MICROSCOPE LAB. Resolving Power How well specimen detail is preserved during the magnifying process.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MICROSCOPE LAB. Resolving Power How well specimen detail is preserved during the magnifying process."

Transcription

1 AP BIOLOGY Cells ACTIVITY #2 MICROSCOPE LAB OBJECTIVES 1. Demonstrate proper care and use of a compound microscope. 2. Identify the parts of the microscope and describe the function of each part. 3. Compare magnification, resolving power, and contrast. 4. Demonstrate proper technique of preparing a wet mount slide. 5. Demonstrate inversion and depth of field. 6. Use the compound microscope as an instrument of measurement. INTRODUCTION The unaided human eye can detect objects as small as 0.1 mm in diameter. Most cells are between 0.01 mm and 0.1 mm in diameter and cannot be seen without a microscope. A microscope contains one or more lenses and is used to view detail that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. The light microscope, by virtue of its lens system, extends our vision a thousand times so that object as small as 0.1 micrometer (μm) in diameter can be seen. The electron microscope further extends our viewing capability down to 1 nanometer (nm). At this magnification it is possible to see a virus and the outline of individual protein or nucleic acid molecules. A lens functions by refracting (bending) light rays coming from an object and focusing them to form an image of that object. Refraction of light is due to the angle at which it passes from one transparent medium to another (for example, air to glass) and the difference in density between the media. A magnifying glass is a simple light microscope. The microscope consists of a set of lenses that focus an enlarged image of an object on the retina of the eye. BASIC MICROSCOPY The microscope is useful in making observations and collecting data in scientific experiments. Microscopy involves three basic concepts: Magnification The degree to which the image of a specimen is enlarged. Resolving Power How well specimen detail is preserved during the magnifying process. Contrast The ability to see specimen detail against its background. Stains and dyes are added to sections of biological specimens to increase contrast. Cell Activity #2 Page 1 of 10

2 BASIC MICROSCOPE LAYOUT *Always keep the eyepiece facing away from the direction the stage faces. *Never move the microscope to show your partner something. Instead- switch him or her places. *Never put away a microscope that is dirty or has a slide on the stage. Cell Activity #2 Page 2 of 10

3 Abbe Condenser: A specially designed lens that mounts under the stage and is usually movable in the vertical direction. It has an iris type aperture to control the diameter of the beam of light entering the lens system. By changing the size of the iris and moving the lens toward or away from the stage, the diameter and focal point of the cone of light that goes through the specimen can be controlled. Abbe condensers really become useful at magnifications above 400X. Arm: The part of the microscope that connects the tube to the base. When carrying a microscope, grab the arm with one hand and place your other hand under the base. Base: The bottom support of the microscope (see arm above). Coarse Focus: This is the rough focus knob on the microscope. You use it to move the objective lenses toward or away from the specimen (see fine focus). Do not use this if you are in HIGH POWER. You could crack the slide. Condenser Lens: A lens mounted in or below the stage whose purpose is to focus or condense the light onto the specimen. By using a condenser lens you will increase the Illumination and resolution. Condenser lenses are not required on low power microscopes. Cover Slip: A very thin square piece of glass or plastic placed over the specimen on a microscope slide. When used with liquid samples, it flattens out the liquid and assists with single plane focusing. Usually these are disposable. Diaphragm: Not present on these scopes. Eyepiece Lens: The lens at the top of the microscope that you look into. They are usually 10X but also are available in 5X, 15X and 20X. Fine Focus: This is the knob used to fine tune the focus on the specimen. It is also used to focus on various parts of the specimen. Generally one uses the coarse focus first to get close then move to the fine focus knob for fine tuning. If you turn this many many times you will really mess it up. It should not take many turns to find focus. Field of View: Sometimes abbreviated "FOV", it is the diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking into a microscope. As the power gets greater, the field of view gets smaller. You can measure this by placing a clear metric ruler on the stage and counting the millimeters from one side to the other. Head: The upper part of the microscope that contains the eyepiece tube and prisms. A monocular head has one eyepiece, a binocular has two (one for each eye). We have monocular heads. Illuminator: A light source mounted under the stage. Our light source has a variable output instead of having a diaphragm under the stage and a fixed lamp. Mechanical Stage: A mechanical way to move the slide around on your stage. It consists of a slide holder and two knobs. Turn one knob and the slide moves toward or away from you. Turn the other knob and the slide moves left and right. Since everything is upside down on a (high power) microscope it takes some getting used to but it is very convenient to have one especially when observing moving specimens like protozoans or other pond water critters. Place the slide in the Mechanical Specimen Holder. Nosepiece: The part of the microscope that holds the objective lenses also called a revolving nosepiece or turret. Objective Lens: The lens closest to the object. We have three (4X, 10X, and 40X) Parfocal: This is a focus issue. When changing from one objective to another, the new image should be either in focus or close enough so that you can refocus with only minor adjustments. All of our microscopes are parfocaled. Pointer: When you look through the eyepiece lens, you may see a pointer. By turning the eyepiece, you can rotate the pointer around. Slide: A flat glass or plastic rectangular plate that the specimen is placed on. It may have a depression or well to hold a few drops of liquid. Stage: The flat plate where the slides are placed for observation. X: Times as in 200X or two hundred times magnification. The magnification of a microscope is determined by multiplying the power of the eyepiece lens by the power of the corresponding objective lens Cell Activity #2 Page 3 of 10

