ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SETTINGS ON YOUR CAMERA!

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1 Chapter 4-Exposure

2 ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT SETTINGS ON YOUR CAMERA!

3

4 Exposure Basics

5 The amount of light reaching the film or digital sensor.

6 Each digital image requires a specific amount of light to make a photograph that has correct brightness to record the scene and this is controlled by the shutter speed and aperture settings. The amount of light depends on the ISO setting on your digital camera. More on this later. You will use the built in light meter on your camera to measure the correct amount of exposure.

7 Exposure Triangle-The three parts of what controls exposure

8

9 Aperture-lens opening-controls the amount of light ISO settings-control the sensitivity of the sensor to light-higher the number the more sensitive to light With the P setting, you set the ISO and the camera will find the correct aperture and shutter speed to get a properly exposed image. Shutter speed-controls the time of the exposure

10 What is good exposure? Gives you the right image tonalities The brightness of the photo shows off the subject in its best light. Colors and tones do not look muddy or washed out. Strikes a balance between highlights and shadows Bright highlights and dark shadows look natural. Keeps noise to a minimum Underexposure always makes noise a problem. Noise is created when dark areas are brightened. When light areas are dark from underexposure and have to lightened, then noise is often revealed.

11 Exposure examples All three images taken with the same lighting using Exposure Bracketing on a Canon D50. (51) F8 1/250 th Over exposed F11 1/500 th Under exposed F9 1/320 th The correct exposure

12 What does the exposure meter in you camera do? It is designed to measure the light coming from a scene and give you an exposure, a combination of shutter speed and aperture that lets in a precise amount of light through the lens in order to create some sort of image from your sensor. It gives an exposure to make what ever it sees appear as a middle gray tone.

13 TTL Metering Through-the-lens (TTL) metering that reads a scene to give exposure information to the camera. TTL measures the light coming from the scene as focused by the camera lens. It sees what the sensor sees and then a correct exposure can be set. TTL metering is from a special sensor used to set the exposure

14 What are the three types of metering on most digital cameras? 1. Center-weighted (Automatic on most cameras) 1. Spot metering 2. Matrix metering

15 Take 3 pictures of the same scene, 1 at what you think the correct exposure should be, another 1 f-stop over and another 1 f-stop under. This is insurance that you will get the correct exposure on important photographs.

16 1 F-STOP OVER CORRECT 1 F-STOP UNDER

17 What are the two settings used to get the correct exposure! Aperture (f-stops) Shutter Speed Exposure Settings Aperture -How much light is allowed to pass through the lens opening. Intensity or Quantity of light Shutter Speed -How long the capture chip is allowed to see the light. Duration or time of light Remember they work with ISO (Sensor Sensitivity to light) as well.

18 ISO Settings What it is: A standard way of setting the sensitivity of a camera to light. What it does: ISO settings adjust a camera so that high settings (ISO 800) make the camera more sensitive to light and low settings (ISO 100) make the camera less sensitive to light. Where it is found: ISO settings are changed through a combination of a button and a dial on most digital cameras.

19 ISO Settings Canon Rebel XS uses a button on the top to set the ISO from Auto to Canon 40D uses a button and dial to set the ISO from Auto to Remember: The higher the ISO number the more sensitive your sensor is to light. Canon Rebel T5i-Press the ISO button on the top of the camera, you can select from AUTO to or as high as Remember the higher the ISO the more sensitive to light and the more digital noise there will be in the resulting images.

20 Some things to remember about exposure and ISO settings: 1. The higher the ISO (more sensitive to light) the more noise in the resulting image. 2. The smaller the aperture-the greater is the Depth-of-Field for the resulting image. 3. The lower the light levels the greater the amount of noise in the resulting image. 4. With extremely low lighting situations, when you have to use a large lens aperture and a slow shutter speed with a high ISO setting you will have a great deal of noise. 5. Remember, you can adjust for exposure after the image is taken but you cannot adjust for focus and depth-of-field problems. 6. Regardless of the camera, low ISO settings consistently give the least amount of noise and the best color.

21 What about Digital Cameras and f-stops and shutter speeds? F4.0 at 1/125 Set your digital camera on M and you can control the f-stops and shutter speeds! Shutter speeds can be set manually F-stops can be set manually

22 ISO Image Examples High ISO to allow for moving subject and a 400 mm lens. High ISO to allow for handheld camera at night.

