2 Comparators A comparator is a specialized nonlinear op-amp circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an output state that indicates which one is greater. Comparators are designed to be fast and frequently have other capabilities to optimize the comparison function. An example of a comparator application is shown. The circuit detects a power failure in order to take an action to save data. As long as the comparator senses V in, the output will be a dc level. V in Comparator + Differentiator C etriggerable one-shot
3 Comparators Operational amplifiers are often used as comparators to compare the amplitude of one voltage with another. In this application, op-amps are used in the open-loop configuration. Due to high open-loop gain, an op-amp can detect very tiny differences at the input. The input voltage is applied to one terminal while a reference voltage on the other terminal. Comparators are much faster than op-amps. Op-amps can be used as comparators but comparators cannot be used as op-amps.
4 Zero-Level Detection Figure 1(a) shows an op-amp circuit to detect when a signal crosses zero. This is called a zero-level detector. Notice that inverting input is grounded to produce a zero level and the input signal is applied to the noninverting terminal.
5 Zero-Level Detection Because of high open-loop gain, small difference voltage between the inputs drives the op-amp into saturation. Figure 1(b) shows the result of a sinusoidal input voltage applied to the noninverting input of the zerolevel detector. When the sine wave is positive, the output is maximum positive level. When the sine wave is negative, the output is maximum negative level. The change from positive to negative or negative to positive always occurs when the wave crosses zero. Can be used as a squaring circuit to produce a square wave from a sine wave.
6 Nonzero-Level Detection The zero-level detector of Figure 1 can be modified to detect positive and negative voltage levels by connecting a fixed reference voltage source at the inverting input as shown in Figure 2(a). A more practical arrangement is shown in Figure 13 2(b) using a voltage divider to set the reference voltage, V EF, as:
7 Nonzero-Level Detection The circuit in Figure 2(c) uses a zener diode to set the reference voltage (V EF = V Z ). As long as the input signal V in remains less then V EF, the output remains at the maximum negative level. When the input voltage crosses the reference voltage, the output goes to its maximum positive voltage as shown in Figure 2(d).
10 Effect of Input Noise on Comparator Operations In practical situations, noise appears on the input signal. This noise voltage disturbs the input voltage as shown Noise can cause a comparator to erratically switch output states.
11 Effect of Input Noise on Comparator Operations Consider a zero-level detector and a sinusoidal voltage input at the noninverting input of the comparator The input sine wave and the resulting output voltage are shown. When the input voltage reaches zero, the disturbance due to noise may cause the input to fluctuate about the zero voltage value many times and thus producing an output that is not the desired one.
12 Effect of Input Noise on Comparator Operations Whenever the input signal hovers around the reference voltage, any small disturbance like noise will produce disturbed output. To reduce this noise effect, a technique called hysteresis is used. This requires the comparator to be used with positive feedback. The idea is to have 2 reference voltages. One reference is higher and the other is lower.
13 Comparator with Hysteresis The higher reference is for when the input signal goes from lower voltage to higher one and the lower reference is for when the input signal goes from higher to lower voltage. The two references are called upper trigger point (UTP) and lower trigger point (LTP). This two-level hysteresis is established with a positive feedback The noninverting end is connected to a resistive voltage divider such that a portion of the output voltage is fed back to the input. The input signal is applied to the inverting input. The basic operation of the comparator with hysteresis is shown in next slide
14 Comparator with Hysteresis
15 Comparator with Hysteresis Assume the output voltage is at its positive maximum, V out(max). The voltage fed back to the noninverting input is V UTP and is given as When V in exceeds V UTP, the output voltage drops to its negative maximum, -V out(max). The voltage fed back to the noninverting input is V LTP and is given as
16 Comparator with Hysteresis The input voltage must now fall below V TLP before the device will switch from maximum negative voltage to maximum positive voltage This means that a small amount of noise voltage has no effect on the output. The comparator with built-in hysteresis is sometimes known as a Schmitt trigger. The amount of hysteresis is defined as the difference of the two trigger levels.