4 Size of Objective Magnification Eyepiece Mag. Total Magnification Smallest (Scanning) Medium Largest (High) Not Present (Oil Immersion) 100X 10X 10X 10X 10X Part A. General Microscopy Procedure 1. Obtain a prepared slide from the supply area. 2. Make sure the scanning power lens is in place. (4X) and turn on the power to the light source. 3. Turn up the light source intensity to about 75% or full range of dial. 4. Open up the iris fully to the left (toward the X&Y adjustment knobs) 5. Lower the stage with the course adjustment knob so you can place the slide on the stage without hitting the objective lens. 6. Place the slide on the stage of your microscope and clip it into place. Turn the mechanical X & Y stage position knobs until the center of the slide is right over the light source (circular lens below the stage). 7. While looking at the microscope from the side, move the stage all the way up using the course adjustment knob. 8. While looking through the eyepiece, turn the course adjustment knob away from you until the specimen is in focus 9. Adjust the light intensity and iris until you have the best view of the specimen. 10. With the specimen in focus and positioned in the center of the field of view, rotate the nosepiece lens to the medium power objective (10X). DO NOT move the coarse focus. Only fine focus should be necessary to bring the specimen into sharp focus. Remember: The ability of the microscope t remain in focus when switching from one objective lens to the next highest power is called parfocal. 11. With the specimen in focus and positioned in the center of the field of view, rotate the nosepiece lens to the high power objective (40X). DO NOT move the coarse focus. Only fine focus should be necessary to bring the specimen into sharp focus. 12. Draw a pencil sketch of what you see in the front of your lab book. Be sure to note the name of the slide, total magnification, topic (in this case microcopy), and date. Cell Activity #2 Page 4 of 10

5 13. Add color with colored pencils or crayons to make it look realistic. Consult your textbook, lab manual, and/or - at last resort your teacher to see if you have the right details. 14. Label all visible structures. 15. Return microscope to scanning power, remove the slide and return it to the tray, and let your partner do the next one! Both partners draw both specimens. 16. This sequence of events should be repeated every time you get a new specimen slide! Part B. Specimen Orientation Procedure 1. Cut out a typed lowercase letter e from a scrap sheet of paper. 2. Place the e in the center of a microscope slide 3. Place the e slide on the stage so that the bottom of the e is facing the arm of the microscope. 4. Make sure the scanning power lens is in place. (4X) and use the procedure (above) to find the e in scanning power. 5. Sketch what you see in your lab notebook. Label it e and 40X What do you notice about the e? (What does the lens do to the image?) When looking through the eyepiece, what happens when you move the slide forward? When looking through the eyepiece, what happens when you move the slide back? When looking through the eyepiece, what happens when you move the slide left? When looking through the eyepiece, what happens when you move the slide right? 6. Repeat at medium power (including sketch). 7. Repeat at High power (including sketch). You may only be able to sketch PART of the image. Use more detail under HIGH. Part C. Field of View Measurement Procedure Most of the objects you view under the compound microscope are smaller than two millimeters. Obviously, measuring these microscopic objects could prove to be quite difficult and inexact if millimeters are used as the unit of measure. To solve this problem scientists divide the millimeter into 1000 smaller units called micrometers (μm). Tiny objects can then be accurately measured in micrometers. In this section you will learn how to estimate the size of the tiny organisms you view under the compound microscope. Obtain a transparent plastic ruler from the supply area. 1. Place the plastic ruler on the stage so that the ruler s edge is centered in your field of view under low power. Make sure you use the millimeter side of the ruler. Use the diagram for help. Cell Activity #2 Page 5 of 10

6 2. Look through the eyepiece Position the ruler so one of the millimeter marks is just visible to the left in your field of view. Use the diagram for help. Notice the distance between the mark on the left and the next mark is one millimeter. Estimate the remaining distance in decimal fractions of a millimeter across the diameter of the field of view. What is your total field of view size in millimeters under scanning power? mm 3. What is the scanning power field diameter in micrometers (μm)? (1 mm = 1000 μm) μm 4. What is your total field of view size in millimeters under medium power? mm 5. What is the medium power field diameter in micrometers (μm)? (1 mm = 1000 μm) μm 6. Switch to high power. Look at the marks on the ruler. You will find that the high power field of view is less than 1mm or 1000μm. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate the diameter of the field of view using the same technique used for low power. However, you can determine the field of view under high power by using the formula below: 7. Using the simple algebra formula above What is the high power field diameter in micrometers (μm)? (1 mm = 1000 μm) μm 8. Now that you know the diameter of your field size under both high and low power, you can use that information to estimate the size of objects you observe under the microscope. For example, in the diagram at the right, 10 circular objects fit across the field of view. The field of view is 2000μm in diameter. Since each object takes up 1/10 of the 2000μm field diameter, the size of each object is 200μm. You can use this method to estimate size of objects you view under your microscope once you know your microscope s field diameter. Cell Activity #2 Page 6 of 10

7 9. Obtain three prepared slides from the tray and use the methods (above) to estimate the size or thickness of the objects. Record your findings in the data table. Magnification? Number of Estimated Field Specimen Name Whichever allows you to est. Specimens that fit specimen size or size best. Diameter across thickness Part D. Depth of Field Procedure 1. Obtain a slide of colored threads from the supply area. 2. Look at the slide under low power where the threads cross. Adjust the knobs to give the sharpest view. Are all three thread colors equally visible under low power? 3. Look at the slide under high power where the threads cross. Adjust the knobs to give the sharpest view. Are all three thread colors equally visible under low power? 4. Slowly fine focus up and down to determine the order of the thread colors. a) Top b) Middle c) Bottom *no drawings necessary The Wiggle Technique This will come in handy in the future! 1. Sometimes a slide will be a very thin section of a tissue. In this case you must not let the light wash out the specimen. Put the light very low and close the iris. 2. Once you place the specimen right in the middle, wiggle the slide back and forth slightly while focusing with the course adjustment knob. When you get close you will start to see the slide moving back and forth in your field of view. If you see no back and forth then you are not close to being in focus! *no drawings necessary Cell Activity #2 Page 7 of 10

