Intro to Digital SLR and ILC Photography Week 1 The Camera Body

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1 Intro to Digital SLR and ILC Photography Week 1 The Camera Body Instructor: Roger Buchanan Class notes are available at Course Outline: Week 1 Camera Body; Week 2 Lenses; Week 3 Accessories, tips and Review. Notes: An SLR has an Optical Viewfinder using a mirror. ILCs have no mirror and use an Electronic viewfinder. 1. Detail is lost through each step of the Photographic Process. (You need to get it right in the Camera!) Scene Camera Computer Printer/Display 2. Shutter Speed and ISO relate to the Camera Body, and Aperture relates to the Camera Lens. ISO Aperture IMAGE CAPTURE Control Brighter Darker ISO Shutter 2 sec 1/4000sec Aperture f/3.5 f/22 Image Capture Settings: (follow along using the hand-outs) Aperture is the opening in the lens allowing light through to the sensor. It is noted as the fstop. (related to how much stays in focus or Depth of Focus ); Shutter Speed is how long the sensor will be exposed to the light (related to capturing Motion); ISO, commonly referred to as Speed, denotes how sensitive the sensor will be to light. Different pairings of Aperture and Shutter Speed can make images with the same level of brightness, but look different, & are called Equivalent Exposures Shutter Speed Settings Equivalent Exposure Values (ISO 100) Aperture f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22 Shutter 1/500 1/250 1/125 1/60 1/30 A great learning tool called Camera Sim shows Aperture/ShutterSpeed/ISO interacting. P, A, S and M modes. Program, Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority and Manual. (all manual modes) 3. Histogram: Assessing the quality of the image Exposure (often accessed via the Disp/Info button) 4. Pressing the Disp/Info when taking photos displays the current settings; 5. A jpeg is processed in the camera, a RAW file (very robust) is processed later on a computer using the software included with your camera. Cameras can record jpeg and RAW together. (Recommended) 6. Unless your sensor is Full Frame (36mmx24mm like film frames) your sensor will be a bit smaller and will have a Cropping Effect which essentially magnifies the image through the lens. (see below) Lens APS-C sensor 4 x 6 print Full Frame sensor 4 x 6 print Intro to Digital SLR and ILC Photography - Week 1 - Jan 2017 thenerdworks.com All Rights Reserved Page 1

2 7. Compared to a Point and Shoot the Sensor in a dslr or ILC is larger. That means the pixels are larger. Larger pixels produce less noise. 12MP dslr s & ILC s take cleaner pictures than 12MP Point and Shoots. 8. dslrs & ILCs are heavier cameras. Your neck can benefit from a camera strap like a Black Rapid! 9. Diopter adjustment is required to properly adjust the viewfinder for the needs of your eye. The Diopter adjustment wheel is located on the side of the viewfinder, and is labelled with + symbol. 10. To calculate the minimum shutter speed for a sharp hand held exposure use the following equation: Shutter Speed for Cropped Sensor camera= 1/(1.5 x s Focal Length) or 1/90sec whichever is faster! 11. With a dslr or ILC you can compose your image through either the Viewfinder or the LCD panel on the back of the camera (referred to as Live View ). Live View is convenient, but drains your battery, & requires your sensor to be active, which produces heat that can cause image noise. In most cases it is best to use the Viewfinder. Some Mirrorless ILCs only have an LCD viewfinder however. 12. Getting the best colour from your camera involves setting the Colour Space. A colour space is the language by which the camera describes the colours that it captures. Adobe RGB (98) is recommended. Homework: 1. Use a long shutter speed and try Panning to show your subject moving against a blurred background. 2. In a dark room, or outside at night, use a long shutter speed (start with 4 sec) and a flashlight to paint with light in order to record an image of your subject. It is important not to move the camera. Homework Example Photographs: 1. Panning with Subject: Notice how the front of the truck is relatively sharp, and the background is blurred. Put your camera in S or Tv mode. Use a shutter speed between ¼ & 1/15 th of a sec at ISO 100. Make sure to keep the camera moving evenly while you take the photo (i.e. follow-through) 2. Painting with Light This photo was made with a 4.0 second exposure. The camera was supported on a tripod while the cat was painted with light. Put your camera in S or Tv for Shutter Priority mode and set your shutter speed to 4 seconds with an ISO of 100. (If your image is too dark, use a longer shutter speed, if your image is too bright use a faster shutter speed) Intro to Digital SLR and ILC Photography - Week 1 - Jan 2017 thenerdworks.com All Rights Reserved Page 2

