# Antenna & Propagation. Antenna Parameters

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1 For updated version, please click on Antenna & Propagation Antenna Parameters by Nor Hadzfizah Binti Mohd Radi Faculty of Electric & Electronics Engineering

2 Chapter Synopsis In this chapter, the student will be exposed to the parameters of antenna such as radiation pattern, impedance, directivity, gain, polarization and more.

3 Teaching Outcome At the end of this chapter student should be able to: Characterize the fundamentals of antenna. Know how to calculate and analyzed the related antenna parameters.

4 Antenna Parameter (1) Frequency Radiation Pattern Field Regions Directivity Antenna Efficiency

5 Antenna Parameter (2) Antenna Gain Beamwidths and Sidelobes Radiation Intensity Polarization

6 Introduction To design an antenna... We need to know what is the desired frequency, gain, bandwidth, impedance, and polarization? Before we can design an antenna or discuss antenna types, we must understand the basics of antennas, which are the fundamental parameters that characterize an antenna. So let us learn something about antenna parameters. We'll start with frequency and step through radiation patterns, directivity and gain, and so on.. Let s get started..

7 Frequency (f) The basics of sinusoids are wavelength, frequency and the speed of light. All electromagnetic waves propagate at the same speed in air or in space. The speed of light will be denoted as c in the equations that follow. While length measured in meters and time in seconds. The wavelength (l) of an electromagnetic wave is related to its frequency (f) by: l = c f Where; c = 3x10 8 m/s (speed of light in vacuum) l = wavelength in meter f = frequency in Hz or 1/s

8 Radiation Pattern Radiation pattern provide information that describe how an antenna directs the energy it radiates. It determine in the far field region. Figure here shows the radiation pattern in 3-D for dipole antenna. Source:

9 Radiation Pattern (2) Figure below shows the radiation pattern in 2-D for dipole in E-Plane and H-Plane. Normalised radiation pattern can be plotted in: polar and rectangular (Cartesian) plots. linear (ratio) and logarithmic (db) scales. Source:

10 E-Plane and H-Plane E plane (elevation) Electromagnetic field is in vertical plane θ= 90 0 <Φ<90, 270 <Φ<360 z q H plane (azimuth) Electromagnetic field is in horizontal plane 0 < θ < 180 Φ = 0 y x f x E-plane H-plane

11 Polar and Rectangular (Cartesian) Plots Figure below shows the plots of radiation pattern in Polar and Cartesian.

12 Linear (ratio) and Logarithmic (db) Scales Figure below shows the polar plot radiation pattern in Linear and in Logarithmic scales

13 Field Regions The fields surrounding an antenna are divided into 3 principle regions: 0.62 D3 λ Reactive Near Field Distance 2D 2 /λ Radiating Near Field or Fresnel Region > 2D 2 /λ Far Field or Fraunhofer Region Note: The far field region is the most important, as this determines the antenna's radiation pattern.

14 Radiation Intensity (U) Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle. The radiation intensity is a far-field parameter. Total Prad, Radiated Power (in Watt) Using U, Radiation Intensity (in w/sr) is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity over the entire solid angle of 4π. Thus, P rad = UdΩ = U sin θdθdφ 0 π 0 2π where dω is the element of solid angle = sinθdθdφ (in sr)

15 Directivity It is a measure of how 'directional' an antenna's radiation pattern is. The ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. D(unitless) = D θ, Φ = U θ, Φ U 0 = 4πU θ, Φ P rad If the direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation intensity is implied. D max (unitless) = D o= U U 0 = U max U 0 = 4πU max P rad

16 Antenna Efficiency The efficiency of an antenna is a ratio of the power delivered to the antenna relative to the power radiated from the antenna. A high efficiency antenna has most of the power present at the antenna's input radiated away. A low efficiency antenna has most of the power absorbed as losses within the antenna, or reflected away due to impedance mismatch. The antenna efficiency (or radiation efficiency) can be written as the ratio of the radiated power to the input power of the antenna: h = P r P t (Radiated power) (Transmitted power) Antenna efficiency is a range number between 0 and 1. And commonly antenna efficiency is presented in terms of a percentage.

17 Antenna Gain The gain shows how much power is transmitted in the direction of peak radiation to that of an isotropic source. Therefore, the gain of an antenna referenced to an isotropic radiator is G(dBi) = G(dBd) db

18 Units for Antenna Gain db decibels. Ex: 10 db means 10 times the energy relative to an isotropic antenna in the peak direction of radiation. dbi - "decibels relative to an isotropic antenna". This is the same as db as we have been using it. 3 dbi means twice the power relative to an isotropic antenna in the peak direction. dbd - "decibels relative to a dipole antenna". Note that a halfwavelength dipole antenna has a gain of 2.15 dbi. Hence, 7.85 dbd means the peak gain is 7.85 db higher than a dipole antenna; this is 10 db higher than an isotropic antenna.

19 Directivity and Gain Directive Gain: D(q,f) or G D (q,f) Directivity: D Antenna D (ratio) D (db) isotropic 1 0 Hertzian dipole l/2 dipole G = hd G = gain D = Directivity (dimensionless) h = antenna efficiency

20 Beamwidths and Sidelobes Figure below shows the sidelobes of antenna radiation pattern. Source:

21 Sidelobes Major Lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation. The major lobe is pointing in the θ = 0 direction. In some antennas, there may exist more than one major lobe. Minor Lobe any lobe except a major lobe. Minor lobes usually represent radiation in undesired directions, and they should be minimized. Side Lobes Usually a side lobe is adjacent to the main lobe. Side lobes are normally the largest of the minor lobes. Back Lobe an angle of approximately 180 with respect to the beam of an antenna. Usually it refers to a minor lobe in a direction opposite to that of the major lobe.

22 Beamwidths HPBW Half Power Beamwidth The angular separation in which the magnitude of the radiation pattern decrease by 50% (or -3 db) from the peak of the main beam. FNBW First Null Beamwidth The angular separation from which the magnitude of the radiation pattern decreases to zero (negative infinity db) away from the main beam.

23 Figure of Beamwidths and Sidelobes Main lobe Minor lobes First-nulls Beamwidth FNBW Side Lobe Half-power Beamwidth HPBW Nulls Back lobe

24 Polarization Defined as the direction of the electric field of an electromagnetic field. There are three (3) types of polarization: Linear polarization: Vertical and Horizontal Circular polarization: left handed circular (LHC) and right handed circular (RHC) Elliptical polarization

25 Concept of Polarization A horizontally polarized antenna will not communicate with a vertically polarized antenna. Due to the reciprocity theorem, antennas transmit and receive in exactly the same manner. Hence, a vertically polarized antenna transmits and receives vertically polarized fields. Consequently, if anyhow a horizontally polarized antenna is trying to communicate with a vertically polarized antenna, there will be no reception.

26 References [1] C.A. Balanis: Antenna Theory: Analysis & Design, John Wiley & Sons, [2] Stutzman and Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley, [3] T. A. Milligan, Modern Antenna Design John Wiley, 2 nd edition, 2005.

27 For updated version, please click on Author Information Nor Hadzfizah Binti Mohd Radi Lecturer FKEE, UMP

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