8 QUESTIONS 1. Identify the parts of the microscope from memory. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. 2. Describe how a compound microscope should be held and carried. 3. How is the total magnification of a microscope determined? 4. If the eyepiece on a microscope has a magnification of 10X, what is the total magnification with a 15X objective? 5. If the eyepiece on a microscope has a magnification of 15X, what is the total magnification with a 45X objective? 6. An image is located in the lower right hand corner of the field of view. How would you move the slide to center the image? 7. Objects viewed under a compound microscope are frequently lost when switching from low to high power. Give one reason why this happens. Cell Activity #2 Page 8 of 10

9 8. How did the light intensity change when you switched from low power to high power objective? 9. Do you observe more or less area in your field of view when under high power compared to low power? 10. If a microscope has a low power magnification of 100X and a high power magnification of 500X, and a low power field of 1500μm, what is the high power field in μm? (SHOW YOUR WORK) 11. If 20 objects fit across the diameter of a low power field of view whose field diameter is 4000μm, what would be the approximate size of each object? 12. Why is it more difficult to measure the diameter of the high power field of view than the low power field of view? 13. The circle at the right represents a microscope s field of view with a black dot under 10X magnification. Draw how large the dot would appear under 40X magnification. Also, draw a circle to indicate the size of the field of view under 40X 14. Sketch the number 4 as it appears through the lenses of the compound microscope. 15. How has the lens system of the compound microscope changed the orientation of the numeral? 16. A student focuses on a specimen at low power and carefully centers it before changing to high power. At high power, however, he doesn t see the part of the specimen he was interested in. What might be the problem? 17. Inspired by her biology lab, a student decides to make a closer study of the food she eats. She uses a razor blade to make a very thin section from a raw potato and mounts it in a drop of water on a slide. To her disappointment, she can barely make out the cells under the microscope. What might she do to improve her results? Cell Activity #2 Page 9 of 10

10 18. How is magnification different from resolving power? 19. What are the advantages and limitations of studying cells using light microscopy? 20. Compare and contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 21. What are the advantages and limitations of studying cells using electron microscopy? Cell Activity #2 Page 10 of 10

The microscope is useful in making observations and collecting data in scientific experiments. Microscopy involves three basic concepts:

The microscope is useful in making observations and collecting data in scientific experiments. Microscopy involves three basic concepts: AP BIOLOGY Chapter 6 NAME DATE Block MICROSCOPE LAB PART I: COMPOUND MICROSCOPE OBJECTIVES: After completing this exercise you should be able to: Demonstrate proper care and use of a compound microscope.

More information

The microscope is useful in making observations and collecting data in scientific experiments. Microscopy involves three basic concepts:

The microscope is useful in making observations and collecting data in scientific experiments. Microscopy involves three basic concepts: Lab #4 Biology 10 BCC Topic: MICROSCOPE LAB PART I: COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE OBJECTIVES: After completing this exercise you should be able to: Demonstrate proper care and use of a compound microscope.

More information

Basic Microscopy for Plant Biology

Basic Microscopy for Plant Biology Page 1 of 8 Basic Microscopy for Plant Biology OBJECTIVES After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following: a. Name the parts of the compound microscope and the functions of each.

More information

Basic Microscopy. OBJECTIVES After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following:

Basic Microscopy. OBJECTIVES After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following: Page 1 of 10 Basic Microscopy OBJECTIVES After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following: a. Name the parts of the compound microscope and the functions of each. b. Describe how

More information

MICROSCOPY MICROSCOPE TERMINOLOGY

MICROSCOPY MICROSCOPE TERMINOLOGY 1 MICROSCOPY Most of the microorganisms that we talk about in this class are too small to be seen with the naked eye. The instruments we will use to visualize these microbes are microscopes. The laboratory

More information

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MICROSCOPY The two key properties of a microscope that allow you to see microbes are resolution and magnification.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MICROSCOPY The two key properties of a microscope that allow you to see microbes are resolution and magnification. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MICROSCOPY The two key properties of a microscope that allow you to see microbes are resolution and magnification. Magnification refers to the enlargement of the specimen when seen

More information

Lab: The Compound Microscope

Lab: The Compound Microscope Lab: The Compound Microscope Purpose: To learn the parts of the compound microscope and to learn the basic skills needed to use the microscope properly. Materials: Microscope Colored paper Cover slips

More information

Introduction to Microscopes

Introduction to Microscopes INTRODUCTION TO THE MICROSCOPE Introduction to Microscopes The first microscopes worked by the same basic principle as the ones you will be using in lab. They are light microscopes. Visible light passes

More information

Marine Invertebrate Zoology Microscope Introduction

Marine Invertebrate Zoology Microscope Introduction Marine Invertebrate Zoology Microscope Introduction Introduction A laboratory tool that has become almost synonymous with biology is the microscope. As an extension of your eyes, the microscope is one

More information

Microscopy. Danil Hammoudi.MD

Microscopy. Danil Hammoudi.MD Microscopy Danil Hammoudi.MD Care and Handling of the Microscope: A microscope is a delicate piece of equipment and should be treated with care. Use two hands when carrying the microscope. Place one hand

More information

Biology Lab #1: Using Microscopes to Observe and Measure Cells

Biology Lab #1: Using Microscopes to Observe and Measure Cells Biology Lab #1: Using Microscopes to Observe and Measure Cells Make sure you have signed and submitted the CDNIS Safety Contract before you start this experiment! PURPOSE: to review the use of the microscope

More information

Care and Use of the Compound Light Microscope

Care and Use of the Compound Light Microscope EXERCISE 2 Care and Use of the Compound Light Microscope Time Estimates for Completing This Lab The activities in this laboratory exercise can be completed in 2 to 2.5 hours. Extra time will be required

