These aren t just cameras

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1 Roger Easley 2016

2 These aren t just cameras

3 These are computers.

4 Your camera is a specialized computer Creates files of data Has memory Has a screen display Has menus of options for you to navigate

5 Your camera has multiple menus Shooting menus for taking photos Playback menus for displaying photos on the screen

6 Shooting vs. Playback menus Find the button on the camera to display the last photo taken Press the shutter release to return to shooting mode Some cameras use the zoom in Playback mode to enlarge the displayed image

7 The mouse on your camera Think of using a computer mouse to move around the menus Arrows to move up/down, left/right on the screen Button to press = clicking to select an option

8 The buttons vary on different makes and models

9 More about menus These buttons and menus are how you drive your camera Getting comfortable with these controls opens up all kinds of possibilities Otherwise, it s like driving without knowing the brake from the gas pedal

10 More about menus Available options can change (or be disabled) depending on the shooting mode such as Auto or Manual

11 Let s start with exposure photo + graph = light drawing Controlling exposure is THE most important factor to getting good pictures

12 Exposure Level Indicator Scale from dark to light Center mark means a medium exposure

13 Setting a proper exposure Captured too much light Overexposed means washed out highlights No detail in brightest areas

14 Setting a proper exposure Captured too little light Underexposed means dark shadows without detail

15 Setting a proper exposure Captured right balance of light Some bright highlights Some dark shadows Detail captured through most of the range from light to dark

16 The three elements of exposure ISO [sensitivity setting] Shutter speed Aperture

17 The garden hose metaphor Filling a bucket with water from a hose Size of bucket = ISO Time the water flows = Shutter speed Diameter of hose = Aperture

18 Exposure Triangle

19 ISO: sensitivity From International Standards Organization Like the speed of film Sets how much light is enough for a proper exposure

20 ISO: sensitivity Values such as: But higher values introduce a grainy appearance called noise

21 Photographic noise

22 Shutter speed How much time shutter is open, letting light reach the camera sensor Determines motion blur in the photo (subject motion or camera motion)

23 Shutter speed Measured in fractions of a second Examples: 1/30 th of a second 1/125 th 1/500th Slowest blur-free shutter speed for hand held camera: 1/30 th of a second

24 Very fast shutter speed: 1/1600th

25 Very long shutter speed: ½ second or longer

26 Aperture Size of opening letting in light

27 Aperture Measured in F Stops such as f/2.8, f/5.6, f/11, f/16 Actually the denominator of a fraction f/16 is SMALLER opening than f/11 or f/5.6

28 Aperture Measured in F Stops such as f/2.8, f/5.6, f/11, f/16 Actually a fraction: f/16 means the opening diameter is 1/16 th of the lens focal length As a lens zooms the focal length changes, while the aperture opening has a maximum size

29 Aperture Remember the numbers are the denominator of a fraction Just like 1 /4 is larger than 1 /16, f/4 is a larger opening than f/16 Larger number means LESS light but MORE depth of field Smaller number means MORE light but LESS depth of field

30 Aperture

31 Aperture Just like 1 /4 is larger than 1 /16, f/4 is a larger opening than f/16 Higher number means LESS light but MORE depth of field Lower number means MORE light but LESS depth of field

32 Aperture Smaller opening means deeper zone of sharp focus But this is labeled with higher number F11 F5.6 F2.8

33 Aperture Large Depth of Field Shallow Depth of Field

34 Exposure Triangle: how these three settings interact

35 Controlling Exposure: Shutter Speed Shutter Speed 1 / 1000th 1 / 500th 1 / 250th 1 / 125th 1 / 60th 1 / 30th 1 / 15th 1 / 8th 1 / 4th 1 / 2 1 2

36 Controlling Exposure: Shutter Speed Shutter Speed 1 / 1000 th Shortest time 1 / 500 th 1 / 250 th 1 / 125 th 1 / 60 th 1 / 30 th 1 / 15 th 1 / 8 th 1 / 4 th 1 / Longest time

37 Controlling Exposure: Shutter Speed Shutter Speed 1 / 1000 th Shortest time Least Light 1 / 500 th 1 / 250 th 1 / 125 th 1 / 60 th 1 / 30 th 1 / 15 th 1 / 8 th 1 / 4 th 1 / Longest time Most Light