3 Depth of Field Samples: Note: All shots taken using a tripod! f/1.4 f/4.0 f/9.0 These photos were created using Aperture Priority where the photographer chooses the Aperture and the camera meters the available light and sets the Shutter Speed. The ISO remains as set by the photographer! f/16 Depth of Field Samples showing Aperture used. Copyright thenerdworks.com 2015 All Rights Reserved Page 1

4 Aperture affects Depth of Field but Shutter Speed affects Motion Blur. Aperture and Shutter Speed Aperture and Shutter Speed 1/15 sec 1/30 sec 1/50 sec 1/100sec NOTE: Each of the above photographs is properly exposed, and yet each photo was taken with different Aperture and Shutter Speed settings. These four photographs are examples of what are said to be Equivalent Exposures (i.e. Properly exposed, but made with different settings) Aperture Setting and Depth of Field in your Photo. Apr 2012 thenerdworks.com All Rights Reserved Page 1

5 Intro to Digital SLR Photography Week 2 The Lens Instructor: Roger Buchanan These notes are available at Homework Review from WEEK 1: 1. Panning to show your subject moving; 2. Paint with light in a dark area. Mounting the Lens on the camera: Always face the camera down to avoid dust in the camera body! Types of Lenses: Referenced by their Focal Length Focused at Infinity, it is the distance from the Optical Centre of the Lens, usually just behind the front glass element of the lens, to the Camera Sensor. 1. Telephoto Focal length greater than 70mm, used on distant subjects; 2. Wide Angle 10-35mm, used to capture wide views, or distort nearby objects; 3. Macro Used for life size captures, or greater; 4. Portrait 50-85mm are common focal lengths, often Prime Lenses, fast (f/ ); 5. Tele-converter Magnifies focal length by 1.4x or 2x but also reduces light transmission. Specifications: The specifications are printed on the end of the lens, or on the barrel at the base of the lens. 1. Focal Length a Zoom Lens has variable focal length (ex 18-55mm), but a Prime Lens is fixed; 2. Fixed Minimum f-stop (i.e. f/2.8) or Variable Minimum f-stop (i.e. f/ ) changes with zoom; 3. Filter sizing Size in millimeters of lens diameter, printed on inside of lens cap. Calculating f-stop f-stop = Focal Length f/4 = 100mm focal length Aperture Diameter 25mm aperture diameter Depth of Field is affected by 3 Camera settings: 1. f-stop lower f-stop has less depth of field; 2. Focal Length longer focal length has less depth of field; 3. Distance to Subject closer distance to subject has less depth of field. D of F and Less More f/stop f/2.8 f/22 Focal length Telephoto Wide Angle Distance to Subject Close Far Print Size Large Small ACTIVITY: Using Depth of Field Target Cards (Use Aperture Priority and ISO 3200) Tape the target card to the wall, the subject stands 6 feet from wall, photographer 3 feet from subject. Frame the shot so that the arrow on the card is at the subject s ear. Use a variety of Aperture settings. f/3.5-f/16 Intro to Digital SLR Photography - Week 2 Nov 2016 thenerdworks.com 2016 All Rights Reserved Page 1