More information

Biology 29 Cell Structure and Function Spring, 2009 Springer LABORATORY 1: THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE

Biology 29 Cell Structure and Function Spring, 2009 Springer LABORATORY 1: THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE Biology 29 Cell Structure and Function Spring, 2009 Springer LABORATORY 1: THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE Prior to lab: 1) Read these instructions (p 1-6) 2) Go through the online tutorial, the microscopy pre-lab

More information

Scale. A Microscope s job in life. The Light Microscope. The Compound Microscope 9/24/12. Compound Microscope Anatomy

Scale. A Microscope s job in life. The Light Microscope. The Compound Microscope 9/24/12. Compound Microscope Anatomy The Study of Microbial Structure: Microscopy and Specimen Preparation Scale A Microscope s job in life 1.Magnify 2. Resolve ability to separate or distinguish between two points 3. Contrast How much or

More information

Microscope Review. 1. A compound light microscope is represented in the diagram below.

Microscope Review. 1. A compound light microscope is represented in the diagram below. Name Microscope Review Date 1. A compound light microscope is represented in the diagram below. 5. The diagram below represents a hydra as viewed with a compound light microscope. If the hydra moves toward

More information

2018 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES

2018 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES 2018 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES 1000 millimeters (mm) = 1 meter (m) 1000 micrometers (µm or mcm) = 1 millimeter (mm) 1000 nanometers (nm) = 1 micrometer (mcm) Size

More information

The light microscope

The light microscope What is a microscope? The microscope is an essential tool in modern biology. It allows us to view structural details of organs, tissue, and cells not visible to the naked eye. The microscope should always

More information

1.When an object is sharply focused and the slide is moved towards you, in which direction does the

1.When an object is sharply focused and the slide is moved towards you, in which direction does the image upright or inverted? Name: Date: _ BIOLOGY EXPERIMENT:Class: Using a Compound Light Microscope II: Depth Perception, resolution, field of view MATERIALS: Compound light microscopecolor magazine clipping

More information

2017 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES

2017 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES 2017 MICROSCOPE REVIEW by Karen L. Lancour RELATIVE SIZE OF MICROBES 1000 millimeters (mm) = 1 meter (m) 1000 micrometers (µm or mcm) = 1 millimeter (mm) 1000 nanometers (nm) = 1 micrometer (mcm) Size

More information

Microbiology: Observing Bacteria Laboratory -1. Name Date

Microbiology: Observing Bacteria Laboratory -1. Name Date Microbiology: Observing Bacteria Laboratory -1 Name Date Prelab: Part 1 Introduction to the microscope- please read through this handout and label the picture on the next page before starting the lab Care

More information

Microscope Skills. Scientific Skills the Microscope!

Microscope Skills. Scientific Skills the Microscope! Microscope Skills Scientific Skills the Microscope! T. Trimpe 2005 http://sciencespot.net/ Body Tube Ocular lens (Eyepiece) Nosepiece Objectives Stage Clips Diaphragm Light Always carry a microscope with

More information

What is it? Study the mystery photos and try to identify each one! Have access to a computer?

What is it? Study the mystery photos and try to identify each one! Have access to a computer? Station 1 Solve the Mystery What is it? Study the mystery photos and try to identify each one! They are all common objects that might be found in your home or a classroom. Write your guesses for the mystery

More information

Ocular Lenses. Head. Arm. Objective Lenses. Slide Holder Stage. On / Off Switch. Condenser with Iris Diaphragm. Light Intensity Control

Ocular Lenses. Head. Arm. Objective Lenses. Slide Holder Stage. On / Off Switch. Condenser with Iris Diaphragm. Light Intensity Control BIOLOGY 211: HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ********************************************************************************************************* USE OF THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE **********************************************************************************************************

More information

Unit Two Part II MICROSCOPY

Unit Two Part II MICROSCOPY Unit Two Part II MICROSCOPY AVERETT 1 0 /9/2013 1 MICROSCOPES Microscopes are devices that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye Humans cannot see objects

More information

Introduction. Instructional Objectives. Materials. Procedure. I. Microscope Parts and Function. Honors Biology

Introduction. Instructional Objectives. Materials. Procedure. I. Microscope Parts and Function. Honors Biology Honors Biology Introduction to the Microscope Lab Activity This lab was created by Mr. Buckley from Edward Knox High School. Credit is given for this original activity to Mr. Buckley. Introduction "Micro"

More information

LAB 1 Introduction to Microscopy

LAB 1 Introduction to Microscopy I. Ubiquity of Microorganisms II. Microscopy LAB 1 Introduction to Microscopy I. UBIQUITY OF MICROORGANISMS Microorganisms are ubiquitous; that is, they are present nearly everywhere. In this lab you will

More information

Using a Compound Light Microscope Lab Pre-Lab Assignment

Using a Compound Light Microscope Lab Pre-Lab Assignment Name: Block: Due Date: Using a Compound Light Microscope Lab Pre-Lab Assignment Pre-Lab Assignment This assignment must be completed by the next class period in order to be allowed to participate in the

More information

Microscope. Dr. Leena Barhate Department of Microbiology M.J.College, Jalgaon

Microscope. Dr. Leena Barhate Department of Microbiology M.J.College, Jalgaon Microscope Dr. Leena Barhate Department of Microbiology M.J.College, Jalgaon Acknowledgement http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n17/histor y/neurons1_i.htm Google Images http://science.howstuffworks.com/lightmicroscope1.htm

More information

Lab: Using a Compound Light Microscope

Lab: Using a Compound Light Microscope Name Date Period Lab: Using a Compound Light Microscope Background: Microscopes are very important tools in biology. The term microscope can be translated as to view the tiny, because microscopes are used