17 Comparator with Hysteresis A comparator with hysteresis is also called a Schmitt trigger. The trigger points are found by applying the voltage-divider rule: V = + ( Vout max ) 2 UTP ( ) and V = LTP ( Vout( max) ) 1 2 What are the trigger points for the circuit if the maximum output is ±13 V? V 10 kω = + = + 47 k Ω + 10 kω = 2.28 V 2 UTP ( ) 1 2 ( Vout max ) ( +13 V) By symmetry, the lower trigger point = 2.28 V. V in + V out 1 47 kω 2 10 kω
18 Output Bounding The output swing of a zero-crossing detector may be too large in some applications. In some applications, it is necessary to limit the output voltage levels of comparator to a value less than provided by the saturated op-amp. We can bound the output by using a zener diode limit the output voltage to the zener voltage in one direction
19 Bounded at positive value The anode of the zener is connected to the inverting input. When output voltage reaches positive value equal to the zener voltage, it limits at that value At negative output, zener acts as a regular diode and becomes forward biased at 0.7V and limits the negative output voltage to this value.
20 Bounded at negative value The cathode of the zener is connected to the inverting input. The output voltage limits in the opposite direction.
21 Double Bounded Two zener diodes arranged limit the output voltage to the zener voltage plus forward biased 0.7V (positively and negatively).
25 Comparator Applications Over Temperature Sensing Circuit
26 Over Temperature Sensing Circuit Used to determine when the temperature reaches a certain critical value. The circuit consists of a Wheatstone bridge with the op-amp used to detect when the bridge is balanced. One leg of the bridge contains a thermistor ( 1 ), which is a temperature-sensing resistor with a negative temperature coefficient (its resistance decreases as temperature increases). The potentiometer ( 2 ) is set at a value equal to the resistance of the thermistor at the critical temperature. At normal temperatures (below critical), 1 is greater than 2, thus creating an unbalanced condition that drives the op-amp to its low saturated output level and keeps transistor Q 1 off
27 Over Temperature Sensing Circuit As the temperature increases, the resistance of the thermistor decreases. When the temperature reaches the critical value, 1 becomes equal to 2, and the bridge becomes balanced (since 3 = 4 ). At this point the op-amp switches to its high saturated output level, turning Q1 on. This energizes the relay, which can be used to activate an alarm or initiatean appropriate response to the over-temperature condition.
28 Comparator Applications A/D Conversion V EF Simultaneous or flash analog-to-digital converters use 2 n -1 comparators to convert an analog input to a digital value for processing. Flash ADCs are a series of comparators, each with a slightly different reference voltage. The priority encoder produces an output equal to the highest value input. V in (analog) Op-amp comparators (7) (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) (0) Priority encoder D 2 D 1 D 0 Binary output In IC flash converters, the priority encoder usually includes a latch that holds the converter data constant for a period of time after the conversion. + + Enable input
31 Summing Amplifier A summing amplifier has two or more inputs and its output is the negative algebraic sum of its input voltages. A two-input summing amplifier is shown. Both the input voltages are applied to the inverting input. The output voltage for the amplifier can be written as VV OOOOOO = II 1 + II 2 ff = VV IIII1 1 If all three of the resistors are equal, then: VV OOOOOO = VV IIII1 + VV IIII2 + VV IIII2 2 ff
32 Summing Amplifier The previous equation shows that the output voltage has the same magnitude as the sum of the two input voltages but with negative sign. A general expression for a unity-gain summing amplifier with n inputs as shown in Figure where all resistances are equal is given by: VV OOOOOO = VV IIII1 + VV IIII2 + VV IIII3 + + VV IIIIII
