Understanding Your Camera 2: UUU200

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1 Understanding Your Camera 2: UUU200

2 Your 2 Understanding Camera Your Understanding Camera 2 Exposure & Metering Metering & Exposure Objective Objective After completing this class, the student will have an understanding of basic photography and basic creative DSLR camera functions. Materials Materials Items required for participation are the following: Digital Single Reflex Camera Camera Manual Normal (50mm) Lens DSLR Instruction Booklet (provided) Pen or pencil Addressed Standards Addressed Standards 1. The definition of photography. 2. The function of the International Standards Organization rating for sensitivity to light and how it affects the exposure as well as the aesthetic look of a photograph. 3. The mechanics of the shutter and how it affects the exposure as well as the aesthetic look of a photograph. 4. The mechanics of the aperture and how it affects the exposure as well as the aesthetic look of a photograph. Practice Independent Practice Independent Record an image demonstrating: a shallow depth of field a medium depth of field stopped motion a blurred subject implying its motion panning

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5 is Exposure? What is Exposure? What Exposure is the amount of light received by the sensor in your camera during a single picture. If the shot is exposed too short, the photograph will appear too dark. If the shot is exposed too long, the photograph will be washed out. Exposure Involves 3 Things: n How the shutter speed and the aperture work together to control the amount of light that reaches the sensor. n The ISO rating of the sensor. n How to meter the amount of light and then set the camera s controls, either automatically or manually.

6 to Achieve a Good Exposure How to Achieve a Good Exposure How Three Variables That a Camera Uses to Achieve a Good Exposure Let s begin by talking about the three variables the camera uses to achieve 18% gray. 1 ISO Setting 2 Shutter Speed 3 Aperture All of these have an impact on how a picture looks and each of these can be manipulated to vary the exposure. International Standards Organization ISO 50 ISO 100 ISO 200 ISO 400 ISO 800 ISO 1600 ISO 3200 ISO Low ISO For Bright Conditions Medium ISO For Darker Conditions High ISO For Action, Low Light and Night Photography The effect is Noise or Grain 1 ISO Setting The ISO setting dictates your digital camera s sensitivity to light. ISO is an acronym for the International Standards Organization. Before the digital age, you may remember your parents talking about film. Film is assigned an ISO number to designate its speed rating or sensitivity to light. Prior to the 1980s, a film s light sensitivity was designated by the ASA (American Standards Association) rating. The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the film or digital sensor is to light. The higher the ISO the more sensitive to light the sensor is. In very bright situations you want to use lower a ISO but in very dark situations you want to use higher ISOs. My recommendation is to start somewhere around 400 to see of you can create the picture you want. Higher ISOs have the effect of noise in an image. The actual ISO at which the noice occurs varies from camera to camera.

7 Speed Shutter Speed Shutter A camera s shutter is a mechanical curtain in front of the imaging sensor. It opens and closes at various speeds to let in either more or less light. Most normal shutter speeds are measured in fractions of a second. When combined with the size of the aperture opening, the shutter controls how much light reaches the imaging sensor. Shutter speeds will range from as fast as 1/8000th of a second to 30 seconds on most digital cameras. There is also a BLUB or B setting, which will force the shutter to stay open for as long as the release button is held down. Shutter Speed Priority S Nikon/Olympus Tv Canon 1/1000th second In the viewfinder you will see: n 1/250 th = 250 n 1/8 th = 8 n 4 seconds = 4 The shutter speed is the first number in the viewfinder. Fast Shutter Speeds Fast shutter speeds ensure that the subject records no movement. They are generally used in bright daylight and to freeze motion.

8 Shutter Speeds Slow Shutter Speeds Slow Slow shutter speeds record movement in the subject. They are generally used in deep shade or low lighting conditions or to create motion blur. You ve got to push yourself harder. You ve got to start looking for pictures nobody else could take. You ve got to take the tools you have and probe deeper. - William A. Allard 1/4th second Panning Panning is a creative effect that combines a slow shutter speed with a moving camera following the moving subject.

9 Shutter Speeds Long Shutter Speeds Long Long shutter speeds refers to when the shutter of the camera is open for longer than one second. Longer shutter speeds are generally used in night photography. Life is about capturing the moment in its beauty, and telling a story to every beautiful moment. - Blanca Acosta 15 second Bulb Exposures Used when you can t anticipate the action, and you want the exposure to last several seconds. Put the camera on a tripod with theshutter speed set to B (bulb). Also used when an exposure of longer than 30 is required. Most DSLR cameras can t be set for longer than 30 seconds.

