1 Computational Photography and Video Prof. Marc Pollefeys
2 Today s schedule Introduction of Computational Photography Course facts Syllabus Digital Photography
3 What is computational photography Convergence of image processing, computer vision, computer graphics and photography Digital photography: Simply replaces traditional sensors and recording by digital technology Involves only simple image processing Computational photography More elaborate image manipulation, more computation New types of media (panorama, 3D, etc.) Camera design that take computation into account (several slides inspired/borrowed from Fredo Durand, MIT)
4 Tone mapping Before After Durand and Dorsey. Siggraph 02
5 Flash/No-Flash Petschnigg et al. Siggraph 04
6 Photomontage Agarwala et al. Siggraph 04
7 Panoramic images Brown and Lowe ICCV03
8 Defocus matting McGuire et al. Siggraph 05
10 Video textures Schoedl et al. Siggraph 00
11 Motion magnification Liu et al. Siggraph 05
12 Today s schedule Introduction of Computational Photography Course facts Syllabus Digital Photography
13 Administrivia Staff Prof. Marc Pollefeys Dr. Kevin Koeser and Dr. Luca Ballan Time and location: Lectures: Wednesday in CAB G56 Exercises: Thursday in CAB G56 Webpage:
14 Course organization Lectures Exercises First a few assignments Later project and paper presentations Small class project Individual or small groups
15 Grading policy 50% assignments 10% paper presentation 40% class project (report + presentation) Bonus for participation No separate exam
16 Textbook No textbook required Slides available on course webpage Lot more resources online Interesting reference: Computational Photography: Mastering New Techniques for Lenses, Lighting, and Sensors. Raskar and Tumblin, to appear soon, A K Peters.
17 Today s schedule Introduction of Computational Photography Course facts Syllabus Digital Photography
18 Topics Image formation, Image sensor, Optics Pixel resolution, Exposure, Aperture, Focus, Dynamic Range Color, white balance, Bayer pattern, demosaicking, Motion blur, shutter, deblurring Dynamic range, HDR imaging, tone mapping, bilateral filtering Image pyramids, optical flow, gradients Matting and compositing, graphcuts Warping and morphing, panoramas Texture synthesis Illumination, flash/no-flash, depth edges Coded aperture, defocus Video textures, time-lapse, video summarization Lightfield imaging
19 Schedule Computational Photography and Video 24 Feb Introduction to Computational Photography 3 Mar More on Camera,Sensors and Color Assignment 1 10 Mar Warping, Mosaics and Morphing Assignment 2 17 Mar Blending and compositing Assignment 3 24 Mar High-dynamic range Assignment 4 31 Mar TBD Project proposals 7 Apr Easter holiday no classes 14 Apr TBD Papers 21 Apr TBD Papers 28 Apr TBD Papers 5 May TBD Project update 12 May TBD Papers 19 May TBD Papers 26 May TBD Papers 2 June Final project presentation Final project presentation
20 Today s schedule Introduction of Computational Photography Course facts Syllabus Digital Photography
21 Overview Lens and viewpoint determine perspective Aperture and shutter speed determine exposure Aperture and other effects determine depth of field Sensor records image (this and following slides borrowed from Fredo Durand, MIT)
22 Reference The slides use illustrations from these books
23 More references
24 Plan Pinhole optics Lenses Exposure
25 Why is there no image on a white piece of paper? It receives light from all directions From Photography, London et al.
26 Pinhole From Photography, London et al.
27 Focal length f s Film/ sensor pinhole scene
28 Focal length: pinhole optics What happens when the focal length is doubled? Projected object size is doubled Amount of light gathered is divided by 4 f d 2f s Film/ sensor pinhole scene
30 From Photography, London et al. Pinhole size?
31 Diffraction limit Optimal size for visible light: sqrt(f)/28 (in millimiters) where f is focal length From Wandell
32 Problem with pinhole? Not enough light! Diffraction limits sharpness
33 Solution: refraction! From Photography, London et al.
34 Lenses gather more light! But need to be focused From Photography, London et al.
35 Thin lens optics Simplification of geometrical optics for well-behaved lenses All parallel rays converge to one point on a plane located at the focal length f f All rays going through the center are not deviated Hence same perspective as pinhole
36 How to trace rays Start by rays through the center
37 How to trace rays Start by rays through the center Choose focal length, trace parallels f
38 How to trace rays Start by rays through the center Choose focal length, trace parallels You get the focus plane for a given scene plane All rays coming from points on a plane parallel to the lens are focused on another plane parallel to the lens f
39 Focusing To focus closer than infinity Move the sensor/film further than the focal length f
40 Thin lens formula D f D
41 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D f D
42 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D f y D y /y = D /D y
43 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D f y D y /y = D /D y /y = (D -f)/d y
44 Thin lens formula D f D = 1 D D f
45 Minimum focusing distance By symmetry, an object at the focal length requires the film to be at infinity. sensor Rays from infinity Rays from object at f
46 Extensions tubes Allow us to put sensor farther focus closer
47 Field of view & focusing What happens to the field of view when one focuses closer? It's reduced sensor focused close sensor focused at infinity
49 Focal length in practice 24mm 50mm 135mm
50 Perspective vs. viewpoint Telephoto makes it easier to select background (a small change in viewpoint is a big change in background).
