# Travelling Wave, Broadband, and Frequency Independent Antennas. EE-4382/ Antenna Engineering

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1 Travelling Wave, Broadband, and Frequency Independent Antennas EE-4382/ Antenna Engineering

2 Outline Traveling Wave Antennas Introduction Traveling Wave Antennas: Long Wire, V Antenna, Rhombic Antenna Broadband Antennas: Helical Antenna, Yagi-Uda Array Frequency Independent Antennas Introduction Theory Frequency Independent Antennas: Equiangular Spiral, Log-Periodic Dipole Array Independent Antennas 2

3 Traveling Wave Antennas 3

4 Traveling Wave Antennas- Introduction So far the antennas we have discussed are resonant, standing-wave antennas. The maxima and minima from the patterns repeat every half integer wavelengths. Antennas that have uniform patterns in current and voltage are traveling wave, non-resonant antennas. This can be achieved by properly terminating the antenna wire by properly terminating the antenna wire so that the reflections are minimized or completely eliminated. An example of this traveling wave antenna is called the beverage antenna. Independent Antennas Slide 4

5 Traveling Wave Antennas- Introduction A traveling wave can be classified as a slow wave if its phase velocity is equal or smaller than the speed of light, as opposed to fast waves, which the phase velocity is larger than the speed of light. Traveling wave antennas can be classified in two types: Surface Wave Antenna: A slow wave structure that radiates power from discontinuities in the structure. Leaky-Wave Antenna: A fast wave structure that couples power from a traveling wave structure to free space Independent Antennas Slide 5

6 Long Wire (Beverage) Antenna Invented in 1921 by H.H. Beverage. It is a straight conductor with a length from one to many wavelengths, above and parallel to the lossy earth. The height of the antenna must be chosen so that the reflected wave (wave from the image) is in phase with the direct wave. Independent Antennas Slide 6

7 Long Wire (Beverage) Antenna It is primarily used as a directive receiving antenna because losses at load are big (inefficient). The reception of the wave depends on the tilt arriving vertically. polarized caused by ground losses, and the input impedance is predominantly real. R L 138 log 4 h d Independent Antennas Slide 7

8 Beverage Antenna - Radiation Pattern Independent Antennas Slide 8

9 Beverage Antenna - Radiation Pattern Independent Antennas Slide 9

10 V Antenna One very practical array of long wires is the symmetrical V antenna formed by using two wires with one of its ends connected to a feed line. By adjusting the angle, its directivity can be made greater and the side lobes smaller. The patterns of the individual wires of the V antenna are conical in form and inclined at an angle. When the correct arrangements are made, the patterns are aligned and add constructively. There is an optimum angle which leads to the largest directivity. Independent Antennas Slide 10

11 V Antenna Pattern Beams Independent Antennas Slide 11

12 V Antenna Parameters Optimum angles for maximum directivity: 2θ 0 = l l l λ λ λ , 0.5 l λ l l λ λ , 1.5 l λ 3 Directivity of the antenna: D 0 = 2.94 l λ , 0.5 l λ 3 Slide 12

13 Rhombic Antenna The rhombic antenna are two V antennas connected in a diamond or rhombic shape, and terminated in the other end in a resistor to reduce or eliminate reflections. If the length of the legs is large enough, a resistor may not be needed, and has high radiation efficiency. Independent Antennas Slide 13

14 Broadband Antennas 14

15 Helical Antenna The geometrical configuration of a helix consists usually of N turns, diameter D and spacing S between each turn. The total length of the antenna is L = NS while the total length of the wire is L n = NL 0 = N S 2 + C 2 where L 0 is the length of the wire for each turn and C = πd is the circumference of the helix. The pitch angle α is the angle formed by a line tangent for the helix wire and a plane perpendicular to the helix axis: α = tan 1 S πd = S tan 1 C Independent Antennas Slide 15

16 Helical Antenna Independent Antennas Slide 16

17 Helical Antenna The helical antenna operates in two principal modes: Normal (broadside) mode - Dimensions are small compared to wavelength NL 0 λ 0 - The current throughout the antenna is assumed to be constant and its far-field independent of the number of loops and spacing. - The fields radiate in θ and φ. The ratio between the magnitudes of these fields is defined as the axial ratio: AR = E θ E φ = 4S πkd 2 = 2λS πd 2 AR = 0 Horizontal Polarization AR = Vertical Polarization AR = 1 Circular Polarization C = πd = 2Sλ 0, tan α = πd 2λ 0 Other values of AR Elliptical Polarization Independent Antennas Slide 17

18 Helical Antenna The helical antenna operates in two principal modes: Axial (end-fire) mode - To achieve circular polarization, the circumference must be 3 4 C λ 0 4 3, and spacing about S λ 0 4, pitch angle 12 α 14, N > 3. - Input Resistance is around R 140 C λ 0 - Half-Power Beamwidth is around HPBW degrees = 52λ 0 C NS - Axial Ratio to achieve increased directivity AR = 2N + 1 2N - Directivity is given by D 0 dimensionless = 15N C2 S 3 λ Independent Antennas 0 3/2 Slide 18

19 Helical Antenna - Example Design a 10-turn helix to operate in the axial mode. Determine a) The circumference in wavelengths, the pitch angle in degrees, and separation between turns (in wavelengths) b) HPBW of the main lobe in degrees c) Directivity in db Independent Antennas Slide 19

20 Helical Antenna - Example Design a 5-turn helical antenna at 400 MHz to operate in the normal mode. The spacing between turns is λ 0 /50. It is desired that the antenna possesses circular polarization. Determine a) The circumference of the helix in meters b) Length of a single turn in meters c) Length of the entire helix in meters d) Pitch angle in degrees Independent Antennas Slide 20

