# CS302 - Digital Logic Design Glossary By

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1 CS302 - Digital Logic Design Glossary By ABEL : Advanced Boolean Expression Language; a software compiler language for SPLD programming; a type of hardware description language (HDL) Adder : A digital circuit which forms the sum and carry of two or more numbers. address : The location of a given storage cell or group of cells in a memory; a unique memory location containing one byte. address bus : Generally, a one-way group of conductors from the microprocessor to memory, containing the address information. Analog : A signal which is continuously variable and, unlike a digital signal, does not have discrete levels. (A slide rule is analog in function.) Analog Computer : Computer which represents numerical quantities as electrical and physical variables. Solutions to mathematical problems are accomplished by manipulating these variables. AND Gate : A basic logic gate that outputs a 1 only if both inputs are a 1, otherwise outputs a 0. See also, NAND, NOR and OR. BCD : See 'Binary Coded Decimal'. Binary : The binary number system has only two digits - 0 and 1. Binary Code : A code in which each element may be either of two distinct values (eg the presence or absence of a pulse). Binary Coded Decimal : represented by four bits. A coding system in which each decimal digit from 0 to 9 is Bit : A single digit of a binary number. A bit is either a one represented by a voltage or a zero represented by no voltage. The number 5 represented in 4 and 8 bit binary would be 0101 and respectively.

2 Boolean Algebra : The algebra of logic named for George Boole. Similar in form to ordinary algebra, but with classes, propositions, yes/no criteria, etc for variables rather than numeric quantities. It includes the operators AND, OR, NOT, IF, EXCEPT, THEN. cascade : To connect 'end-to-end' as when several counters are connected from the terminal count output of one counter to the enable input of the next counter. Clock : The device in a digital system which provides the continuous train of pulses used to synchronize the transfer of data. Sometimes referred to as "the heartbeat." CMOS : (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) An advanced IC manufacturing process technology characterized by high integration, low cost, low power and high performance. CMOS is the preferred process for today's high density ICs. Combinational Logic : inputs. Logic circuits whose outputs depend only on the present logic comparator : A digital circuit that compares the magnitudes of two quantities and produces an output indicating the relationship of the quantities. counter : A digital circuit capable of counting electronic events, such as pulses, by progressing through a sequence of binary states. data selector : A circuit that selects data from several inputs one at a sequence and places them on the output: also called a multiplexer. Decoder : A logic function that uses a binary value, or address, to select between a number of outputs and to assert the selected output by placing it in its active state. Digital System : A system in which information is transmitted in a series of pulses. The source is periodically sampled, analyzed, and converted or coded into numerical values and transmitted. Digital transmissions typically use the binary coding used by computers so most data is in appropriate form, but verbal and visual communication must be converted. Many satellite transmissions use digital formats because noise will not interfere with the quality of the end product, producing clear and higher-resolution imagery. emitter : encoder : even parity : One of the three regions in a bipolar junction transistor. A digital circuit(device) that converts information to a coded form. The condition of having an even number of 1s in every group of bits.

3 exponent : The part of floating point number that represents the number of places that the decimal point (or binary point) is to be moved. fan in : The number of logic inputs into a logic gate. fan out : The number of logic inputs that can be driven by the output of a logic gate. flip-flop : A basic digital building block that, at its simplest, uses two gates cross-coupled so that the output of one gate serves as the input of the other. It is capable of changing from one state to another on application of a control signal, but can remain in that state after the signal is removed. It thus serves as a basic storage element. Most flip-flops contain additional features to make them more versatile. Many digital circuits, such as registers and counters, are a number of flipflops connected together. GAL : Generic array logic; an SPLD with a reprogrammable AND array, a fixed OR array, and programmable output logic macrocells. Gate : The control terminal of a MOSFET, or alternately a basic digital logic element, for example an AND Gate, See also, OR, NAND, NOR. Gate Array : An integrated circuit made up of digital logic gates that are not yet connected. Typically gate arrays are fabricated up to the metal layers and then a custom metal mask is designed for a customer and used to connect the gates into a customer specific circuit. Gray code : The mirror image of the binary counting code which changes one bit at a time when increasing or decreasing by one. half-adder : A digital circuit that adds two bits and produces a sum and output carry. It cannot handle input carries. High : A digital logic state corresponding to a binary "l." High logic : In digital logic, the more positive of the two logic levels in a binary system. Normally, a high logic level is used to represent a binary 1 or true condition. IC : (Integrated Circuit) A single piece of silicon on which thousands or millions of transistors are combined. ICs are the major building blocks of modern electronic systems. Inverter : In logic, a digital circuit which inverts the input signal, as for example, changing a 1 to a 0. This is equivalent logically to the NOT function. An inverter may also serve as a buffer amplifier.