33 Summing Amplifier What is V OUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, 3.5 V and +4.2 V and all resistors = 10 kω? 1 f V IN1 V IN2 2 3 V OUT V IN3 + V OUT = (V IN1 + V IN2 + V IN3 ) 10 kω = (+5.0 V 3.5 V V) = 5.7 V
34 Summing Amplifier Determine the output voltage for the summing amplifier = 5.7 V
35 Averaging Amplifier An averaging amplifier is basically a summing amplifier with the gain set to f / = 1/n (n is the number of inputs). The output is the negative average of the inputs. What is V OUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, 3.5 V and +4.2 V? Assume 1 = 2 = 3 = 10 kω and f = 3.3 kω? V OUT = ⅓(V IN1 + V IN2 + V IN3 ) = ⅓(+5.0 V 3.5 V V) V IN1 V IN f 3.3 kω V OUT = 1.9 V V IN3 +
36 Scaling Adder A scaling adder has two or more inputs with each input having a different gain. The output represents the negative scaled sum of the inputs. Assume you need to sum the inputs from three microphones. The first two microphones require a gain of 2, but the third microphone requires a gain of 3. What are the values of the input s if f = 10 kω? f 10 kω = = = = A v1 f 10 kω = = = 3.3 kω A 3 v3 5.0 kω V IN1 V IN2 V IN f 10 kω V OUT
37 D/A Conversion An application of a scaling adder is the D/A converter circuit shown here. The resistors are inversely proportional to the binary column weights. Because of the precision required of resistors, the method is useful only for small DACs. +V f V OUT 2 3
40 /2 Ladder DAC A more widely used method for D/A conversion is the /2 ladder. The gain for D 3 is 1. Each successive input has a gain that is half of previous one. The output represents a weighted sum of all of the inputs (similar to the scaling adder). Inputs D 0 D 1 D 2 D f = V out
41 /2 Ladder DAC
42 Difference Amplifier v o = v- i = v- i v- 2 = (v v-) = Also, v + = v 2 v- 2 1 v 1 Since v - = v + v 2 o = (v v ) For 2 = v v ) 1 o = (v 1 2 This circuit is also called a differential amplifier, since it amplifies the difference between the input signals. in2 is series combination of 1 and 2 because i + is zero. For v 2 =0, in1 = 1, as the circuit reduces to an inverting amplifier. For general case, i 1 is a function of both v 1 and v 2.
43 Difference Amplifier Differential input resistance: id = 2 1 Large 1 can be used to increase id 2 becomes impractically large to maintain required gain.
44 Integrators and Differentiators Inverting configuration with general impedance 1 and 2 in inverting configuration can be replaced by Z 1 (s) and Z 2 (s). The closed-loop transfer function: V o (s) /V i (s) = -Z 2 (s) /Z 1 (s) The transmission magnitude and phase for a sinusoid input can be evaluated by replacing s with jω.
45 The Ideal Integrator C The ideal integrator is an inverting amplifier that has a capacitor in the feedback path. The output voltage is proportional to the negative integral of the input voltage. From the Figure we have V in + Ideal Integrator V out II iiii = VV iiii = II CC = CC dddd CC ii dddd VV oooooo = 1 tt ii CC VV iiii ττ dddd 0 When a constant positive input voltage in the form of a step or pulse is applied, the output is a ramp that decreases negatively until the op-amp saturates at its maximum negative level.
46 The Ideal Integrator The Output Voltage is the same as the voltage on the negative side of the capacitor. The rate at which the capacitor charges, and therefore the slope of the output ramp is:
47 The Ideal Integrator Frequency domain analysis VV oo = 1 VV ii jjωω ii CC The capacitor behaves as an open-circuit at dc (ω = 0). This means that open-loop configuration at dc (infinite gain). Any tiny dc in the input could result in output saturation
48 Practical Integrator The ideal integrator uses a capacitor in the feedback which is open to DC. This implies that for DC voltage the capacitor becomes open and the op-amp becomes open-loop. Op-amp integrating circuits must have extremely low dc offset and bias currents, because small errors are equivalent to a dc input. The ideal integrator tends to accumulate these errors, which moves the output toward saturation. Practical Integrator The practical integrator overcomes these errors the simplest method is to add a relatively large feedback resistor.
