# Building a Real Camera

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1 Building a Real Camera

2 Home-made pinhole camera Slide by A. Efros

3 Shrinking the aperture Why not make the aperture as small as possible? Less light gets through Diffraction effects Slide by Steve Seitz

4 Shrinking the aperture

6 Adding a lens A lens focuses light onto the film Thin lens model: Rays passing through the center are not deviated (pinhole projection model still holds) Slide by Steve Seitz

7 Adding a lens focal point f A lens focuses light onto the film Thin lens model: Rays passing through the center are not deviated (pinhole projection model still holds) All rays parallel to the optical axis pass through the focal point Slide by Steve Seitz

8 Thin lens formula What is the relation between the focal length ( f ), the distance of the object from the optical center (D), and the distance at which the object will be in focus (D )? D f D image plane lens object Slide by Frédo Durand

9 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D f D image plane lens object Slide by Frédo Durand

10 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! y /y = D /D D D f y y image plane lens object Slide by Frédo Durand

11 Thin lens formula Similar triangles everywhere! D D f y y /y = D /D y /y = (D f )/f y image plane lens object Slide by Frédo Durand

12 Thin lens formula = 1 D D f Any point satisfying the thin lens equation is in focus. D f D image plane lens object Slide by Frédo Durand

13 Depth of Field circle of confusion A lens focuses light onto the film There is a specific distance at which objects are in focus other points project to a circle of confusion in the image Slide by Steve Seitz

14 Depth of Field Slide by A. Efros

15 Controlling depth of field Changing the aperture size affects depth of field A smaller aperture increases the range in which the object is approximately in focus But small aperture reduces amount of light need to increase exposure

16 Varying the aperture Large aperture = small DOF Small aperture = large DOF Slide by A. Efros

17 Field of View Slide by A. Efros

18 Field of View Slide by A. Efros

19 Field of View f f FOV depends on focal length and size of the camera retina Larger focal length = smaller FOV Slide by A. Efros

20 Field of View / Focal Length Large FOV, small f Camera close to car Small FOV, large f Camera far from the car Sources: A. Efros, F. Durand

21 Same effect for faces wide-angle standard telephoto Source: F. Durand

22 Approximating an orthographic camera Source: Hartley & Zisserman

23 The dolly zoom Continuously adjusting the focal length while the camera moves away from (or towards) the subject

24 The dolly zoom Continuously adjusting the focal length while the camera moves away from (or towards) the subject The Vertigo shot Example of dolly zoom from Goodfellas (YouTube) Example of dolly zoom from La Haine (YouTube)

25 Real lenses

26 Lens flaws: Vignetting

27 Radial Distortion Caused by imperfect lenses Deviations are most noticeable near the edge of the lens No distortion Pin cushion Barrel

28 Lens flaws: Spherical aberration Spherical lenses don t focus light perfectly Rays farther from the optical axis focus closer

29 Lens Flaws: Chromatic Aberration Lens has different refractive indices for different wavelengths: causes color fringing Near Lens Center Near Lens Outer Edge

30 Digital camera sensors Each cell in a sensor array is a light-sensitive diode that converts photons to electrons Dominant in the past: Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Dominant now: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)

31 Color filter arrays Bayer grid Demosaicing: Estimation of missing components from neighboring values Why more green? Human Luminance Sensitivity Function Source: Steve Seitz

32 Misc. digital camera artifacts Noise low light is where you most notice noise light sensitivity (ISO) / noise tradeoff stuck pixels In-camera processing oversharpening can produce halos Compression JPEG artifacts, blocking Blooming CCD charge overflowing into neighboring pixels Color artifacts Color moire Purple fringing from microlenses

33 Historic milestones Pinhole model: Mozi ( BCE), Aristotle ( BCE) Principles of optics (including lenses): Alhacen ( CE) Camera obscura: Leonardo da Vinci ( ), Johann Zahn ( ) First photo: Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1822) Daguerréotypes (1839) Photographic film (Eastman, 1889) Cinema (Lumière Brothers, 1895) Color Photography (Lumière Brothers, 1908) Television (Baird, Farnsworth, Zworykin, 1920s) First consumer camera with CCD Sony Mavica (1981) First fully digital camera: Kodak DCS100 (1990) Alhacen s notes Niepce, La Table Servie, 1822 Old television camera

34 First digitally scanned photograph 1957, 176x176 pixels

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