6 Taking Portraits and the effect of Focal Length: ACTIVITY: Close distance using Wide Angle vs. Zoom from distance. (Head & Shoulders ONLY) Manual Focusing in Low Light Turn off AF to prevent the lens from hunting for focus in low light. ACTIVITY: Light Trails! (Camera Settings: Shutter Priority 4 seconds, ISO 100, Manual Focus) Auto Focus Mode And Point Selection: Camera Manual Focus Single Focus Continuous Focus Hybrid Nikon MF AF-S AF-C AF-A Canon MF One-Shot AI Servo AI Focus ACTIVITY: AF mode = single focus, or either continuous focus modes for tracking moving subjects; ACTIVITY: AF Area Mode = focus point selection (Dynamic, Tracking, Faces etc.), or Single (Manual) AF Area ACTIVITY: Single AF point selection = you choose which point/s the camera will use to attain focus. 1 Canon 2 Canon 1 Nikon* 2 Nikon* 3 Nikon *NOTE: Nikon users must first select AF-A & then Single Point AF before using control pad to select AF point LiveView: Using the LCD for Focusing. With LiveView you can use Auto-Focus or Enlarged Manual Focus! ACTIVITY: LiveView Focus area selection, using Up/Down/Right/Left buttons while using Auto-Focus. ACTIVITY: LiveView Magnified Focus. Use the Magnify button to enlarge the display & Manual Focus. After achieving focus use the Reduce button to see the normal LCD view. Calculate the sharpest Aperture = Set Zoom First! Then Set The Lowest f/stop. Lastly, Raise the f/stop 3-4 clicks. Filters (demo photographs) Polarizer, Neutral Density, Graduated Neutral Density Homework: Adjusting Depth of Field in your Photo s (Printed). Hint: Use Aperture Priority & ISO 1600 for this. 1. Make a group of 4 small objects, with the objects at 1, 2, 3 & 4 feet away, to take 4 photographs of. 2. Try to focus on the second object (HINT: Manual Focus can really help with this activity) 3. Each photograph should use a different setting for the f-stop (Aperture) so that the resulting photo has a different amount of depth of field showing. (i.e. from f/3.5 to f/22) 4. Stabilize your camera so that you do not get a blurry image if the shutter speed gets slowed down. 5. Do not change the composition, the amount of zoom that you use, or your distance to the subject. 6. Bring the 4 photo prints, showing the range of depth of field, to class next week. Intro to Digital SLR Photography - Week 2 Nov 2016 thenerdworks.com 2016 All Rights Reserved Page 2

7 Depth of Field Target: Instructions Set your ISO to 1600 and put your camera in Aperture Priority mode, Tape this on the wall: Have a volunteer stand about 4 feet in front of it, and just off to the side. Put the arrow in their ear. Stand 4 feet away, use some zoom to fill the frame with their head and this target Set your Aperture to its lowest f-stop. Take a picture; Raise your f-stop one value. Take a picture. Again...Raise your f-stop one value. Take a picture. Stop when you get up to f/16 When done compare the photo s to see how many lines of text can be read clearly Can you read this now?34pt Can you read this now?30pt Can you read this now? 26pt Can you read this now? 22pt Can you read this now? 18 point text Can you read this now? 14 point text.

8 Polarizing Filter to reduce glare. NON-polarized photo of window : f/3.5 ISO 100 Polarized photo of same window: 1/80 f/3.5 ISO 100 NON-polarized photo of statue: 1/320 f/3.5 ISO 100 Polarized photo of statue: 1/320 f/3.5 ISO 100 NOTE: The effectiveness of a polarizing filter is greatly affected by the angle of the lens to the source of light, in this case the sun. Generally speaking a lens taking a photo at a right angle to the sun will produce the strongest polarzing effect to reduce glare.

9 Intro To Digital Photography: Level 2 Neutral Density Filter No 1/30th of Sec Neutral Density 1 Sec

10 Graduated Neutral Density Filter Explained A bright sky with dark ground Graduated Neutral Density Filter held over the lens Plus Equals Beautiful Sky and Ground! All of this done in the Camera!