49 Practical Integrator In order to prevent integrator saturation due to infinite dc gain, parallel feedback resistance is included VV oo VV ii = 1 ii / ff + jjωω ii CC Closed-loop gain = 1/(jjωω ii CC + ii / ff ) Closed-loop gain at dc = ii / ff Closed-loop gain at high frequency = 1/jjωω ii CC The integrator characteristics is no longer ideal Large resistance f should be used for the feedback
50 Example Sketch the output wave for the shown input C V in +2.0 V 0 V V t (ms) V in 10 kω µF V out V t out Vin 2 V = = = C i ( 10 kω)( 0.1 μf) 2 V/ms +1.0 V V out 0 V V t (ms)
51 Example Find the output produced by an integrator in response to an input pulse of 1-V height and 1-ms width. Let = 10 kω and C = 10 nf. If the integrator capacitor is shunted by a 1-MΩ resistor, how will the response be modified? The op amp is specified to saturate at ±13 V. VV iiii CC = 1 10kΩ 10nF = 10 V/ms
52 Example With resistor connected across C, the 1-V pulse will provide a constant current I = 0.1 ma. This current is supplied to an STC network composed of F in parallel with C. The output will be an exponential heading toward 100 V with a time constant of f C = 10 ms For t > 1 ms, the capacitor discharges through F tword 0 Vwith time-constant of 10 ms. Op Amp saturation has no effect on the operation of this circuit
53 The Ideal Differentiator The capacitor is the input element, and the resistor is the feedback element. A differentiator produces an output that is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage. From the Figure we have V in C + V out Ideal Differentiator II iiii = CC dddd iiii dddd = II = VV oooooo ff VV oooooo = ff CC dddd iiii dddd Apply a positive ramp voltage to the input, the output is constant equals ff CC multiplied by the slope of the ramp.
54 The Ideal Differentiator When input is a positive-going ramp, the output is negative (capacitor is charging) When input is a negative-going ramp, the output is positive (capacitor is discharging) current in the opposite direction
56 Practical Differentiator f V in in C V out c + The small reactance of C at high frequencies means an ideal differentiator circuit has very high gain for high-frequency noise. To compensate for this, a small series resistor is often added to the input. This practical differentiator has reduced high frequency gain and is less prone to noise.
57 Selected Key Terms Hysteresis Characteristics of a circuit in which two different trigger levels produce an offset or lag in the switching action. Schmitt A comparator with built-in hysteresis. trigger The process of limiting the output range of an Bounding amplifier or other circuit. A circuit that produces an output that approximates Integrator the area under the curve of the input function. A circuit that produces an output that approximates Differentiator the instantaneous rate of change of the input function.
58 Quiz 1. The signal that you would expect at the output of the comparator (red arrow) is a a. series of alternating positive and negative triggers b. sine wave c. square wave d. dc level V in Comparator + Differentiator C etriggerable one-shot
59 Quiz 2. Hysteresis is incorporated in a comparator by adding a. a capacitor in series with the input b. capacitors from the power supply to ground c. a small resistor in series with the input d. positive feedback
60 Quiz 3. To find the trigger points for a Schmitt trigger, you can a. divide the saturation voltage by two b. apply Kirchhoff s Voltage Law c. apply the voltage-divider rule d. calculate the rate of change of the input
61 Quiz 4. A comparator output can be limited (bounded) by a. reversing the power supply voltages b. putting a zener diode in a feedback path c. decreasing the input resistance d. connecting the inverting input to ground
62 Quiz 5. Assume all resistors in the circuit shown here have the same value. The circuit is a a. summing amplifier 1 f b. averaging amplifier c. scaling adder d. none of the above V IN1 V IN2 V IN V OUT
63 Quiz 6. Assume all resistors in the circuit shown here have different values. The circuit is a a. summing amplifier 1 f b. averaging amplifier c. scaling adder d. none of the above V IN1 V IN2 V IN V OUT
64 Quiz 7. The circuit shown is a a. A/D converter Inputs D 0 D 1 D 2 D 3 b. /2 ladder c. both of the above f = 2 + V out d. none of the above
65 Quiz 8. A practical integrator has a feedback resistor in parallel with C. The purpose of this resistor is to a. avoid noise b. increase the gain C f c. both of the above V in d. none of the above + Practical Integrator V out
66 Quiz 9. A certain circuit has the input and output signals shown. The circuit is a. a differentiator b. an integrator c. a scaling amplifier d. none of the above V in +1.0 V 0 V V t (ms) V out +2.0 V 0 V V t (ms)
67 Quiz 10. A differentiator circuit produces an output that is proportional to the negative of the a. sum of the inputs b. rate of change of the input c. area under the curve of the input d. none of the above
68 Quiz Answers: 1. c 6. c 2. d 7. b 3. c 8. d 4. b 9. a 5. a 10. b
IFB270 Advanced Electronic Circuits Chapter 13: Basic op-amp circuits Prof. Manar Mohaisen Department of EEC Engineering Introduction Review of the Precedent Lecture Op-amp operation modes and parameters
8.1 Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) UNIT 8: Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended
