# 6.A44 Computational Photography

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1 Add date: Friday 6.A44 Computational Photography Depth of Field Frédo Durand We allow for some tolerance What happens when we close the aperture by two stop? Aperture diameter is divided by two is doubled Depth of Max focus acceptable circle of confusion Diaphragm depends on focusing distance What happens when we divide focusing distance by two? Similar triangles => divided by two as well summary 1 Half aperture, Double Double distance, double Focal length? Half depth of field Half depth of field 1

2 & focal length & focal length Recall that to get the same image size, we can double the focal length and the distance Recall what happens to physical aperture size when we double the focal length for the same f number? It is doubled Same image size, same f number in object space? The same! Wide-angle 24mm 50mm Telephoto (2x f), same aperture Important conclusion For a given image size and a given f number, the depth of field (in object space) is the same. Might be counter intuitive. Background blur for distant object Same object-space blur But more magnified with telephoto => more blurry Now what happens to the background blur? Wide-angle Telephoto (2x f), same aperture Important conclusion Pattern enlarged 4 times: it is smoother, looks more blurry For a given image size and a given f number, the depth of field (in object space) is the same. That is, the depth of acceptable sharpness is the same But the background looks more blurry with telephoto Because it gets magnified Notice that magnification is 1 around the object (because we change the distance) 2 at infinity Assignment: Guess the function! 2

3 Seeing beyond occlusion Photo taken through zoo bars Telephoto at full aperture The bars are so blurry that they are invisible Crazy images By Matthias Zwicker The focus is between the two sticks Sharp version Really wide aperture version It s all about the size of the aperture Sensor size The coolest depth of field solution Use two optical systems The coolest depth of field solution diffuser Object with texture diffuser Object with texture 3

4 Photoshop Using layers: One sharp layer, one blurry layer (using Gaussian blur) Layer mask selects focus Photoshop Problem: halo around edges Input (sharp layer) Blurred layer Mask of blurry layer) Result Photoshop blur Reverse-engineered algorithm: average over circle Size of circle depends on pseudo depth Discard pixels that are too much closer Photoshop blur Filter>Blur>Lens blur Input Depth map (painted manually) Input Depth map (painted manually) Result Tilt-shift Advanced control on Perspective In particular for architecture Advanced control on plane of focus Does not need to be parallel to film Architectural perspective Problem: converging verticals Normal since we look upwards But disconcerting 4

5 Solution: crop a wider image Take a very wide angle Crop the upper part Wide-angle image looking upward Notice the converging verticals Solution: crop a wider image Take a very wide angle Crop the upper part This is what shifting does Image with wider field of view (sort of) The viewing direction is horizontal, the verticals are parallel. When we crop, we get what we wanted. Shift direction Lens center Scene Projection Sensor Architectural perspective Architectural perspective Solution: view-camera Lens shifted with respect to film Digital perspective correction Photoshop, distort Digital perspective correction Photoshop, distort Can be done traditionally 5

6 No shift Shift: control plane of focus Shift Useful for landscape to get depth of field from foreground to infinity Lens aperture Focus plane Lens aperture Focus plane Soft focus Everything is blurry Rays do not converge Some people like it for portrait Assignment Guess the function (slide 12) Take a high-dynamic range picture. Get HDRShop Calibrate the camera response curve (you can share the curve) Use the bracketing mode on the camera to take a sequence of 3 pictures Assemble a high-dynamic-range image using HDRShop With soft focus 6

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