2 All photographers have their own vision, their own artistic sense of the world. Unless you re trying to satisfy a client in a work for hire situation, the pictures you make should please you if others like them too, great. If not, too bad. Jim Zuckerman Failure is a crucial part of the creative process. Authentic success arrives only after we have mastered failing better. George Bernard Shaw You can learn more from your mistakes than you can from your successes if you pay attention to those mistakes. Paul Smith
3 When is an image created?
4 LIGHT Light makes photography. Embrace light. Admire it. Love it. But above all, know light. Know it for all you are worth, and you will know the e key to photography. George Eastman
5 How Many Different Types of Light or Light Sources?
6 Types of Light Sunlight Moonlight Good Light Bad Light Soft Light Harsh Light Storm Light Flash Light Incandescent U.V. Light Black Light Fluorescent Indirect/Bounce Highlights
7 Types of Light Front Light Side Light Back Light Twilight Flat Light Tungsten Light Halogen Light Mercury Vapor Lightning? Candle Light Available/Ambient Incident Reflected Diffused Light
10 Modes of Operation Program Mode Least Desirable the camera decides both aperture and shutter speed. Aperture Priority Mode Controls Depth of Field you select the aperture, the camera determines the proper shutter speed. Shutter Priority Mode Controls Action (Stop or Blur) you select the shutter speed, the camera determines the proper aperture. Manual Mode Puts YOU in Total Control l...
11 Apertures and Shutter Speeds Aperture, measured in f stops, determines the size of the opening in your lens, which controls how much light strikes your filming during an exposure. The smaller the number, the larger the opening. The larger the number, the smaller the opening. The smaller the number, the larger the opening. Aperture also determines depth of field. The smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field. O o o o o o o f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f22 Each f stop change lets in either 2 times or ½ the amount of light, depending on whether you are opening up or stopping down. Open up means to make the opening larger (but a smaller number). Stop down means selecting an aperture that is smaller in size (but bigger in number).
12 Shutter Speeds Shutter speeds appear as whole numbers, but are really fractions: 1/60 sec., 1/125 sec., 1/250 sec., 1/500 sec. Therefore 1/60 is a slower shutter speed than 1/125, etc. When you change 1 stop in shutter speed, you are letting in either 2 times or ½ the amount of light
13 Reciprocal relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed If a correct exposure for a given lighting condition is 11, then f8 will let in the same amount of light. If is correct, then will let in the same amount of light.
14 Exposure/Metering To understand exposure/metering, it is important to understand how a camera determines proper exposure. An in-camera meter reads light that is REFLECTED off of your subject. Your camera presumes that everything you point your camera at to be 18% GRAY.
15 Taking Meter Readings Metering Modes Average/Matrix Looks at the entire scene. Center Weighted - Looks at what s in the center of your lens. Spot Looks at a very small area in the lens. Best used in manual Mode.
16 Metering Your meter reading will vary in accordance with the tonality of your subject. You will get different readings if your subject is white, black or gray. Shades in between white and black can also fool your meter (Yellow, Pink, etc.) 18% Gray will give the most accurate reading.
18 Exposure/Metering (cont d) As you saw, white gave one reading, black gave another reading and gray gave yet another reading. Since your camera thinks that the world is 18% GRAY, it will UNDEREXPOSE subjects that are predominantly white. It wants to make your subject GRAY.
19 Exposure/Metering (cont d) Conversely, your camera will OVER- EXPOSE subjects that are predominantly black. It wants to make your subject GRAY. Sunny 16 Rule All photographers have their own vision, their own artistic sense of the world. Unless you re trying to satisfy a client in a work for hire situation, the pictures you make should please you if others like them too, great. If not, too bad. -JIM ZUCKERMAN
20 Exposure/Metering (cont d) How to get a proper exposure? The most accurate way to determine proper exposure using an in-camera meter is by using a GRAY CARD. A GRAY CARD will only give an accurate reading if you hold it in the SAME light that your subject is in.
21 Exposure/Metering (cont d) How to get an accurate exposure if you do not have a Gray Card. Find something in the scene that is 18% Gray or of medium tonality (blue sky, green grass). BRACKET Take several shots at different settings. If your subject is lighter than 18% Gray, open up, allowing more light in. If your subject is darker than 18% Gray, stop down, allowing in less light.
24 Exposure/Metering (cont d) How to BRACKET Use Exposure Compensation when shooting in either Aperture or Shutter Priority. Dial in + compensation to let in more light, or dial in compensation to let in less light. Most cameras will allow changes in either 1/2 stops or 1/3 stops. When shooting in Manual Mode, just watch your meter indicator as you dial in either more or less exposure
25 Exposure/Metering (cont d) Bracketing (cont d) Rule of thumb - White subjects need approx. 1 to 1.5 stops of additional compensation. Black subjects usually about stops less compensation.