Special-Purpose Operational Amplifier Circuits Instrumentation Amplifier An instrumentation amplifier (IA) is a differential voltagegain device that amplifies the difference between the voltages existing
Pearson BTEC Level 4 Higher Nationals in Engineering (RQF) Unit 22: Electronic Circuits and Devices Unit Workbook 1 in a series of 4 for this unit Learning Outcome 1 Operational Amplifiers Page 1 of 23
PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to illustrate the golden rules of negative feedback for a variety of circuits. These concepts permit you to create and
LESSON PLAN SUBJECT: LINEAR IC S AND APPLICATION SUB CODE: 15EC46 NO OF HOURS: 52 FACULTY NAME: Mr. Lokesh.L, Hema. B DEPT: ECE Class# Chapter title/reference literature Portions to be covered MODULE I
2.16 EXPERIMENT 2.2 NONLINEAR OPAMP CIRCUITS 2.2.1 OBJECTIVE a. To study the operation of 741 opamp as comparator. b. To study the operation of active diode circuits (precisions circuits) using opamps,
CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits, both analog and digital. The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 019.101 Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Laboratory No. READING ASSIGNMENT
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER PREPARED BY, PROF. CHIRAG H. RAVAL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR NIRMA UNIVRSITY INTRODUCTION Op-Amp means Operational Amplifier. Operational stands for mathematical operation like addition,
1. List the characteristics of ideal op amps. 2. Identify negative feedback in op-amp circuits. 3. Analyze ideal op-amp circuits that have negative feedback using the summing-point constraint. ELECTRICAL
ACTIVE FILTERS An electric filter is often a frequency-selective circuit that passes a specified band of frequencies and blocks or attenuates signals of frequencies outside this band. Filters may be classified
Analog I/O ECE 153B Sensor & Peripheral Interface Design Introduction Anytime we need to monitor or control analog signals with a digital system, we require analogto-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analog
Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational
Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 1 11. Chapter: Amplitude stabilization of the harmonic oscillator Time of study: 3 hours Goals: the student should be able to define basic principles of oscillator
ANALOG ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS (EE-325-F) LAB MANUAL V SEMESTER Department Of Electronics & CommunicationEngg. BSA Institute of Technology & Management Faridabad. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS S.NO. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT
Experiments #7 Operational Amplifier part 1 1) Objectives: The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op-amp
Operational Amplifiers Table of contents 1. Design 1.1. The Differential Amplifier 1.2. Level Shifter 1.3. Power Amplifier 2. Characteristics 3. The Opamp without NFB 4. Linear Amplifiers 4.1. The Non-Inverting
1. Multivibrators A multivibrator circuit oscillates between a HIGH state and a LOW state producing a continuous output. Astable multivibrators generally have an even 50% duty cycle, that is that 50% of
LIC & Communication Lab Manual LIC & COMMUNICATION LAB MANUAL FOR V SEMESTER B.E (E& ( E&C) (For private circulation only) NAME: DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION SRI SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Post-lab Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department
P a g e 1 Introduction 1. Signals in digital form are more convenient than analog form for processing and control operation. 2. Real world signals originated from temperature, pressure, flow rate, force
Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers The Operational Amplifier (or op-amp) is the ideal, simple amplifier. It is an integrated circuit (IC). An IC contains many discrete components (resistors, capacitors,
Applied Electronics II Chapter 4: Wave shaping and Waveform Generators School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Addis Ababa Institute of Technology Addis Ababa University Daniel D./Getachew T./Abel
EE301 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS CHAPTER 2 : OSCILLATORS Lecturer : Engr. Muhammad Muizz Bin Mohd Nawawi 2.1 INTRODUCTION An electronic circuit which is designed to generate a periodic waveform continuously at
VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUBJECT : EC6404 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS SEM / YEAR: IV / II year
EECE251 Circuit Analysis I Set 5: Operational Amplifiers Shahriar Mirabbasi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of British Columbia firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Amplifiers There are various
Operational Amplifiers Lab Report Objectives Materials See separate report form located on the course webpage. This form should be completed during the performance of this lab. 1) To construct and operate
EKT 314 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION Elektronik Instrumentasi Semester 2 2012/2013 Chapter 3 Analog Signal Conditioning Session 2 Mr. Fazrul Faiz Zakaria school of computer and communication engineering.