51 Perspective vs. viewpoint Moves camera as you zoom in Hitchcock Vertigo effect
52 Perspective vs. viewpoint Portrait: distortion with wide angle Why? Wide angle Standard Telephoto
53 Focal length & sensor What happens when the film is half the size? Application: Real film is 36x24mm On the 20D, the sensor is 22.5 x 15.0 mm Conversion factor on the 20D? On the SD500, it is 1/1.8 " (7.18 x 5.32 mm) What is the mm zoom on the SD500? f d ½ s Film/ sensor pinhole scene
54 Similar to cropping Sensor size source: canon red book
56 Recap Pinhole is the simplest model of image formation Lenses gather more light But get only one plane focused Focus by moving sensor/film Cannot focus infinitely close Focal length determines field of view From wide angle to telephoto Depends on sensor size More in the lens lecture
58 Exposure Get the right amount of light to sensor/film Two main parameters: Shutter speed Aperture (area of lens)
59 Shutter speed Controls how long the film/sensor is exposed Pretty much linear effect on exposure Usually in fraction of a second: 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 Get the pattern? On a normal lens, normal humans can hand-hold down to 1/60 In general, the rule of thumb says that the limit is the inverse of focal length, e.g. 1/500 for a 500mm
60 Main effect of shutter speed Motion blur From Photography, London et al.
61 Freezing motion Effect of shutter speed Walking people Running people Car Fast train 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000
62 Shutter Various technologies Goal: achieve uniform exposure across image From Camera Technology, Goldberg
64 Flash synch speed? Fastest shutter speed for which the shutter opens completely at some instant. For faster speeds, it opens and closes at the same time and exposes a slit. Modern high-speed flash synch uses multiple flash bursts From Photography, London et al.
65 Aperture Diameter of the lens opening (controlled by diaphragm) Expressed as a fraction of focal length, in f-number f/2.0 on a 50mm means that the aperture is 25mm f/2.0 on a 100mm means that the aperture is 50mm Disconcerting: small f number = big aperture What happens to the area of the aperture when going from f/2.0 to f/4.0? Typical f numbers are f/2.0, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32 See the pattern?
66 Depth of field Main effect of aperture From Photography, London et al.
67 Depth of field sensor lens Point in focus Object with texture
68 Depth of field We allow for some tolerance Depth of field Point in focus sensor Depth Max of acceptable focus circle of confusion sensor lens lens Object with texture Point in focus Object with texture
70 Depth of field What happens when we close the aperture by two stop? Aperture diameter is divided by two Depth of field is doubled Diaphragm Point in focus sensor lens Object with texture
71 Depth of field From Photography, London et al.
72 Depth of field & focusing distance What happens when we divide focusing distance by two? Similar triangles => divided by two as well Half depth of field Half depth of field Point in focus sensor lens
73 Depth of field & focusing distance What happens when we divide focusing distance by two? Similar triangles => divided by two as well From Photography, London et al.
74 SLR viewfinder & aperture By default, an SLR always shows you the biggest aperture Brighter image Shallow depth of field help judge focus Depth of field preview button: Stops down to the aperture you have chosen Darker image Larger depth of field
76 Exposure Two main parameters: Aperture (in f stop) Shutter speed (in fraction of a second) Reciprocity The same exposure is obtained wit an exposure twice as long and an aperture area half as big Hence square root of two progression of f stops vs. power of two progression of shutter speed Reciprocity can fail for very long exposures From Photography, London et al.
77 Reciprocity Assume we know how much light we need We have the choice of an infinity of shutter speed/aperture pairs What will guide our choice of a shutter speed? Freeze motion vs. motion blur, camera shake What will guide our choice of an aperture? Depth of field, diffraction limit Often we must compromise Open more to enable faster speed (but shallow DoF)
78 From Photography, London et al.
79 From Photography, London et al.
80 From Photography, London et al.
82 Metering Photosensitive sensors measure scene luminance Usually TTL (through the lens) Simple version: center-weighted average Assumption? Failure cases? Usually assumes that a scene is 18% gray Problem with dark and bright scenes
83 From Photography, London et al.
84 Metering Centered average Choice on Nikon Spot Smart metering Nikon 3D matrix Canon evaluative Incident Measure incoming light Next slide From the luminous landscape
85 Nikon 3D Color Matrix Learning from database of 30,000 photos Multiple captors (segments) Exposure depends on Brightness from each segments Color Contrast Distance Focus (where is the subject)
86 Exposure & metering The camera metering system measures how bright the scene is In Aperture priority mode, the photographer sets the aperture, the camera sets the shutter speed In Shutter-speed priority mode, the photographers sets the shutter speed and the camera deduces the aperture In both cases, reciprocity is exploited In Program mode, the camera decides both exposure and shutter speed (middle value more or less) In Manual, the user decides everything (but can get feedback)
87 Pros and cons of various modes Aperture priority Direct depth of field control Cons: can require impossible shutter speed (e.g. with f/1.4 for a bright scene) Shutter speed priority Direct motion blur control Cons: can require impossible aperture (e.g. when requesting a 1/1000 speed for a dark scene) Note that aperture is somewhat more restricted Program Almost no control, but no need for neurons Manual Full control, but takes more time and thinking
88 Recap: Metering Measure scene brightness Some advanced modes that take multiple sources of information Still an open problem
90 Sensitivity (ISO) Third variable for exposure Linear effect (200 ISO needs half the light as 100 ISO) Film photography: trade sensitivity for grain From dpreview.com Digital photography: trade sensitivity for noise
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