1 Microscope anatomy, image formation and resolution Ian Dobbie Buy this book for your lab: D.B. Murphy, "Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging", ISBN X Visit these websites:
2 Key points Basic understanding of refraction and diffraction, and properties of lenses Understanding of two different sets of conjugate planes, especially importance of objective back-focal plane Understanding of factors affecting image resolution
3 What a microscope needs to do Magnify things Resolve points which are close together Collect as much light as possible (esp. for fluorescence) Do all of the above while introducing as little distortion as possible
4 We need to understand the nature of light Image formation in the light microscope depends exclusively on the interactions of light with matter Diffraction: scattering of the incident illuminating light by the detailed substructure with the specimen Refraction: "bending" of light, by a lens, which causes scattered light to converge, to form an image
5 Light as electromagnetic radiation
6 How lenses work Refraction--the "bending", or change in the direction, of light Explaining refraction doesn't require the "wave" formalism, just the rays The speed of light depends on the medium through which light is propagating Refraction occurs when light rays travelling through one type of medium meet an interface with another type of medium The extent of refraction depends on the angle of incidence (Snell's law) n 1 sin! 1 = n 2 sin! 2 Here the light ray is orthogonal to the interface Here the light ray is oblique to the interface More dense materials have higher refractive indices: light travels faster air glass light travels slower shortest (distance) path is not taken! 1 path of least time is taken air glass Air Water 1.33 Glycerin 1.47 Immerson Oil (e.g.) Glass 1.52 Flint 1.66 Zircon 1.92 Diamond 2.42 Lead Sulfide 3.91 n i = c/v i! 2
7 Lensing occurs when the interface is curved Positive (convex) lenses converge light rays. Light rays that would otherwise never meet (e.g. because they are parallel, or diverging) can now do so. Negative lenses (concave) diverge light rays! 1 Laser light passing through negative and positive lenses! 2 n 1 sin! 1 = n 2 sin! 2! 2! 1
8 Image position and magnification depend on lens curvature (focal length) and on the physical distance from the object to the lens
9 All simple lenses have associated aberrations Still may encounter: chromatic aberration on cheap microscopes (prism effect--but can be reduced by using monochromatic light), spherical aberration when imaging deep into samples (e.g. embryos, even when the objective is "corrected"), field curvature when using bright lenses for fluorescence (but this is not a problem if you're imaging cells only in the center of the field) More lens elements = better correction, but also possibly less light throughput Achromat = corrected for 2 colors Apochromat = corrected for 3 colors Plan = flat-field (although not always to full limits of field of view) TEST BEFORE BUYING!!
10 Image formation in the context of a real microscope
11 Koehler illumination emphasizes the difference between imaging planes and illumination planes Back focal plane of objective Objective front lens Specimen Condenser lens Aperture diaphragm ("aperture stop") Field diaphragm ("field stop") Light collecting lens Filament in lamp To reduce artifacts, Koehler introduced the light collecting lens and adjusted the condenser position such that the lamp filament is maximally out-offocus at the specimen plane. This innovation is essential to all modern microscopy--the main adjustment we make with transmitted light microscopy is to "Koehler" the microscope by focussing the condenser. Koehler illumination highlights a special relationship between two sets of planes in the microscope light path.
12 Koehler illumination emphasizes the difference between imaging planes and illumination planes Back focal plane of objective Objective front lens Specimen Condenser lens Aperture diaphragm ("aperture stop") Field diaphragm ("field stop") Light collecting lens Filament in lamp To reduce artifacts, Koehler introduced the light collecting lens and adjusted the condenser position such that the lamp filament is maximally out-offocus at the specimen plane. This innovation is essential to all modern microscopy--the main adjustment we make with transmitted light microscopy is to "Koehler" the microscope by focussing the condenser. Koehler illumination highlights a special relationship between two sets of planes in the microscope light path.