More information

The Microscope. Packet #2. 10/17/2016 9:12:02 PM Ryan Barrow 2012

The Microscope. Packet #2. 10/17/2016 9:12:02 PM Ryan Barrow 2012 1 The Microscope Packet #2 10/17/2016 9:12:02 PM Ryan Barrow 2012 2 Historical Timeline 1609 Galileo Galilei develops a compound microscope with a convex and a concave les. 1665 Robert Hooke publishes

More information

Burton's Microbiology for the Health Sciences

Burton's Microbiology for the Health Sciences Burton's Microbiology for the Health Sciences Chapter 2. Viewing the Microbial World Chapter 2 Outline Introduction Using the metric system to express the sizes of microbes Microscopes Simple microscopes

More information

Name: Date Completed: Class: Lab Minutes: Teacher:

Name: Date Completed: Class: Lab Minutes: Teacher: Name: Date Completed: _ Class: Lab Minutes: _ Teacher: Introduction to the Microscope Lab Activity This lab was created by Mr. Buckley from Edward Knox High School. Credit is given for this original activity

More information

How to Use a Microscope

How to Use a Microscope How to Use a Microscope Overview Welcome to our unit on microscopes! We re going to learn how to use our microscope to make things appear larger so we can study them more easily. If you ve ever wondered

More information

USING THE MICROSCOPE TO OBSERVE CELLS

USING THE MICROSCOPE TO OBSERVE CELLS USING THE MICROSCOPE TO OBSERVE CELLS *****IMPORTANT!!!!! BEFORE VISITING YOUR LEARNING CENTER TO CARRY OUT THIS LAB ACTIVITY PLEASE READ BELOW Before you visit your Learning Center to use the microscope,

More information

VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE DEPTH STUDY: ELECTRON MICROSCOPES

VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE DEPTH STUDY: ELECTRON MICROSCOPES VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE DEPTH STUDY: ELECTRON MICROSCOPES Shortly after the experimental confirmation of the wave properties of the electron, it was suggested that the electron could be used to examine objects

More information

BIOLOGY 1101 LAB 2: MICROSCOPES AND CELLS

BIOLOGY 1101 LAB 2: MICROSCOPES AND CELLS BIOLOGY 1101 LAB 2: MICROSCOPES AND CELLS READING: Please read Chapter 4 in your text book to learn about the history of microscopy and basic cell structure. INTRODUCTION: The microscope is an important

More information

Swift M10 Series Microscope Use and Care Manual

Swift M10 Series Microscope Use and Care Manual Swift M10 Series Microscope Use and Care Manual SWIFT OPTICAL Enduring Quality and Technical Excellence SWIFT M10 SERIES (Non-digital) Your Swift M10 microscope is an instrument of precision, both optically

More information

Key Points Refer to How to Use the Compound Light Microscope :

Key Points Refer to How to Use the Compound Light Microscope : MODULE 1 Objective 1.2 Lesson B Introduction to the Microscope Using the Light Microscope and Slide Preparation Course Advanced Biotechnology Unit Biotech Basics Essential Question How do scientists view

More information

Microscope Tutorial. How to use a compound microscope

Microscope Tutorial. How to use a compound microscope Microscope Tutorial How to use a compound microscope Read this first Microscopes are extremely delicate and extremely expensive! You MUST be extremely careful when using the microscope. Always hold the

More information

Using Microscopes. Life Science: Molecular

Using Microscopes. Life Science: Molecular Using Microscopes Life Science: Molecular Light Microscopy: Instrumentation and Principles A light microscope is so named because it uses visible light to produce a magnified image. Compound light microscopes

More information

Ex 1: Introduction to the microscope

Ex 1: Introduction to the microscope Ex 1: Introduction to the microscope So what exactly is a microorganism? Microorganisms = any living thing that is too small to be seen with the unaided eye fungus protist bacteria virus Parasitic worm

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary:

Objectives: Vocabulary: Measuring with a Microscope Author: David Gardner Date Created: Summer 2007 Subject: Biology (and Chemistry) Level: High School Standards: 1: Analysis, Inquiry and Design 4: Physical Setting and Living

More information

MICROSCOPES. Magnification: Resolution: Field of View: Describes the visual picture seen when looking through the eyepiece of the microscope

MICROSCOPES. Magnification: Resolution: Field of View: Describes the visual picture seen when looking through the eyepiece of the microscope Microscopes MICROSCOPES Magnification: Resolution: Field of View: Describes the visual picture seen when looking through the eyepiece of the microscope 7X 45X 112.5X 225X 1 st crude microscope made by

More information

Lab One: Techniques for Better Microscope Use

Lab One: Techniques for Better Microscope Use Name BioPreAP/GT Purpose: Lab One: Techniques for Better Microscope Use Part A: Microscope Parts and Functions *Refer to Fig. 1 to refresh your memory on the parts of the microscope. *The objectives are

More information

Introduction. Laboratory Equipment & Supplies. Model 1333PHi Shown (Phase Contrast) (2) Eyepieces (Eyecups installed) Diopter Adjustment Mechanism

Introduction. Laboratory Equipment & Supplies. Model 1333PHi Shown (Phase Contrast) (2) Eyepieces (Eyecups installed) Diopter Adjustment Mechanism Introduction With the invention of the microscope in the early 17th century, it was made possible to view objects which were too small for the human eye to see. As the microscope evolved, the structure

More information

Instruction Manual T Binocular Acromat Research Scope T Trinocular Acromat Research Scope

Instruction Manual T Binocular Acromat Research Scope T Trinocular Acromat Research Scope Research Scope Instruction Manual T-29031 Binocular Acromat Research Scope T-29041 Trinocular Acromat Research Scope T-29032 Binocular Semi-Plan Research Scope T-29042 Trinocular Semi-Plan Research Scope

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MICROSCOPE

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MICROSCOPE AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MICROSCOPE INTRODUCTION In this exercise you will learn the components and operation of the compound microscope and the dissection microscope. This will be followed by a short exercise

More information

Microscopes & cells. 2. arm. 3. ocular lens. 4. objective lenses. 5. stage. 6. slide clamp. 7. stage controls

Microscopes & cells. 2. arm. 3. ocular lens. 4. objective lenses. 5. stage. 6. slide clamp. 7. stage controls Microscopes & cells Objectives: At the end of this lab you should be able to: o demonstrate the safe and proper handling of a microscope, including carrying a microscope, slide placement, and storage.