10 Aperture Aperture The aperture is the diaphragm that opens and closes to modify the amount of light that reaches the sensor. A small aperture lets in a small amount of light, while a big aperture allows for more light to reach the sensor. The aperture is also called f-stop. Aperture sizes are denoted by f numbers: f/32, f/22, f/16, f/11, f/8, f/5.6, f/4, f/2.8, f/2, f/1.4, f/1. The smaller the number, the bigger the aperture opening. f/22 f/16 Less Light Deeper Depth of Field (More in Focus) Aperture Priority A Nikon/Olympus Av Canon f/11 f/8 In bright light conditions you should use a small aperture to cut back the amount of light to avoid over exposing your picture. f/5.6 f/4 In low light conditions you should use a wide aperture to let more light reach the sensor. f/2.8 More Light Shallower Depth of Field (Less in Focus)

11 is Metering? What is Metering? What Metering is how the camera measures the amount of light in the photo and tells you the aperture and shutter speed needed for a correct exposure. Subject Incident Light Reflected Light Light Source In-Camera Metering Types of Meter Readings Reflected Light Meter Aim the sensor at a subject to make a reading of light reflected from the subject. Incident Light Meter Faced toward the camera from the position of the subject to make a reading. It measures the light falling on a subject. Handheld Meter

12 Types of Built-In Meters n Average (Partial) Meter n Center-Weighted Meter n Spot Meter Canon Nikon n Multisegment Meter Area Metered Evaluative Average Meter Matrix Average Meter Spot Meter Center-Weighted Meter Multisegment Meter This type of metering favors the light level at the center of an image, which is oftern the most important part to meter. An overall average reading would be thrown off by light or an absence of light outside the center. This mode meters around 10%-15% of the entire frame.they are useful when thereis a relatively small object within your scene which you either need to be perfectly exposed, or know that it will provide the closest matchto middle gray. The most common application of partial metering is a portrait of someone who is backlit, neon lights or stage performances.

13 Center-Weighted Meter This type of metering favors the light level at the center of an image, which is often the most important part to meter. An overall average reading would be thrown off by light or an absence of light outside the center. One advantage of this method is that is less influenced by small areas that vary greatly in brightness at the edges of the viewfinder; as many subjects are in the cental part of the frame, consistant results can be obtained. The most common application is for evenly-lit subjects. Spot Meter This meter reads only a very small part of an image and is useful for exact measurements of individual areas. This will typically be the very center of the scene, but some cameras allow the user to select a different off-center spot, or to recompose by moving the camera after metering. An average, or center-weighted meter would be thrown off by dark or bright areas surrounding the subject.

14 Multisegment Meter Evaluative metering (Canon), Metrix metering (Nikon). This meter divides the scene into areas that are metered individually and then evaluated against a series of patterns stored in the camera s memory. The resulting exposure is more likely to avoid problems such as underexposure of a subject against a very bright or dark background. Backlit Subject Portrait Multisegment metering is most of the time used for: n Backlit subjects n Portraits n General pictures n Tricky lighting The metering is concentrated on the active AF point

15 Modes Exposure Modes Exposure n Manual n Aperture Priority n Shutter Priority Manual Exposure Manual Exposure n You set both the shutter speed and aperture n You use the manual exposure when you are working in a situation in which the lighting remains constant Aperture Priority Exposure n You select the aperture and the camera adjusts the shutter speed n You use aperture priority exposure when you want to control the depth of field. Aperture Priority Exposure

16 Shutter Priority Exposure n You select the shutter speed and the camera adjusts the aperture n You use shutter priority exposure when you want to control the motion, either stopping the action or showing action with blur. Overriding Automatic Exposure Manual Mode After establishing the proper exposure, the user sets the corresponding ISO, shutter speed and aperture. Exposure Compensation Dial Use the button to adjust the exposure brighter (+) or darker (-) from the camera s meter reading. Shutter Priority Exposure: Showing the action Exposure Lock Press and hold this button to prevent the camera from shifting the exposure once a reading has been achieved. Shutter Priority Exposure: Stopping the action Manual Mode After establishing the proper exposure, the user sets the corresponding ISO, shutter speed and aperture. Bracket Use this feature to capture 3 or more images at different exposures. Typically one exposure is considered normal, another is overexposed and the third is underexposed, each varied by the same exposure value.

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