23 Shutter Speeds What it is: Shutter speed is the length of time the shutter is opened in order to let light in and strike the sensor. What it does: Shutter speeds control the quantity or time of light hitting the sensor by changing how much time the light is allowed to strike the sensor. Where it is found: The shutter is the device that opens and closes to create a shutter speed. It is found internally in the camera as interlocking blades or two curtains in front of the sensor that open and close separately.

24 Choosing Shutter Speeds You can select shooting modes on your digital camera that will set shutter speeds for you. The speed of the subject will also determine what shutter speed you use. Some of the modes would be portrait, scenery, flowers, action, and day/night. Other camera brands may have more shooting modes.

25 Kodak chart that provides shutter speeds for action shots.

26 The Importance of a Tripod Maximum sharpness comes from using any camera/lens combination on a tripod. There are three controls on a typical tripod: Tilt-Controls the up and down of the camera Pan-Controls the side by side horizontal movement of the camera Horizontal/Vertical Tiltallows you to turn your camera in a horizontal or vertical position

27 Images that would require a tripod

28 Time Exposures Can you find the ghosts in the image? Require the use of a tripod, long exposure times and large lens openings.

29 Apertures, f/stops, and lens openings What it is: Apertures, f/stops, and lens openings all refer to the same thins a variable opening inside the lens that affects the quantity of light hitting the sensor. What it does: An aperture changes in diameter to let in more light (wider opening or less light (narrow opening). This is called a diaphragm since there is a multi-leaved diaphragm that opens and closes like the iris of an eye. Remember the diagram of the eye and camera and how they are alike. Where it s found: The actual lens openings are inside the lens on your digital camera and are controlled by the computer in your camera. The aperture of the lens has a direct relationship to the shutter speed. They both work together to control the exposure on your digital camera.

30 What is Depth-of-Field? The distance between the nearest and the furthest objects that give an image judged to be in focus in a camera. What is in acceptable focus in any image.

31

32

33

34 How aperture and shutter speed work together

35 The relationship between shutter speed and f/stop for exposure F-stops and shutter speeds work together to give the correct exposure according to the film speed and the built in light meter in your camera. Example: Your meter reads an f-stop of 5.6 and a shutter speed of 125 for the lighting conditions using 200 ISO speed film. You want to shoot at a much faster shutter speed. What would be the same exposure at a shutter speed of 500? That is 2 shutter speed settings faster. Use f-stop of 2.8.

36 Another example: Same speed film, 200 ISO. Your meter reads f-stop of 5.6 at 125 but you want to use a much smaller f-stop to get a greater depth-of-field. What would be the correct shutter speed if you use an f-stop of 16? That is 5.6 to 8.0 to 11.0 to Or 3 f-stops away. You would have to use a shutter speed of 30.

37 CHANGE THE F-STOP AND THE SHUTTER SPEEDS THESE ARE ALL THE SAME EXPOSURES

38 Auto exposure (AE) What it is: Exposure systems on most digital cameras that calculate and set shutter speed and/or f/stop for a camera automatically. What it does: These systems examine multiple points across an image area; compare them to each other, the metering distance, and to a database of exposure information then tell the camera what values to set shutter speed and f/stop. And this is all done very quickly before you press the shutter button to take the image. Where it is found: AE sensors are built into your digital camera to gather information through the lens and send it to a computer in your camera.

39 What type of AE are there Program: The camera selects the correct shutter speed and f/stop for you. This can be basic or full-program that cannot be adjusted to one that has settings for you to make on the camera dial or menu. Aperture Priority (AF): You select the aperture and the camera finds a suitable shutter speed to give the correct exposure. Shutter Priority (TV): You select the shutter speed and the camera finds a suitable f/stop to give the correct exposure.

40 Typical Program Modes on many digital cameras today! Portrait mode: Usually chooses a wider aperture to give you a shallow depth of field, keeps the subject sharp and the background out-of-focus. Close-up mode: Faster shutter speeds and wider f/stops to give sharp images with a blurry background. Landscape mode: Small f/stops for sharp depth-of-field and more saturated colors. Sports mode: Very fast shutter speed to stop the action of sports images, higher ISO settings to allow for faster shutter speeds. Night flash mode: Combines a flash exposure on the subject and then combines that with an overall exposure balancing the background, bringing in its detail.