Lecture Op-Amp Building Blocks and Applications Instrumentation Amplifiers Filters Integrators Differentiators Frequency-Gain elation Non-Linear Op-Amp Applications DC Imperfections ELG439 Check List for
CHAPTER 1 DIODE CIRCUITS Resistance levels Semiconductor act differently to DC and AC currents There are three types of resistances 1. DC or static resistance The application of DC voltage to a circuit
Operational Amplifier BME 360 Lecture Notes Ying Sun Characteristics of Op-Amp An operational amplifier (op-amp) is an analog integrated circuit that consists of several stages of transistor amplification
Diode Circuits Recent GATE Problems 1. The diodes and capacitors in the circuit shown are ideal. The voltage v(t) across the diode DD 1 is CC 1 DD 2 cos(ωωωω) AC DD 1 CC 1 (a) cos(ωωωω) 1 (b) sin(ωωωω)
Chapter 8: Field Effect Transistors Transistors are different from the basic electronic elements in that they have three terminals. Consequently, we need more parameters to describe their behavior than
DESCRIPTION The is a microprocessor-compatible monolithic 10-bit digital-to-analog converter subsystem. This device offers 10-bit resolution and ±0.1% accuracy and monotonicity guaranteed over full operating
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP-AMPS) II LAB 5 INTRO: INTRODUCTION TO INVERTING AMPLIFIERS AND OTHER OP-AMP CIRCUITS GOALS In this lab, you will characterize the gain and frequency dependence of inverting op-amp
Basic Op Amps The operational amplifier (Op Amp) is useful for a wide variety of applications. In the previous part of this article basic theory and a few elementary circuits were discussed. In order to
Introduction to Op Amps ENGI 242 ELEC 222 Basic Op-Amp The op-amp is a differential amplifier with a very high open loop gain 25k AVOL 500k (much higher for FET inputs) high input impedance 500kΩ ZIN 10MΩ
Module 4: The Operational Amplifier Operational Amplifiers: General Introduction In the laboratory, analog signals (that is to say continuously variable, not discrete signals) often require amplification.
Chapter Operational Amplifiers and Applications Chapter Goals Understand the magic of negatie feedback and the characteristics of ideal op amps. Understand the conditions for non-ideal op amp behaior so
Introduction to Analog Interfacing ECE/CS 5780/6780: Embedded System Design Scott R. Little Lecture 19: Operational Amplifiers Most embedded systems include components that measure and/or control real-world
Unit 47: Unit code Analogue Electronic Systems F/615/1515 Unit level 5 Credit value 15 Introduction Analogue electronic systems are still widely used for a variety of very important applications and this
1 Signals and systems, A. V. Oppenhaim, A. S. Willsky, Prentice Hall, 2 nd edition, 1996. FUNDAMENTALS Electrical Engineering 2.Processing - Analog data An analog signal is a signal that varies continuously.
DESIGN OF AN ANALOG FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM OBJECTIVE To design and build a complete analog fiber optic transmission system, using light emitting diodes and photodiodes. INTRODUCTION A fiber optic
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING (17) ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING SUBJECT CODE: 2141706 B.E. 4 th Semester Type of course: Core Engineering Prerequisite: 1. Fundamental
Semiconductor Diode Clipper and Clamper Circuits Clippers Clipper circuits, also called limiter circuits, are used to eliminate portion of a signal that are above or below a specified level clip value.