More information

Swift M10D Series Microscope Use and Care Manual

Swift M10D Series Microscope Use and Care Manual Swift M10D Series Microscope Use and Care Manual SWIFT OPTICAL Enduring Quality and Technical Excellence SWIFT M10D SERIES (with 3MP built-in digital camera) The Swift M10D microscope is equipped with

More information

MICROSCOPE (3 x 2 hour lesson)

MICROSCOPE (3 x 2 hour lesson) MICROSCOPE (3 x 2 hour lesson) 1ST WEEK (2 HOUR): PRINCIPLE OF MICROSCOPE AND BASIC QUIZ Principle of microscope Make a simple microscope using two convex lenses to learn the principle of microscope. Identification

More information

General Physics Experiment 5 Optical Instruments: Simple Magnifier, Microscope, and Newtonian Telescope

General Physics Experiment 5 Optical Instruments: Simple Magnifier, Microscope, and Newtonian Telescope General Physics Experiment 5 Optical Instruments: Simple Magnifier, Microscope, and Newtonian Telescope Objective: < To observe the magnifying properties of the simple magnifier, the microscope and the

More information

THE TELESCOPE. PART 1: The Eye and Visual Acuity

THE TELESCOPE. PART 1: The Eye and Visual Acuity THE TELESCOPE OBJECTIVE: As seen with the naked eye the heavens are a wonderfully fascinating place. With a little careful watching the brighter stars can be grouped into constellations and an order seen

More information

Lab 2 T. Microbes in Everyday Life; Pure Culture Project; Hand Washing; Light Microscopy

Lab 2 T. Microbes in Everyday Life; Pure Culture Project; Hand Washing; Light Microscopy Microbes in Everyday Life; Pure Culture Project; Hand Washing; Light Microscopy Lab 2 T oday s lab looks at the results of microbial diversity and continues the project of working toward producing a pure

More information

Protist Microscope Lab

Protist Microscope Lab Name: Block: Due Date: Protist Microscope Lab Pre-Lab Assignment 1. Fill out the table for question #4 on the second page of your lab packet. (You may use the Biology textbook pages R8 and R9 in the back

More information

UNIT: THE MICROSCOPE AND CELLULAR DIVERSITY

UNIT: THE MICROSCOPE AND CELLULAR DIVERSITY Course: Biology Agricultural Science & Technology UNIT: THE MICROSCOPE AND CELLULAR DIVERSITY State Standard: State Objectives: Unit Objectives: A. Learn how to use the compound microscope. B. Learn the

More information

Basics of Light Microscopy and Metallography

Basics of Light Microscopy and Metallography ENGR45: Introduction to Materials Spring 2012 Laboratory 8 Basics of Light Microscopy and Metallography In this exercise you will: gain familiarity with the proper use of a research-grade light microscope

More information

Home Lab 5 Refraction of Light

Home Lab 5 Refraction of Light 1 Home Lab 5 Refraction of Light Overview: In previous experiments we learned that when light falls on certain materials some of the light is reflected back. In many materials, such as glass, plastic,

More information

Chapter 29/30. Wave Fronts and Rays. Refraction of Sound. Dispersion in a Prism. Index of Refraction. Refraction and Lenses

Chapter 29/30. Wave Fronts and Rays. Refraction of Sound. Dispersion in a Prism. Index of Refraction. Refraction and Lenses Chapter 29/30 Refraction and Lenses Refraction Refraction the bending of waves as they pass from one medium into another. Caused by a change in the average speed of light. Analogy A car that drives off

More information

Lab 12. Optical Instruments

Lab 12. Optical Instruments Lab 12. Optical Instruments Goals To construct a simple telescope with two positive lenses having known focal lengths, and to determine the angular magnification (analogous to the magnifying power of a

More information

MEASURING WITH A MICROSCOPE Size Determination in Compound Light Microscopes

MEASURING WITH A MICROSCOPE Size Determination in Compound Light Microscopes MEASURING WITH A MICROSCOPE Size Determination in Compound Light Microscopes Name: Per: Date: 1. What do the following pictures represent? Which one is bigger? What s missing? Write your answers next to

More information

User Manual. Digital Compound Binocular LED Microscope. MicroscopeNet.com

User Manual. Digital Compound Binocular LED Microscope. MicroscopeNet.com User Manual Digital Compound Binocular LED Microscope Model MD82ES10 MicroscopeNet.com Table of Contents i. Caution... 1 ii. Care and Maintenance... 2 1. Components Illustration... 3 2. Installation...