13 Koehler illumination emphasizes the difference between imaging planes and illumination planes Back focal plane of objective Objective front lens Specimen Condenser lens CONJUGATE PLANES Aperture diaphragm ("aperture stop") Field diaphragm ("field stop") Light collecting lens Filament in lamp To reduce artifacts, Koehler introduced the light collecting lens and adjusted the condenser position such that the lamp filament is maximally out-offocus at the specimen plane. This innovation is essential to all modern microscopy--the main adjustment we make with transmitted light microscopy is to "Koehler" the microscope by focussing the condenser. Koehler illumination highlights a special relationship between two sets of planes in the microscope light path.
14 Koehler illumination emphasizes the difference between imaging planes and illumination planes Back focal plane of objective Objective front lens Specimen Condenser lens CONJUGATE PLANES Aperture diaphragm ("aperture stop") Field diaphragm ("field stop") Light collecting lens Filament in lamp To reduce artifacts, Koehler introduced the light collecting lens and adjusted the condenser position such that the lamp filament is maximally out-offocus at the specimen plane. This innovation is essential to all modern microscopy--the main adjustment we make with transmitted light microscopy is to "Koehler" the microscope by focussing the condenser. Koehler illumination highlights a special relationship between two sets of planes in the microscope light path.
15 Two sets of conjugate planes in the light microscope Understanding the reciprocal relationship between the two sets of conjugate planes is crucial for properly understanding: Image formation Image resolution How phase-contrast and DIC work Conjugate planes are "parfocal" with each other When something is in focus in one set of conjugate planes, it is "maximally out-of-focus" in the other set of planes These two sets are often called "reciprocal" or "transform" planes (with respect to each other)
16 Diffraction of waves Scattering, altering the shape of the wave front At left, plane waves in water obtain a circular wavefront after passing through an aperture The angle of scattering of light by particles is inversely proportional to the particle size/spacing. Wavelength much smaller than aperture Wavelength comparable to aperture
17 Diffraction and interference Prelude to the "two-slit" experiment When there are multiple sources, interference can occur Constructive and destructive interference Imagine a screen here
18 Young's demonstration of the wave nature of light Demonstrated that Newton's theory of light "corpuscles" was wrong, or at least incomplete The diffraction pattern obtained with both slits open could be explained only by interference of waves Diffraction pattern from a single slit open Diffraction pattern from both slits open The fine spacing of the lines is inversely related to the distance "a" between the two slits
19 Analogy to X-ray diffraction Diffraction patterns contain information about the spatial distribution of sub-structures in an unusual way Spots represent interference of scattered waves Spots far from the origin represent interference of waves scattered from closely neighboring points (e.g. Joe Crystallographer says, "my crystals diffract out to 2.5 Å") Spacing of layer lines is inversely proportional to the periodicity
20 Anything can create a diffraction pattern The individual spots in diffraction patterns of protein crystals are particularly prominent because the protein crystals have the same structure repeated infinitely, but even individual objects generate diffraction patterns (which are even more complex) f f Optical diffractometer (from 1950s)
21 Abbe's theory of image formation
22 The diffraction grating The grating is a series of ruled lines, spaced very close together (e.g 1000 nm = 1 µm), roughly in the neighborhood of the wavelength of light Gratings are made by machining (difficult) or by laser etching, or more often as plastic replicas of originals Gratings can be either transmission gratings (as shown) or reflection gratings (e.g. machined on a piece of metal). Diffraction by an actual grating. Each of the different orders is "made up" of parallel rays (converging only at infinity) Addition of a lens to the system allows the spots to be nicely in focus at a finite distance from the grating
23 Diffraction by a grating Abbe's experiments with gratings helped him to develop his theory of image formation, which is what we use today. dsin! = n" (where n = 0, 1, 2, etc.)
