconnection of PV Modules to the Utility Grid Using an Electronic Inverter Circuit Inerconnecion of PV Modules o he Uiliy Grid Using an Elecronic Inverer Circui DENIZAR CRUZ MARTINS & ROGERS DEMONTI Deparmen of Elecrical Engineering Power Elecronics Insiue Federal Universiy of Sana Caarina

More information

Wireless Transmission

Wireless Transmission Wireless Transmission Arjan Durresi Durresi@csc.lsu.edu These slides are available a: hp://www.csc.lsu.edu/~durresi/csc7602_05/ Louisiana Sae Universiy 2 Wireless Transmission - 1 Overview Frequencies

More information

The Alcubierre Warp Drive: On the Matter of Matter

The Alcubierre Warp Drive: On the Matter of Matter The Alcubierre Warp Drive: On he Maer of Maer Brendan McMonigal, Gerain F. Lewis, and Philip O Byrne Sydney Insiue for Asronomy, School of Physics, A28, The Universiy of Sydney, NSW 26, Ausralia (Daed:

More information

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking

Auto-Tuning of PID Controllers via Extremum Seeking 25 American Conrol Conference June 8-, 25. Porland, OR, USA ThA7.2 Auo-Tuning of PID Conrollers via Exremum Seeking Nick illingsworh* and Miroslav rsić Deparmen of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

More information

Message Detection and Extraction of Chaotic Optical Communication Using Time-Frequency Analysis

Message Detection and Extraction of Chaotic Optical Communication Using Time-Frequency Analysis Message Deecion and Exracion of Chaoic Opical Communicaion Using Time-Frequency Analysis Qingchun Zhao, Hongxi Yin * School of Informaion and Communicaion Engineering Dalian Universiy of Technology Dalian,

More information

Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797

Introduction to Power Electronics ECEN 4797/5797 Lecure 1: Augus 27, 2012 Inroducion o Power Elecronics ECEN 4797/5797 Rober W. Erickson Universiy of Colorado, Boulder Fall 2012 1 Inroducion o Power Elecronics ECEN 4797/5797 Insrucor: Prof. Bob Erickson

More information

Research Article Interference Cancellation Using Replica Signal for HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in Time-Variant Large Delay Spread Longer Than Guard Interval

Research Article Interference Cancellation Using Replica Signal for HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in Time-Variant Large Delay Spread Longer Than Guard Interval Hindawi Publishing Corporaion Journal of Elecrical and Compuer Engineering Volume 212, Aricle D 571985, 1 pages doi:11155/212/571985 Research Aricle nerference Cancellaion Using Replica Signal for HTRC-MMO/OFDM

More information

DAGSTUHL SEMINAR EPIDEMIC ALGORITHMS AND PROCESSES: FROM THEORY TO APPLICATIONS

DAGSTUHL SEMINAR EPIDEMIC ALGORITHMS AND PROCESSES: FROM THEORY TO APPLICATIONS DAGSTUHL SEMINAR 342 EPIDEMIC ALGORITHMS AND PROCESSES: FROM THEORY TO APPLICATIONS A Sysems Perspecive Pascal Felber Pascal.Felber@unine.ch hp://iiun.unine.ch/! Gossip proocols Inroducion! Decenralized

More information