38 Controlling Exposure: Shutter Speed Shutter Speed 1 / 1000 th 1 / 500 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 250 th 1 / 125 th 1 / 60 th 1 / 30 th 1 / 15 th 1 / 8 th 1 / 4 th 1 / 2 1 2

39 Controlling Exposure: Shutter Speed Shutter Speed 1 / 1000 th 1 / 500 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 250 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 125 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 60 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 30 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 15 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 8 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 4 th Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 / 2 Double amount of time Double amount of light 1 Double amount of time Double amount of light 2 Double amount of time Double amount of light

40 Controlling Exposure: Aperture Aperture Setting / F stop F22 F16 F11 F8 F5.6 F4 F2.8 F2 Smallest Opening Largest Opening

41 Controlling Exposure: Aperture Aperture Setting / F stop F22 Smallest Opening Least Light F16 F11 F8 F5.6 F4 F2.8 F2 Largest Opening Most Light

42 Controlling Exposure: Aperture Aperture Setting / F stop F22 F16 Double size of opening Double amount of light F11 Double size of opening Double amount of light F8 Double size of opening Double amount of light F5.6 Double size of opening Double amount of light F4 Double size of opening Double amount of light F2.8 Double size of opening Double amount of light F2 Double size of opening Double amount of light

43 Controlling Exposure: ISO Setting ISO Setting

44 Controlling Exposure: ISO Setting ISO Setting 100 Least Sensitive Most Sensitive

45 Controlling Exposure: ISO Setting ISO Setting 100 Least Sensitive 200 Needs Half the amount of light Most Sensitive

46 Controlling Exposure: ISO Setting ISO Setting 100 Least Sensitive 200 Needs Half the amount of light 400 Needs Half the amount of light 800 Needs Half the amount of light 1600 Needs Half the amount of light 3200 Most Sensitive Needs Half the amount of light

47 Equivalent Exposures example 1 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F / 500 th? 100

48 Equivalent Exposures example 1 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F / 500th (Half the light as 1 / 250 th )? 100

49 Equivalent Exposures example 1 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F / 500th (Half the light as 1/250 th ) F4 (Double the light as F5.6) 100

50 Equivalent Exposures example 2 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F ? F4 100

51 Equivalent Exposures example 2 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F ? F4 (double the light as F5.6) 100

52 Equivalent Exposures example 2 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 250th F / 500 th (Half the light of 1/250 th ) F4 (double the light as F5.6) 100

53 Equivalent Exposures example 3 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 125th F8 100? F4 100

54 Equivalent Exposures example 3 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 125th F8 100? F4 (Four times the light of F8) 100

55 Equivalent Exposures example 3 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 125th F / 500 th (One fourth the light of 1/125 th ) F4 (Four times the light of F8) 100

56 Equivalent Exposures example 4 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 125th F8 100? F4 200

57 Equivalent Exposures example 4 Shutter Speed Aperture ISO 1 / 125th F /1000 th ( one eighth as much time) F4 200

58 Equivalent Exposures

59 So you have options for adjusting exposure Make choices, considering: Subject motion Desired depth of field of sharp focus Size of prints

60 So you have options for adjusting exposure Desired Result Select: Then adjust: Adjust if needed: Freeze Motion Blur Motion Shallow Zone of Sharp Focus Deep Zone of Sharp Focus Shorter Shutter Speed Longer Shutter Speed Wide Aperture (low number) Small Aperture (high number) Aperture Aperture Shutter Speed Shutter Speed Big print size ISO (low number) Shutter Speed Aperture ISO ISO ISO ISO

61 Exposure Experiment Photograph the same scene - using the shortest shutter speed possible - using the longest shutter speed possible ISO 1600 F4.0 1/500th ISO 80 F8.0 1/5th

62 Exposure Experiment #2 Photograph the same scene - using the shortest shutter speed possible - using the longest shutter speed possible ISO 1600 F5.0 1/320th ISO 80 F8.0 1/8th