11 Intro to Digital SLR Photography Week 3 Flash, tips and Review Instructor: Roger Buchanan Notes are available at Homework Review: Adjusting Depth of Field in your Photo s (Printed). Notes: Flash and Accessories: 1. Positioning Light: The Family of Angles The Family of Angles refers to the angles of reflection that determine where a light can be placed without a direct reflection being captured in the photograph. Activity 1: A Handout with sample Camera/Subject positions will be provided for you to determine the Family of Angles. Mark where the light can and cannot be placed according to the Family of Angles. 2. Flash can be either: - On Camera, connected directly to the camera through the Hot shoe, or; - Off-Camera, connected by a cord, or wirelessly by an Infra-Red or Radio transmitter. 3. Control of the Flash by the camera (ETTL = Electronic Through The Lens) or by the photographer (manually). 4. Modifying Light you can Bounce, Diffuse, Concentrate or Colour the light. (or any combination thereof) 5. White Balance is a camera setting that assures that you get optimal colour reproduction by setting the camera to understand the colour of the main light source. This is essential for jpeg s! Activity 2: White Balance Take a photo of the subject with each White Balance setting. 6. Compensation: Two types of controls are Exposure compensation and Flash compensation. Your camera always tries to create a 0EV or Normal exposure, but you can adjust it to your taste! -3 EV -2 EV -1 EV 0 EV +1 EV +2 EV +3 EV Darker Normal Brighter Exposure Compensation Flash Compensation Activity 3: Controlling the throw of your flash by using flash compensation from a set distance. Activity 4: Using both forms of compensation during the same image capture Activity 5: Shooting Sponge cubes. Photograph your cubes from many different lighting angles. Activity 6: Metering Modes the camera measures light to set exposure settings (AF is turned OFF) Matrix/Evaluative uses the entire Sensor evenly; Center Weighted uses all with Priority to center area; Spot uses ONLY the area under the spot. Intro to Digital SLR Photography - Week 3 Nov 2016 thenerdworks.com 2016 All Rights Reserved Page 1

12 Review Notes: Image Capture Settings: (A) Aperture refers to the diameter of the opening that lets light from the lens through to the sensor. It is noted as the f-stop with smaller numbers being larger openings. Remember: F-stop = Focal Length/Aperture Diameter (i.e. f/4 = 100mm/25mm) (S or Tv) Shutter Speed, usually measured as a fraction of a second, is how long the sensor will be exposed to the light. ISO, commonly referred to as Speed, denotes how sensitive the sensor will be to light. ISO sensitivity Aperture Depth of Field IMAGE CAPTURE Shutter Speed Motion Note: A good image capture results from the appropriate use of Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO all working together to produce what the photographer is looking to create. -2 EV -1 EV 0 EV +1 EV +2 EV Normal Exposure Compensation Darker Brighter NOTE: Changing any one setting will necessitate changing one of the other settings to bring the image capture back to being the desired exposure level. Auto Focus Mode allows you to have your camera do a single focus, or use a continuous focus for tracking subject moving quickly towards or away from you. Auto Focus Point Selection allows you to choose which point the camera will use to attain focus. Capture Modes. Program (P), Aperture Priority (A), Shutter Priority (S or Tv) and Manual (M). Depth of Field (D of F)is affected by: 1. f-stop lower f-stop number has less depth of field; (i.e. f/2.8 less D of F than f/16) 2. Focal Length longer focal length has less depth of field; 3. Distance to Subject closer distance to subject has less depth of field. Manual Focus for Low Light Turn off AF to prevent lens hunting for focus in low light settings. Calculate the sharpest Aperture for any Lens with the Zoom already set usually 3-4 clicks above wide open. White Balance gets set in camera when making jpeg s! Remember: Even though the class is over you can send me an if you have any course related questions! Intro to Digital SLR Photography - Week 3 Nov 2016 thenerdworks.com 2016 All Rights Reserved Page 2

13 Depth of Field Homework Week 2: Intro dslr f/16 f/9 f/4 f/1.2

14 Family of Angles Worksheet Below are four sample drawings of camera to subject positioning. For each of the samples draw in the corresponding Family of Angles. Then place an X where the light must not go, and a where it is safe to put a light.

15 Metering (Measuring the Light): How your camera metering works. Subject Centred Avg/Multi/Matrix/Evaluative Centre Weighted Spot Subject Off To The Side Avg/Multi/Matrix/Evaluative Centre Weighted Spot The Camera Meters Light to Create a Recommended Exposure Value Camera Sets the Exposure Value to Zero (Middle of the Road)

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