41 The Creative Dial on a Canon 40D Manual-You set both shutter and aperture Aperture Priority-You set the aperture and the camera finds the correct shutter speed. Shutter Priority You set the shutter and the camera finds the correct aperture. Program-The camera sets both shutter and aperture but you have some control. Fully Automatic-Camera sets exposure Program Modes-where the camera sets special apertures and shutter speeds for you based on the type of images you are shooting.

42 Mode Dial on a Canon T5i camera

43 Why do you need to know how to set equivalent exposures? To stop action To blur action To control Depth-of-field To reduce camera noise

44 To stop action You must use a fast shutter speed 1/500 or above to stop the action of the bat.

45 To blur action You must use a slow shutter speed like 1/15th to blur the action. The photographer here also panned (moved with the subjects) to give a feeling of motion.

46 To control Depth-of-field Use a small aperture opening (fstop) to get the greatest depth-offield in a picture like f- 11 and up, f- 22 will give you the best DOF Use a larger f-stop opening (4 and larger) to get a shallow depthof-field. F-1.8 and f-2.0 will give the most blur in the background

47 Larger aperture f/1.4 Smaller aperture f/11 Less DOF More DOF

48 f-2.8 f-22 Very shallow depth of field Great depth of field

49 REMEMBER WITH DEPTH-OF-FIELD ASK YOURSELF HOW MUCH OF THE SCENE DO YOU WANT TO BE IN FOCUS? USE THE F-STOP TO CONTROL WHAT IS IN FOCUS IN YOUR PHOTOGRAPH.

50 Random patterns of small spots on a digital image that are generally unwanted, caused by non image-forming electrical signals. A slow or long exposure introduces noise. A higher ISO introduces noise. Noise Reduction Software will clean up the noise in some images, and sometimes it's done so well that you can't tell the original image had unacceptable noise level in it.

51 Move with the subject, keeping the shutter open as you move. Use a slower shutter speed like 1/30th. The background will be blurred and give a feeling of motion.

52

53 Program Modes Example Images Portrait mode Close-up mode Landscape mode Sports mode Night flash mode

54 Manual Exposure If the Program Mode is set to M you can set both the aperture and shutter speed and they will show up in the display to let you know if you have the correct exposure set for the image lighting your lens sees. Shutter Aperture T5i with the Mode dial set on M, you control the shutter speed, aperture and ISO to get the correct exposure.

55 With bright backgrounds you must meter the subject up close or use a spot meter. If you use a center weighted meter it will shut down for the bright background.

56 The magic of the histogram What it is: A visual indicator of exposure as seen in brightness values of pixels. What it does: A histogram plots the number of pixels per brightness value, starting with black on the left and ending with white on the right; it can help you evaluate an exposure for its effects on dark and light areas. Where it is found: Not all cameras have histograms, those that do will display them on the back of the camera LCD after the image is taken.

57 Image view with histogram Camera display with the luminance or brightness histogram. The image as taken by the Canon 40D Camera display with the color or RGB histogram.

58 How to evaluate the histogram Underexposure will have little or no data on the right and overexposure will have little or no data on the left. Well exposed images will have data in the middle. You can adjust the histogram using software like Adobe Photoshop.

59 What does the histogram tell you?

60 High Dynamic Range Low Dynamic Range

61 Viewing the histogram in Adobe Photoshop You will use the photo editing software Adobe Photoshop CC to edit the histogram.

62 Fixing Exposure On your camera Canon T5i-you can use exposure compensation to adjust the exposure on the camera. This is set for -1 f-stop Using the exposure compensation button on a Canon 40D. Your image will be 1 f/stop overexposed. Using the Auto Exposure Bracketing menu selection on a Canon 40D. You will take 3 images, 1 correct, 1 over and 1 under.

63 Fixing Exposure With Adobe Photoshop CC Using Brightness/Contrast Using Levels Using Exposure

64 Some guidelines to follow with setting exposure compensation on your camera Always check the exposure compensation setting before you start taking images to be sure it is set for what you want. It may be stored from the last time you used your camera even if you turn it off. Check each image you take to be sure the image may not need to be retaken with some exposure compensation. Remember your digital camera wants to always add exposure for dark subjects and decrease exposure on lighter subjects.

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