More information

ML7520 ML7530 DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT RING BINOCULAR BODY, INCLINED 30. (a) Field Iris Control Lever. (c) Filter Slots EYEPIECES, KHW10X

ML7520 ML7530 DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT RING BINOCULAR BODY, INCLINED 30. (a) Field Iris Control Lever. (c) Filter Slots EYEPIECES, KHW10X JAPAN DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT RING BINOCULAR BODY, INCLINED 30 (a) Field Iris Control Lever (c) Filter Slots EYEPIECES, KHW10X ANALYZER CONTROL LEVER (b) Aperture Iris Control Lever LIGHT SOURCE HOUSING VERTICAL

More information

OMM300. Inverted Metallurgical Microscope

OMM300. Inverted Metallurgical Microscope OMM300 Inverted Metallurgical Microscope Instruction Manual Please read the instructions carefully before operating CONTENTS Safety 2 Parts List 2 Features 3 Assembly 5 Operation 7 Maintenance 9 Specifications

More information

How Microscopes Work By Cindy Grigg

How Microscopes Work By Cindy Grigg By Cindy Grigg 1 Inventions often lead scientists to make new discoveries. One of the most important discoveries in life science was the microscope. A microscope is used for looking at things too small

More information

TEKSCOPE MICROSCOPE. Models N2 Series USER S MANUAL

TEKSCOPE MICROSCOPE. Models N2 Series USER S MANUAL TEKSCOPE MICROSCOPE Models N2 Series USER S MANUAL Contents Before use 1 1.Nomenclature. 2 2.Operation 4 2-1 Angle of observation.. 4 2-2 Set the specimen slide.. 4 2-3 Set illumination 4 2-4 Adjust focus

More information

Microscope - Exercise 1

Microscope - Exercise 1 Microscope - Exercise 1 Objectives -Familiarize parts and functions of the microscope. -Calculate total magnifications. -Determining the Diameter of the field of view for different magnifications. -Estimate

More information

LAB 3 Use of the Microscope

LAB 3 Use of the Microscope LAB 3 Use of the Microscope Introduction In this laboratory you will be learning how to use one of the most important tools in biology the compound light microscope to view a variety of specimens. You

More information

Easy Kohler Illumination Method

Easy Kohler Illumination Method Easy Kohler Illumination Method ACADEMIC SKILLS CENTRE (ASC) A. Silverberg Completion of a Kohler illumination method is required before a microscope can be used efficiently. The Kohler method is designed

More information

Eyepieces KHW10X. Diopter Adjustment Ring. Binocular Body Inclined 30. Binocular Clamp Screw. Analyzer control Lever. Reflected Light Illuminator

Eyepieces KHW10X. Diopter Adjustment Ring. Binocular Body Inclined 30. Binocular Clamp Screw. Analyzer control Lever. Reflected Light Illuminator JAPAN Eyepieces KHW10X Diopter Adjustment Ring Binocular Body Inclined 30 Binocular Clamp Screw Analyzer control Lever Reflected Light Illuminator Ball-Bearing Objective Nosepiece Objectives Large Scan

More information

Microscope anatomy, image formation and resolution

Microscope anatomy, image formation and resolution Microscope anatomy, image formation and resolution Ian Dobbie Buy this book for your lab: D.B. Murphy, "Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging", ISBN 0-471-25391-X Visit these websites:

More information

Snell s Law, Lenses, and Optical Instruments

Snell s Law, Lenses, and Optical Instruments Physics 4 Laboratory Snell s Law, Lenses, and Optical Instruments Prelab Exercise Please read the Procedure section and try to understand the physics involved and how the experimental procedure works.

More information

With the inventi.on of the microscope, biologists gained a valuable tool .~ '" The Microscope. o Lens paper. o Toothpicks (flat-tipped)

With the inventi.on of the microscope, biologists gained a valuable tool .~ ' The Microscope. o Lens paper. o Toothpicks (flat-tipped) The Microscope MATERIALS o Compound microscope o Millimeter ruler o Prepared slides of the letter e or newsprint o Immersion oil o Lens paper o Prepared slide of grid ruled in millimeters (grid slide)

More information

Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging

Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging Contact Us Carl Zeiss Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging ZEISS Home Products Solutions Support Online Shop ZEISS International ZEISS Campus Home Interactive Tutorials Basic Microscopy Spectral

More information

MICROSCOPE TERMS 7X 45X 112.5X 225X

MICROSCOPE TERMS 7X 45X 112.5X 225X Microscopes MICROSCOPE TERMS Magnification- how much larger the image is Resolution- how clear the image is Field of View: Describes the visual picture seen when looking through the eyepiece of the microscope

More information

Chapter 2 Alignment C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012

Chapter 2 Alignment C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Chapter 2 Alignment C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Figure 2.1 is an image of striated muscle taken with a misaligned microscope and figure 2.2 is with a properly aligned microscope. To the untrained

More information

CAPTURING IMAGES ON THE HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROSCOPE

CAPTURING IMAGES ON THE HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROSCOPE University of Virginia ITC Academic Computing Health Sciences CAPTURING IMAGES ON THE HIGH-MAGNIFICATION MICROSCOPE Introduction The Olympus BH-2 microscope in ACHS s microscope lab has objectives from

More information

What are some of the characteristics of plant and animal cells?

What are some of the characteristics of plant and animal cells? What are some of the characteristics of plant and animal cells? BACKGROUND Ever since the first microscope was used, biologists have been interested in studying the cellular organization of all living

More information

With the invention of the microscope, biologists

With the invention of the microscope, biologists With the invention of the microscope, biologists gained a valuable tool to observe and study structures (like cells) that are too small to be seen by the unaided eye. The information gained helped in establishing

More information

Refraction, Lenses, and Prisms

Refraction, Lenses, and Prisms CHAPTER 16 14 SECTION Sound and Light Refraction, Lenses, and Prisms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What happens to light when it passes from one medium to another? How

More information

OPTICS I LENSES AND IMAGES

OPTICS I LENSES AND IMAGES APAS Laboratory Optics I OPTICS I LENSES AND IMAGES If at first you don t succeed try, try again. Then give up- there s no sense in being foolish about it. -W.C. Fields SYNOPSIS: In Optics I you will learn

More information

Basic Optics System OS-8515C

Basic Optics System OS-8515C 40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 70 20 80 90 90 80 BASIC OPTICS RAY TABLE 10 0 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B

More information

Katarina Logg, Kristofer Bodvard, Mikael Käll. Dept. of Applied Physics. 12 September Optical Microscopy. Supervisor s signature:...

