Buxton & District U3A Digital Photography Beginners Group

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1 U3A Group Lesson 7: Controlling exposure / focal length / perspective / composition for a better picture & Taking Pictures of people 3 December 2013

2 Programme Buxton & District 19 September Exploring your camera 1 October You ve taken some pictures now what? (Viewing pictures; filing on your computer) 15 October Printing & Composing a better picture (part 1) 29 October Camera modes/scenes & Composing a better picture (part 2) 5 November Simple editing to improve your pictures 19 November Understanding exposure 3 December Controlling exposure/focal length/perspective/composition for a better picture & Taking Pictures of people 17 December Everything you want to know about digital photography but never dared ask.

3 Last Time How to improve my pictures. Understanding Exposure

4 Homework Buxton & District Go through Exercises 1-6 again at home in your own time. Make sure you feel comfortable with: Controlling exposure Freezing / blurring motion Controlling depth of field

5 ISO Exercise 1- Automatic Exposure Buxton & District 1. Set your camera to Auto mode. 2. Find where your camera tells you what shutter speed and aperture it is going to use when you are about to take a picture. 3. Take some pictures, taking particular notice of the shutter speed and aperture as you take each picture. 4. Take pictures in a variety of lighting conditions: i. Indoors and outdoors ii. Scenes with bright and dark areas iii. Sunny day & grey day (if you can find them!) iv. Sun behind you / sun in front of you. 5. Are you happy with the exposure in all of the pictures?

6 ISO Exercise 2 - Exposure Compensation Buxton & District 1. Set your camera to program mode. 2. Find the exposure compensation adjustment on your camera (if you have one). 3. Try taking several pictures of the same scene at different exposures: i. Shoot the same scene with set to +2; +1; 0; -1; -2 ii. Try this with several different scenes iii. Find some scenes which have a both bright and dark areas

7 ISO Exercise 3 Shutter Speed 1. Set your camera to Shutter Priority 2. Find out how to adjust the shutter speed in this mode. 3. Change the shutter speed: Buxton & District i. Find the shutter speed and aperture on the camera display. ii. How does the camera tell you if it can t set the aperture to get a correct exposure at your chosen shutter speed? 4. Take pictures of moving objects: i. Take some shots at fast shutter speed (1/250 or faster) ii. Take some shots at slow shutter speed (1/30 or slower) 5. Find out what happens at slow shutter speeds i. Zoom in as far as your camera will allow (longest focal length or highest x zoom) and shoot outdoors at shutter speeds of 1/30 or less. ii. Zoom out as far as your camera will allow (shortest focal length or 1x zoom) and shoot a similar scene at shutter speed of 1/30 or less. iii. Come indoors how slow do you have to set the shutter speed to get a good exposure (without flash)? iv. Stay indoors what happens when you take pictures at speed of around 1/10 or 1/15.

8 ISO 1. Set your camera to Aperture Priority Exercise 4 Aperture 2. Find out how to adjust the aperture in this mode. 3. Change the aperture: i. Find the shutter speed and aperture on the camera display. ii. Buxton & District How does the camera tell you if it can t set the shutter speed to get a correct exposure at your chosen aperture? 4. Take pictures of scenes with object(s) in the foreground which are clearly separated from the background: i. Take shot at a wide aperture (f/4 or larger) ii. Take shot at small aperture (f/8 or smaller) 5. Take pictures in a range of lighting conditions. 6. Can you always find a viable shutter speed for the aperture you have chosen?

9 ISO Exercise 5 Manual Exposure 1. Set your camera to Manual Exposure (if you have one) 2. Find out how to adjust the aperture and shutter speed in this mode. 3. Find out how your camera tells you if the shutter speed / aperture combination gives a correct exposure. 4. Try taking a range of shots i. take pictures in various lighting conditions ii. iii. iv. freeze motion show motion by blurring the image isolate an object from the background (object in focus, background blurred) v. foreground and background both in focus 5. Do you have more of a range of shutter speed or aperture?

10 ISO Exercise 6 ISO 1. Find out how to adjust the ISO on your camera. 2. Set ISO to Auto. 3. Take pictures in a range of lighting conditions note the ISO, shutter speed and aperture. 4. Choose the shutter speed (shake/freeze/blur) and aperture (depth of field) then see if you can adjust the ISO to get a correct exposure. 5. Take a picture with the lowest ISO you have and a similar picture with the highest ISO. Can you see any difference in quality of the image?