Module Measurement Systems Version EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Lesson 9 Signal Conditioning Circuits Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Instructional Objective The reader, after going through the lesson would be able to:
5.1 Introduction When the power requirement to drive the load is in terms of several Watts rather than mili-watts the power amplifiers are used. Power amplifiers form the last stage of multistage amplifiers.
Physical Limitations of Op Amps The IC Op-Amp comes so close to ideal performance that it is useful to state the characteristics of an ideal amplifier without regard to what is inside the package. Infinite
Analog/Digital Conversion The real world is analog. Interfacing a microprocessor-based system to real-world devices often requires conversion between the microprocessor s digital representation of values
Chapter.8: Oscillators Objectives: To understand The basic operation of an Oscillator the working of low frequency oscillators RC phase shift oscillator Wien bridge Oscillator the working of tuned oscillator
Operational Amplifiers A. Stolp, 4/22/01 rev, 2/6/12 An operational amplifier is basically a complete high-gain voltage amplifier in a small package. Op-amps were originally developed to perform mathematical
Chapter 13: Comparators So far, we have used op amps in their normal, linear mode, where they follow the op amp Golden Rules (no input current to either input, no voltage difference between the inputs).
Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Pre-Report Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department
Lecture 6: Digital/Analog Techniques The electronics signals that we ve looked at so far have been analog that means the information is continuous. A voltage of 5.3V represents different information that
Overview of High Performance Analog Optocouplers Application Note 357 Designing Analog Circuits Using the HCNR0 Internally, the HCNR0 analog optocoupler consists of two photo detectors symmetrically placed
Electronics RC Filter, DC Supply, and 555 0.1 Lab Ticket Each individual will write up his or her own Lab Report for this two-week experiment. You must also submit Lab Tickets individually. You are expected
Chapter 7: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Overview Often the information you want to capture in an experiment originates in the laboratory as an analog voltage or a current. Sometimes you want to
Input Offset Voltage (V OS ) & Input Bias Current (I B ) TIPL 1100 TI Precision Labs Op Amps Presented by Ian Williams Prepared by Art Kay and Ian Williams Hello, and welcome to the TI Precision Lab discussing
IFB270 Advanced Electronic Circuits Chapter 12: The operational amplifier Prof. Manar Mohaisen Department of EEC Engineering Review of the Precedent Lecture Introduce the four layer diode Introduce the
P. R. Nelson ECE 322 Fall 2012 p. 1/50 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Phyllis R. Nelson email@example.com Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering California State Polytechnic
Basic Electronic Devices and Circuits EE 111 Electrical Engineering Majmaah University 2 nd Semester 1432/1433 H Chapter 2 Diodes and Applications 1 Diodes A diode is a semiconductor device with a single
Introductory Medical Device Prototyping Analog Circuits Part 3 Operational Amplifiers, http://saliterman.umn.edu/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota Concepts to be Reviewed Operational
1 6. The Operational Amplifier This chapter introduces a new component which, although technically nonlinear, can be treated effectively with linear models This element known as the operational amplifier
St.MARTIN S ENGINEERING COLLEGE Dhulapally, Kompally, Secunderabad-500014. Branch Year&Sem Subject Name : Electrical and Electronics Engineering : III B. Tech I Semester : IC Applications OBJECTIVES QUESTION
Mechatronics Analog and Digital Electronics: Studio Exercises 1 & 2 There is an electronics revolution taking place in the industrialized world. Electronics pervades all activities. Perhaps the most important
Learning Objectives: At the end of this topic you will be able to; recall the conditions for maximum voltage transfer between sub-systems; analyse a unity gain op-amp voltage follower, used in impedance
1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers: Part II The name "operational amplifier" comes from this amplifier's ability to perform mathematical operations. Three good examples of this are the summing amplifier,
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 2 - Semiconductor Diodes Overview: In this lab session students will investigate I-V characteristics