Katarina Logg, Kristofer Bodvard, Mikael Käll. Dept. of Applied Physics. 12 September Optical Microscopy. Supervisor s signature:... Katarina Logg, Kristofer Bodvard, Mikael Käll Dept. of Applied Physics 12 September 2007 O1 Optical Microscopy Name:.. Date:... Supervisor s signature:... Introduction Over the past decades, the number

More information

INTRODUCTION THIN LENSES. Introduction. given by the paraxial refraction equation derived last lecture: Thin lenses (19.1) = 1. Double-lens systems

INTRODUCTION THIN LENSES. Introduction. given by the paraxial refraction equation derived last lecture: Thin lenses (19.1) = 1. Double-lens systems Chapter 9 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Introduction Thin lenses Double-lens systems Aberrations Camera Human eye Compound microscope Summary INTRODUCTION Knowledge of geometrical optics, diffraction and interference,

More information

Lab 10: Lenses & Telescopes

Lab 10: Lenses & Telescopes Physics 2020, Fall 2010 Lab 8 page 1 of 6 Circle your lab day and time. Your name: Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri TA name: 8-10 10-12 12-2 2-4 4-6 INTRODUCTION Lab 10: Lenses & Telescopes In this experiment, you

More information

H S P. User Manual. Cat.-No

H S P. User Manual. Cat.-No H S P User Manual Cat.-No. 16201 No. DATE / Rev. REVISION DESCRIPTION 1 01/2007-01 First edition R L M i ii 1 INTRODUCTION This manual is considered as a part of the instrument; it has to be at the operator

More information

NNIN Nanotechnology Education

NNIN Nanotechnology Education NNIN Nanotechnology Education Name: Date: Class: Student Worksheet How small is that? Day 1 You just watched a video introducing nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the science of working with materials

More information

USING MICROSCOPES. How a Microscope Works

USING MICROSCOPES. How a Microscope Works USING MICROSCOPES One of the ways that technology has boosted science is by helping researchers observe objects that are normally too small or too far away to see. You won t be using telescopes or binoculars

More information

Figure 1. Oil-immersion objectives available for use with the Lionheart FX.

Figure 1. Oil-immersion objectives available for use with the Lionheart FX. Tech Note Oil Objective Introduction The Lionheart FX automated imager is compatible with high numerical aperture oil immersion objectives. These objectives offer magnification up to 100X and significantly

More information

There is a range of distances over which objects will be in focus; this is called the depth of field of the lens. Objects closer or farther are

There is a range of distances over which objects will be in focus; this is called the depth of field of the lens. Objects closer or farther are Chapter 25 Optical Instruments Some Topics in Chapter 25 Cameras The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses Magnifying Glass Telescopes Compound Microscope Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors Limits of Resolution

More information

Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Name: Lab Partner: Section: Chapter 10 Thin Lenses Name: Lab Partner: Section: 10.1 Purpose In this experiment, the formation of images by concave and convex lenses will be explored. The application of the thin lens equation and

More information

Microscopy: Fundamental Principles and Practical Approaches

Microscopy: Fundamental Principles and Practical Approaches Microscopy: Fundamental Principles and Practical Approaches Simon Atkinson Online Resource: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/index.html Book: Murphy, D.B. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic

More information

O5: Lenses and the refractor telescope

O5: Lenses and the refractor telescope O5. 1 O5: Lenses and the refractor telescope Introduction In this experiment, you will study converging lenses and the lens equation. You will make several measurements of the focal length of lenses and

More information

Person s Optics Test KEY SSSS

Person s Optics Test KEY SSSS Person s Optics Test KEY SSSS 2017-18 Competitors Names: School Name: All questions are worth one point unless otherwise stated. Show ALL WORK or you may not receive credit. Include correct units whenever

More information

OPTICS LENSES AND TELESCOPES

OPTICS LENSES AND TELESCOPES ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 97 Optics - Lenses & Telescopes OPTICS LENSES AND TELESCOPES SYNOPSIS: In this lab you will explore the fundamental properties of a lens and investigate refracting and reflecting

More information

Instructions. To run the slideshow:

Instructions. To run the slideshow: Instructions To run the slideshow: Click: view full screen mode, or press Ctrl +L. Left click advances one slide, right click returns to previous slide. To exit the slideshow press the Esc key. Optical

More information

LAB 12 Reflection and Refraction

LAB 12 Reflection and Refraction Cabrillo College Physics 10L Name LAB 12 Reflection and Refraction Read Hewitt Chapters 28 and 29 What to learn and explore Please read this! When light rays reflect off a mirror surface or refract through

More information

CHAPTER TWO METALLOGRAPHY & MICROSCOPY

CHAPTER TWO METALLOGRAPHY & MICROSCOPY CHAPTER TWO METALLOGRAPHY & MICROSCOPY 1. INTRODUCTION: Materials characterisation has two main aspects: Accurately measuring the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of materials Accurately measuring

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 27. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 27. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 27 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 27 Optical Instruments Units of Chapter 27 The Human Eye and the Camera Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics The Magnifying

More information

MICROSCOPY FOR THE DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY STUDENT...

MICROSCOPY FOR THE DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY STUDENT... MICROSCOPY FOR THE DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY STUDENT... You will be using two configurations of microscope during the course of the semester to observe specimens and record your results: compound microscopes

More information

Basic Principles of the Surgical Microscope. by Charles L. Crain

Basic Principles of the Surgical Microscope. by Charles L. Crain Basic Principles of the Surgical Microscope by Charles L. Crain 2006 Charles L. Crain; All Rights Reserved Table of Contents 1. Basic Definition...3 2. Magnification...3 2.1. Illumination/Magnification...3

More information