26 Depth of Field Photography is not about depth of field, it s about depth of feeling. - Michael Fatali Depth of field is defined as the distance between the nearest point and furthest point in the photograph which is perceived as acceptably sharp. It is the apparent zone of sharpness within a photograph. This zone typically extends from 1/3 of the distance in front and 2/3 of the distance behind the subject. How large or small that zone is, is determined by your aperture. A small aperture (f22) will make the apparent zone of sharpness greater. A large aperture (f2.8) will make the apparent zone of sharpness smaller.
27 VARIABLES THAT AFFECT LENS SELECTION DEPTH OF FIELD APERTURE CAMERA TO SUBJECT DISTANCE CHECK BY USING DEPTH OF FIELD PREVIEW FEATURE
28 TO MAXIMIZE DEPTH OF FIELD USE A SMALL APERTURE (f22) AND FOCUS 1/3 THE DISTANCE INTO YOUR PHOTOGRAPH
33 LENSES CONSIDERATIONS WHEN PURCHASING A NEW LENS 1. Cost 2. Speed Faster lenses are also brighter 3. Minimum Focusing Distance 4. Diameter (Filter Size) 5. Size/Weight 6. Distance Scale or Hyperfocal Scale
34 SPECIALTY LENSES 1. FISH EYE 2. PC OR PERSPECTIVE CONTROL
35 FISH EYE Fish Eye Lens creates distortion bends horizon line up or down depending on how you aim it. Can be used as super wide angle lens if you do not bend it when shooting. A 16 mm fish eye has a 180 degree field of view.
36 PERSPECTIVE CONTROL LENS Used mainly in Architectural Photography and Product/Studio Photography. They allow you to stretch depth of field at moderate apertures by use of tilts and shifts. They come in various focal lengths: Canon makes: 24 mm, 45 mm, and 90 mm. Nikon makes an 85 mm macro PC lens ($1300). They no longer make the 28 mm or 35 mm
39 RULE OF THUMB FOR HANDHOLDING LENSES SHUTTER SPEED = 1/FOCAL LENGTH OR FASTER
40 LENS FLARE Caused by shooting directly into a bright light source (sun or flash) More likely when: 1. Using a multi element lens (zoom) 2. Using a wide angle lens 3. Using filters/stacking filters Reduce flare by: 1. Using lens hood or gobo to shade lens 2. Using a fixed focal length lens 3. Using a longer focal length lens 4. Removing filters
41 FILTERS U.V. FILTERS POLARIZING FILTERS COMBINATION FILTERS WARMING FILTERS 81 Series ENHANCING SOFT FOCUS- DIFFUSION GRADUATED NEUTRAL DENSITY FLD Fluorescent Correcting NEUTRAL DENSITY COOLING 80 Series COLOR CORRECTING SPECIAL EFFECTS Star Filters Rainbow Filters Motion Filters Thin Filters for Wide Angle Lenses
42 FILTERS Cheap filters may make adversely effect the sharpness of your images. Be careful to avoid vignetting do not stack filters if you can avoid it. Wide angle lenses are more likely to produce vignetting. Avoid by buying thin filters. Be prepared to pay more money!
43 Composition Rules of Composition 1. Rule of Thirds and Power Points 2. Leading Lines 3. Diagonal Lines 4. S Curve and C Curves 5. Frame Within a Frame 6. Keep it Simple 7. Rules for Portraiture 8. Eye enters photo from left to right (USA) 9. Foreground - Midground Background 10. Use of Color as a Compositional Element 11. Breaking the Rules
44 Rule of Thirds
47 LEADING LINE
48 LEADING LINE and C CURVE
49 USE OF DIAGONAL LINE
52 FRAME WITHIN A FRAME
53 EYES IN UPPER THIRD IN PORTRAITS
55 LEAVE ROOM FOR SUBJECT
56 FOREGROUND - MIDGROUND BACKGROUND
59 GIVE IMAGE SCALE
60 EXCEPTIONS Bulls Eye may be acceptable for close up shots of flowers, etc. Horizon in middle may be acceptable in reflection shots Need to Know the Rules Before you can Break the Rules
61 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 1. Horizontal Vs Vertical 2. Lines, Textures, Patterns, Colors 3. Make sure that leading lines lead to an interesting subject and do not lead viewer out of the frame 4. Avoid distracting elements 5. Watch out for merging elements 6. Make sure the horizon line is level use tripod, bubble level, and cable release 7. Viewfinders usually do not show 100% of the image.
62 Things To Watch For Watch your edges!!!!! Most beginners do not look at the bottom of the frame when composing. Leave room for subjects such as birds and animals so they do not appear to be leaving the frame. In portraits, leave some head space unless you are cropping tight for a reason.
63 USE OF COLOR(S) Use Complimentary Colors as a compositional element.
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