4 JK flip-flop : modes. A type of flip-flop that can operate in the SET, RESET, no-change, and toggle Karnaugh map : An arrangement of cells representing the combinations of literals in a Boolean expression and used for a systematic simplification of the expression. latch : A bistable digital circuit used for storing a bit. LED : Light-Emitting Diode (component) Abbreviated LED. A semiconductor diode, generally made from gallium arsenide, that can serve as an infrared or visible light source when voltage is applied continuously or in pulses. Logic : One of the three major classes of ICs in most digital electronic systems: microprocessors, memory, and logic. Logic is used for data manipulation and control functions that require higher speed than a microprocessor can provide Low : A logic state corresponding to a binary "0". Satellite imagery is displayed on a computer monitor by a combination of highs and lows. Low logic : In digital logic, the more negative of the two logic levels in a binary system. In positive logic, a low-logic level is used to represent a logic 0, or a not-true, condition. mantissa : The magnitude of a floating-point number. MSI : Medium-scale integration' a level of fixed-function IC complexity in which there are 12 to 99 equivalent gates per chip. Multiplexer : An electronic device normally used to scan a number of input terminals and receive data from, or send data to, the same. Multiplexers are normally one of two types: The cyclic type which continually and sequentially looks at each input for a request to send or receive data. The random type which waits in a "rest" position until other circuitry notifies it of a request to receive or send data. NAND gate : A logic circuit in which a LOW output occurs only if all the inputs are HIGH. NOR gate : A logic circuit which performs the OR function and then inverts the result. A NOT-OR gate.

5 NOT : The logical operator having that property which if P is a statement, then the not of P (P) is true if P is false, and the not of P (P) is false if P is true. octal : Describes a number system with a base of eight. odd parity : The condition of having an odd number of 1s in every group of bits. OR gate : A multiple-input gate circuit whose output is energized when any one or more of the inputs is in a prescribed state. Used in digital logic overflow : The condition that occurs when the number of bits in a sum exceeds the number of bits in each of the numbers added. PAL : Programmable array logic; an SPLD with a programmable AND array and a fixed OR array with programmable output logic. parity : In relation to binary codes, the condition of evenness or oddness of the number of 1s in a code group. parity bit : a code group. A bit attached to each group of information bits to make the total number of 1s in PLA : Plogrammable logic array; an SPLD with programmable AND and OR arrays. queue : A high-speed memory that stores instructions or data. register : A digital circuit capable of storing and shifting binary information; typically used as a temporary storage device. Shift : To move information serially right or left in a register(s). Information shifted out of a register may be lost, or it may be re-entered at the other end of the register. Shift register : A shift register is an electronic device which can contain several bits of information. Shift registers are normally used to collect variable input data and send this data out in a predetermined pattern. Sign bit : Computers generally indicate whether a number is positive or negative by a sign bit, which is usually located adjacent to the most significant numerical digit. Usually zero (0) is used for positive (+) and one (1) for negative (-).

6 Significant digit : A digit that contributes to the preciseness of a number. The number of significant digits is counted beginning with the digit contributing the most value, called the most significant digit, and ending with the one contributing the least value, called the least significant digit. toggle : The action of flip-flop when it changes state on each clock pulse. Truth Table : A table that defines a logic function by listing all combinations of input values, and indicating for each combination the true output values. TTL : Transistor-transistor logic; a class of integrated logic circuits that uses bipolar junction transistors. universal gate : Either a NAND or a NOR gate; The term universal refers to the property of a gate that permits any logic function to be implemented by that gate or by a combination of gates of that kind. up/down counter : A counter that can progress in either direction through a certain sequence. VLSI : Very large-scale integration; a level of IC complexity in which there are 10,000 to 99,000 equivalent gates per chip. volatile : removed. weight : A term that describes a memory that loses stored data when the power is The value of digit in a number based on its position in the number.

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