11 This Time How to improve my pictures. Drawing together exposure / focal length / perspective Taking pictures of people

12 Last Time -What affects Exposure How much light is there on the subject Lighting How big is the hole letting light into the camera Aperture 1/4 1/ /8 1/16 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 For how long is the camera collecting light Shutter speed ISO How sensitive is the film (or digital detector) Film Speed

13 Summary (what have you got to tinker with) Buxton & District Exposure ISO Depth of field Brighter/Darker Motion / Still

14 The time before Lenses etc. Focal length Magnification Angle of view Perspective Position Depth of field Distortion

15 Magnification / Angle of view SLR 18 mm Compact 1x Wide Angle 39 mm 2x 100 mm 5.5x 250 mm 14x Telephoto

16 Perspective / Position (relative size of objects at different distances) How can I make the bollards look bigger? Zoom Relative sizes of bollard, car and road sign stay the same.. Or get closer. Bollard has got relatively much larger than sign and house.

17 Perspective / Depth of Field 45mm lens 1 m distance Buxton & District Wide angle and close to front bottle makes closer bottles appear relatively larger so parallel lines running along top and bottom of bottles come together quickly 140mm lens 3 m distance Long focal length and further from front bottle makes closer bottles appear relatively less difference in size so parallel lines running along top and bottom of bottles come together gradually

18 Distortion

19 Summary (what have you got to tinker with) Buxton & District Exposure Composition ISO Angle of view Depth of field Magnification Perspective Lenses Focal Length (Zoom) Distance from Subject

20 The time before that Composition Some guidelines

21 What s in the picture avoid distractions Buxton & District

22 2. Avoid the middle/fill the frame

23 3. The rule of thirds

24 4. Frame the picture

25 5. Leading lines

26 Summary (how to take the perfect picture) Things you change affect the picture Motion / Still Guidelines help you decide what s in the picture Avoid distractions Buxton & District Just add creativity ISO Distance from Subject Focal Length (Zoom) Brighter / Darker Depth of field Perspective Angle of view Magnification Avoid middle / fill frame Rule of thirds Frame the picture Leading Lines

27 This Time How to improve my pictures. Drawing together exposure / focal length / perspective Taking pictures of people

28 Beware posed picture It s a record of the day But There is lots of distracting background Its Dull!!!!!

29 Beware Posed Pictures It s a record of the day But I cringe Nice door handle! It s Dull!!

30 Beware posed pictures It s a picture of Katie posing on her 9 th birthday It s dull and it s awkward

31 Oh Dear! The subjects look awkward Paul is hidden in the shade Far too much going on distracting from the subject

32 What Fill the frame Blur the background Highlight the subject Less awkward look How Zoom (fill frame/ helps blur / not in subject s face) Use portrait setting or large aperture (blur background) Don t pose (he knew I was shooting but this is one of series walking down street.) Use light to highlight subject

33 What Isolate the subject Keep the context How Stand a long way back and use Zoom (helps blur / not in subject s face) Use portrait setting or large aperture (blur background and foreground to isolate subject) Don t pose (she knew I was shooting but I was a long way off.)

34 Unconventional views

35 Unconventional views Unusual angle Looking away from the camera Looks natural Fill the frame

36 Capture the action

37 Capture the action

38 Candid shots Long telephoto And cropped

39 Telephoto camera is not in her face Background slightly blurred Use the light to highlight the subject

40 Candid shots Not posed Looking away from the camera Use the light to highlight the subjects

41 Homework 1. Go through your pictures: Buxton & District a. Find some that you don t think are so good. What could you have done differently to improve them? b. Find some that are better. What was different? Why did they work? 2. Take some pictures of people between now and the next session. Bring some along. 3. Select one photo you think is not good and one which is good. Bring to next meeting or to by Monday 16 th December

42 Homework Buxton & District Photo competition - 3 pictures in each of 3 categories: 1. People portrait, group picture, action, candid etc. 2. Places buildings or landscapes 3. Open any subject you like Send your 9 entries to by Sunday 15th December (or arrange to deliver otherwise e.g. via cloud storage or deliver memory card to my house).

43 Next Time Everything you wanted to know about digital photography but never dared ask Recap of what we have done Your questions answered Photo competition Competition portfolios. Competition winners.

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