24 Abbe theory Abbe's big idea: "The microscope image is the interference effect of a diffraction phenomenon" Image formation depends on interference between non-diffracted light (0th order) and diffracted light (1st order and higher order as well) Interference In this sense, a lens serves to recombine light diffracted from the specimen such that the diffracted light interferes with itself in a manner that recreates an image of the specimen
25 Diffraction from closer spacing is at higher angles So if two substructures in an object are very close together, the "information" about their relative closeness will be a "high-angle" diffraction spot, i.e., further away from the undiffracted, 0th order spot. To get "high-resolution" images recreated from the diffraction spots, we need to collect the high-angle diffracted scattering dsin! = n" (in this instance, only n =1 is shown) d 1! 1 d 2! 2
26 Getting the highest resolution image depends on capturing the largest angle of scattered light Undiffracted (zeroth order) light Objective Diffracted ("higher order") light Specimen plane Condenser "cone" of light from illumination source
27 Removing higher-orders of the diffraction pattern reduces the resolution of the resulting image A mask is included at the diffraction plane to allow only the zeroth order and lower-order light to pass through Source Diffraction pattern Image A B C A B' B C' f f B'' C''
28 Fourier Transforms (FTs) a quick intro
29 Basis of Fourier s ideas. Any function can be composed of a sum of simple sine waves. Each sine wave then has a frequency and phase. Summing all these sine wave together creates the final function. Summing a limited number will create an imperfect representation of the function.
30 A simple 1D example x
31 Fourier transforms of images. Image with 1 Fourier component in each direction +
32 Fourier transforms of images. Image with 2 Fourier components in each direction +
33 Fourier transforms of images. Image with 3 Fourier components in each direction
34 Fourier transforms of images.
35 Fourier transforms of images.
36 Fourier transforms of images.
37 Fourier transforms of images.
38 Fourier transforms of images.
39 Fourier transforms of images.
40 The full Fourier Transform Fourier Transform Intensity
42 FFT of a real image Image Fourier Transform (intensity image)
43 A few technical points. As the image has discrete pixels, this is a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and you DON T need an infinite series Every point in the image contributes to every point in the transform and vice-versa. BUT certain features in the transform contribute to certain features of the image
44 Numerical aperture (N.A.) and wavelength determine resolution Resolution--the ability to distinguish two point sources of light--is typically nm, depending on wavelength, etc. Over 100 years old! Objective N.A. = n sin!! Specimen plane Condenser resolution = 0.61" / N.A. More correctly, N.A. of system = N.A. (obj) + N.A. (cond) / 2
45 N.A. and resolution The condenser should not be ignored when considering resolution Condenser open Condenser closed For highest resolution, open the condenser to fill the back focal plane Different types of condensers
46 Why we use immersion oil with high-power objectives In fact, immersion oil can also be used with relatively low power objectives (e.g. 25X). But with high power objectives, magnification without resolution is useless, so the N.A. must be maximized Refraction of light leaving the specimen, passing through a coverslip, and reaching the coverllip-air interface is the problem--total internal reflection Light leaving the coverslip: At higher angle: At still higher angle: Total internal reflection! 1! 1! 1 air air air air glass glass glass glass! 2! 2! 2! 2
47 Why we use immersion oil with high-power objectives In fact, immersion oil can also be used with relatively low power objectives (e.g. 25X). But with high power objectives, magnification without resolution is useless, so the N.A. must be maximized Refraction of light leaving the specimen, passing through a coverslip, and reaching the coverllip-air interface is the problem--total internal reflection The "standard" coverslips are "thickness 1.5", which are mm thick Total internal reflection at glass-air interface Transmission at glass-oil interface "thickness 1" coverslips are quite thin, and tend to break easily--don't buy them! Changing coverslips or refractive index of immersion oil can help for very high-resolution or specialpurpose imaging
48 Reading objective markings--a field guide All modern microscopes for the last ~15 years (Zeiss, Nikon, Olympus, Leica) use "infinity-corrected" optics rather than standard 160 mm tubelength optics (RMS standard). Older and/or cheaper scopes may still use the RMS standard With old (RMS) standard, objectives were completely interchangeable With new standards, companies have gone their separate ways, and the optics can be fundamentally different (and threads are often not compatible anyhow).
49 Key points Basic understanding of refraction and diffraction, and properties of lenses Understanding of two different sets of conjugate planes, especially importance of objective back-focal plane Understanding of factors affecting image resolution
50 Reference s D.B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging E. Hecht, Optics M. Spencer, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy (older but still useful)
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