63 Executive Summary

64 Shooting Modes AUTO M - Manual A - Aperture Priority S (or Tv) - Shutter Speed Priority P - Program

65 AUTOMATIC Mode What controls the exposure settings?

66 AUTOMATIC Mode What controls the exposure settings? Not you.

67 AUTOMATIC Mode What controls the exposure settings? The camera maker s routine for getting an average exposure under most lighting conditions

68 AUTOMATIC Mode What controls the exposure settings? The camera maker s routine for getting an average exposure under most lighting conditions May decide to engage the camera s flash May use a shutter speed too long to hold steady by hand

69 Program auto exposure Mode Like Auto exposure but with some flexibility You can set the ISO You can control the built in flash Disable flash Flash every time Advantage: it s a fast way to get an adequate exposure

70 Aperture Priority Mode You set Aperture You set ISO (or use Auto ISO) The camera s meter reading sets Shutter Speed

71 Shutter Speed Priority Mode Indicated with S or Tv ( Time value ) You set Shutter Speed You set ISO (or use Auto ISO) The camera s meter reading sets Aperture

72 Manual Mode YOU control all the exposure settings ISO Shutter Speed Aperture

73 Exposure Level Indicator Scale from dark to light Center mark means a medium exposure

74 Exposure Level Indicator 1 Unit is a change for half the light /double the light, such as: Shutter speed from 1/125 th to 1/250 th Aperture from F5.6 to F8.0 ISO from 200 to 100 Called a stop

75 0 exposure setting

76 Range of -1 to +1 stops - 1 stop stop

77 Range of -2 to +2 stops - 2 stops - 1 stop stop + 2 stops

78 Range of -2 to +2 stops - 2 stops - 1 stop stop + 2 stops

79 Understanding the Histogram Digital photos are files of data Histogram is a graph showing how many pixels in the image range from dark to light

80 Understanding the Histogram Digital photos are files of data Histogram is a graph showing how many pixels at each level range from dark to light

81 Sample Histograms

82 Sample Histograms

83 Sample Histograms

84 Sample Histograms

85 Using the Histogram An image s histogram is a valuable source of information A histogram showing a wide range of values means more range for adjustments when editing But there s no one good histogram; great photos can have lots of bright areas or lots of dark areas

86 What would the histogram show?

87 What would the histogram show?

88 What would the histogram show?

89 What would the histogram show?

90 What would the histogram show?

91 What would the histogram show?

92 Histogram and Aperture or Shutter Speed Priority Take a photo using Shutter Speed Priority at 1/60 th of a second Look at the histogram Change the shutter speed to 1/250 th of a second; take another photo What is the effect on the histogram?

93 Using Live View Most cameras have a Live View feature, to show a preview on screen on the exposure You can preview the image and its histogram If the histogram shows areas that are blown out (total white), you can make adjustments BEFORE taking the photo This is a major advantage of digital photo technology!

94 Camera light meters are color blind Our eyes see this:

95 Camera light meters are color blind But the camera s light meter responds this:

96 Light meter does not see colors, only brightness

97 Light meter reads medium gray as 0 Green grass or leaves meter as medium gray Brick red, school bus yellow, extension cord orange all meter as medium gray Caucasian skin meters as + 1 stop; dark toned skin meters as medium gray

98 Understanding White Balance White Balance defines white in the particular lighting conditions Different sources of light have a different color cast, or temperature

99 Character of different light sources Fluorescent lights = amber or bluish or greenish Tungsten filament (incandescent) Bulbs = yellowish Shade = bluish

100 White Balance Settings Camera settings to compensate, such as: Auto White Balance Daylight Cloudy Fluorescent Flash Tungsten (light bulb)

101 Example Artificial lighting Auto White Balance setting

102 Example Artificial lighting Auto White Balance setting Tungsten White Balance setting

103 Use Auto White Balance? Are your photos looking too yellow or too blue? White not a true white? Yes try other white balance settings No Auto White Balance is working fine

104 Suggested homework assignments Experiment with a Camera mode you have not used before Try for proper exposures of same scene with subject in motion using fastest and slowest shutter speeds possible Find how to display the histogram in your camera s viewfinder or LCD screen Try different White Balance settings

105 Roger Easley 2016

106 Aperture Larger opening lets in more light, but more scattered Smaller opening lets in less light that is less scattered Determines depth of field the zone of sharp focus from foreground to background

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