21 Yagi-Uda Array of Linear Elements An array consisting of a number of linear dipole elements. One of them is energized directly by a feed transmission line while the others act as parasitic radiators (directors and reflector) whose currents are induced by mutual coupling. Independent Antennas Slide 21

22 Yagi-Uda Array of Linear Elements Yagi-Uda Arrays are quite common in practice because they are lightweight, simple to build, low-cost, and provide moderately desirable characteristics for many applications (e.g. Cable TV, Military) Independent Antennas Slide 22

23 Yagi-Uda Array of Linear Elements Independent Antennas Slide 23

24 Frequency Independent Antennas 24

25 Frequency Independent Antennas - Introduction In the 1950s, there was a breakthrough in antenna evolution that drove antenna designs to a bandwidth as great as 40:1 or even more. These antennas have a variety of practical applications such as TV, pointto-point communication, feeds for reflectors and lenses, etc. One of the characteristics is EM scaling: if all physical dimensions of a device are reduced by a factor of 2, the performance of the antenna will remain unchanged if the frequency is increased by a factor of 2. Based on the same principle, if the shape of the antenna were completely specified by angles, the performance would be independent of frequency. Independent Antennas Slide 25

26 Frequency Independent Antennas - Theory Assumptions: antenna is described in spherical coordinates, both terminals are placed infinitely close to the origin, and placed at θ = 0, π, the antenna is perfectly conducting, infinitely surrounded by homogeneous and isotropic medium, and its surface or an edge on its surface is described by r = F(θ, φ) Where r is the distance along the surface or edge. If the antenna is to be scaled to a frequency K times lower the original frequency, the antenna must be K times greater to maintain the same electrical dimensions: r = KF θ, φ New and old surfaces are identical geometrically, means that they re congruent by rotating only in φ: KF θ, φ = F(θ, φ + C) where the angle of rotation C only depends on K. Independent Antennas Slide 26

27 Frequency Independent Antennas - Theory For the antenna to be independent of frequency its surface, and independent of θ and φ, it must be described by r = F θ, φ = e aφ f θ a = 1 dk K dc Independent Antennas Slide 27

28 Equiangular Spiral Antenna The geometry of the spiral antenna can be described by r ቚ θ= π/2 = ρ = ቊ Aeaφ = ρ 0 e a(φ φ 0), θ = π/2 0, elsewhere A = ρ 0 e aφ 0 Another form of the equation is φ = 1 a ln ρ a = tan(ψ) ln ρ A = tan(ψ) [ln ρ ln A ] where 1/a is the rate of expansion of the spiral and ψ is the angle between the radial distance ρ and the tangent to the spiral. The length of the antenna is given by L = ρ 1 ρ a 2 Where ρ 0 and ρ 1 represent the inner and outer radii of the spiral. Independent Antennas Slide 28

29 Equiangular Spiral Antenna As stated before, the geometry of the antenna is described by angles. The lowest frequency of operation occurs when the total arm length is comparable to one wavelength. For all frequencies above this, the pattern and impedance are frequency independent. For a phase angle change of π/2, Z 0 = π Ω Although in practice the measurements are lower (164 Ω), attributed to the finite arm length, finite thickness of the plate, and nonideal feeding conditions. Independent Antennas Slide 29

30 Log-Periodic Antenna Not truly frequency independent, but very broadband. Independent Antennas Slide 30

31 Log-Periodic Antenna The removal of the inner surface of the antenna does not significantly impact the radiation characteristics. Independent Antennas Slide 31

32 Log-Periodic Antenna Independent Antennas Slide 32

33 Log-Periodic Dipole Array 1. The Log-Periodic Dipole Array (LPDA) is the most commonly used VHF antenna for TV that supports all channels 2. It is capable of constant gain and input impedance over a bandwidth of 30:1 3. Has a gain range from db for half-wave dipole 4. The dipoles are connected to a central transmission line with phase reversal between dipoles, so that radiation is back-fire Introduction to Antennas Slide 33

34 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Slide 34

35 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Independent Antennas Slide 35

36 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Active Region Slide 36

37 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Design Procedure Independent Antennas Slide 37

38 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Design Procedure Aperture angle: Bandwidth of the active region: α = tan 1 1 τ Independent Antennas Slide 38 4σ B ar = τ 2 cot(α) A more practical bandwidth (B is in fractional form): The total length of the structure is Where B s = BB ar B s = designed bandwidth B = desired bandwidth L = λ max B s cot(α) λ max = 2l max = c 0 f min

39 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Design Procedure The number of elements is determined by N = 1 + ln(b s) ln 1 τ The average characteristic impedance of the elements is given by Z a = 120 ln l n 2.25 d n The relative mean spacing between elements is σ = σ/ τ The center-to-center spacing between the two rods of the feeder line is s = d cosh Z Independent Antennas Slide 39

40 Log-Periodic Dipole Array Design Procedure Independent Antennas Slide 40

41 Log-Periodic Dipole Array - Example Design a log-periodic dipole antenna, to cover all VHF channels (54 MHz for Channel 2 to 216 MHz for Channel 13). The desired directivity is 8 db and the input impedance needs to be matched to a 50 Ω coaxial cable. The antenna elements are made of aluminum tubing 3/4 in. (1.9 cm) for the largest element and the feeder line and 3/16 in. (0.48 cm) for the smallest element. These diameters yield identical l/d ratios for the smallest and largest elements. Introduction to Antennas Slide 41

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