# EXPERIMENT 2.2 NON-LINEAR OP-AMP CIRCUITS

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1 2.16 EXPERIMENT 2.2 NONLINEAR OPAMP CIRCUITS OBJECTIVE a. To study the operation of 741 opamp as comparator. b. To study the operation of active diode circuits (precisions circuits) using opamps, such as halfwave rectifier, clipper, clamper and peak detector circuits HARDWARE REQUIRED a. Power supply : Dual variable regulated low voltage DC source b. Equipments : AFO, CRO and DMM c. Resistors : d. Capacitors : e. Semiconductor : Diode 1N4002 and opamp µa741 f. Miscellaneous : Bread board and wires PRELAB QUESTIONS 1. A certain opamp has an openloop gain of 200,000. The maximum saturated output levels of this particular device are 14V when the dc supply voltages are 15V. If a differential voltage of 0.5m V rms is applied between the inputs, what is the peaktopeak value of the output? 2. Sketch the output voltage waveform for each circuit in fig.(a) with respect to the input. Show voltage levels. Assume the maximum output levels of the opamp are 12V. 1V sine 7V sine 2V sine 5Vdc 15V 8.2k D1 D2 5V sine 2V sine R3 1k 4.7V 4.7V 1k Figure (a)

2 For a positive clipper circuit, draw the output waveform if V in is a 5V P sine wave at 100Hz and V ref = 2V. 4. For a negative clipper circuit, draw the output waveform if V in is a 5V P sine wave at 100Hz and V ref = 2V. 5. For a precision HWR, draw the output waveform if V in is a 300mV peak sine wave at 1KHz. 6. For the peak clamper circuit, draw the output voltage wave form if V in = 50mV PP sine wave at 1000 Hz and (a) V ref = 25mV. (b) V ref = 25mV THEORY The use of opamps can improve the performance of a wide variety of signal processing circuits. In rectifier circuits, the cutin voltage drop that occurs with an ordinary semiconductor diode can be eliminated to give precision rectification waveforms can be limited and clamped at precise levels when opamps are employed in clipping and clamping circuits. The error with peak detectors can also be minimized by the use of the opamps Comparator The simplest way to use an opamp is open loop (no feedback resistors), as shown in figure 221(a). Because of the high gain of the opamp, the slightest error voltage (typically in µ V ) produced maximum output swing. For instance, when V 1 is greater than V 2, the error voltage is positive and the output voltage goes to its maximum positive value (V sat ), typically 1 to 2V less than the supply voltage. On the other hand, if V 1 is less than V 2, the output voltage swings to its maximum negative value (V sat ). V1 Verror V2 Vsat Verror Vsat Fig 221(a) Comparator (b) input/output characteristics Fig. 221 (b) summarizes the action. A positive error voltage drives the output to V sat. A negative error voltage produces V sat when an opamp is used like this, it is called a comparator because all it can do is compare V 1 to V 2, producing a saturated positive or negative output, depending on whether V 1 is greater or less than V 2.

3 2.18 Basic comparator A comparator, as its name implies, compares a signal voltage on one input of opamp with a known voltage called the reference voltage on the other input. Fig. 222 (a) shows an opamp comparator used as a voltage level detector. 1k VCC 3Vp 1KHz 1k VCC. pin 7 pin 4 10k POT Fig 222(a) Basic noninverting comparator, (b) input and output waveforms Let us say that a fixed reference voltage V ref of 1V is applied to the inverting input and the other time varying signal voltage V in is applied to the noninverting input. Because of this arrangement, the circuit is of noninverting type. When V in is less than V ref, the output voltage V O is V sat because the voltage at the inverting input is higher than V in is greater than noninverting input. On the other hand, when V in is greater than V ref, goes to V sat. This V O changes from one level to another level whenever V in = V ref as shown in fig (b). At any given time, the circuit shows whether V in is greater than or less than V ref. The circuit is hence called a ltage level detector. Use of comparators The comparators are interface circuits between analog and digital domains, converting a continuous linear analog signal into a twostate digital signal. Comparators are used in circuits such as Digital interfacing Schmitt triggers Discriminators ltage level detectors Oscillators, etc.

4 Active half wave rectifier Opamps can enhance the performance of diode circuits. For one thing, the opamp can eliminate the effect of diode offset voltage, allowing us to rectify, peakdetect, clip, and clamp lowlevel signals (those with amplitudes smaller than the offset voltage). And because of their buffering action opamps can eliminate the effects of source and load on diode circuits. Circuits that combine opamps and diodes are called active diode circuits. Fig. 223 (a) shows an active HWR, with gain. Vi D1 R1 RL R2 Fig 223(a) Active HWR, (b) input and output waveforms When the input signal goes positive, the opamp goes positive and turns on the diode. The circuit then acts as a conventional noninverting amplifier, and the positive halfcycle appears across the load resistor. On the other hand, when the input goes negative, the opamp output goes negative and turns off the diode. Since the diode is open, no voltage appears across the load resistor. This is why the final output is almost a perfect halfwave signal. The high gain of the opamp virtually eliminates the effect of offset voltage. For instance, if the offset voltage equals 0.7V and openloop gain is 100,000, the input that just turns on the diode is 0.7V V in = = 7µ V. 100,000 When the input is greater than 7µV, the diode turns on and the circuit acts like a voltage follower. The effect is equivalent to reducing the offset voltage by a factor of A. The active HWR is useful with lowlevel signals. For instance, if we want to measure sinusoidal voltages in the millivolt region, we can add a milliammeter in series with R L with the proper value of R L, we can calibrate the meter to indicate rms millivolts.

5 Active clipper Clipper is a circuit that is used to clip off (remove) a certain portion of the input signal to obtain a desired output wave shape. In opamp clipper circuits, a rectified diode ma be used to clip off certain parts of the input signal. Fig. 224 (a) shows an active positive clipper, a circuit that removes positive parts of the input signal. The clipping level is determined by the reference voltage V ref. R 2.2k Vin D1 Vref. VCC 10k POT Fig 224(a) Active Limiter (b) (c) Fig 224 (b) input & output waveforms with V ref, (c) input & output waveforms with V ref With the wiper all the way to the left, V ref is o and the noninverting input is grounded. When V in goes positive, the error voltage drives the opamp output negative and turns on the diode. This means the final output V O is 0 (same as V ref ) for any positive value of V in. When V in goes negative, the opamp output is positive, which turns off the diode and opens the loop. When this happens, the final output V O is free to follow the negative half cycle of the input voltage. This is why the negative half cycle appears at the output. To change the clipping level, all we do is adjust V ref as needed.

6 Active clamper In clamper circuits, a predetermined dc level is added to the input voltage. In other words, the output is clamped to a desired dc level. If the clamped dc level is positive, the clamper is called a positive clamper. On the other hand, if the clamped dc level is negative, it is called a negative clamper. The other equivalent terms for clamper are dc inserter or dc restorer. A clamper circuit with a variable dc level is shown in fig. 225 (a). Here the input wave form is clamped at V ref and hence the circuit is called a positive clamper. 1uF C1 Vin Vp R 4.7k VCC D1 RL 1k Rp 10k VCC Fig 225(a) Peak clamper circuit The output voltage of the clamper is a net result of ac and dc input voltages applied to the inverting and noninverting input terminals respectively. Therefore, to understand the circuit operation, each input must be considered separately. First, consider V ref at the noninverting input. Since this voltage is positive, is V O is positive, which forward biases diode D1. This closes the feedback loop and the opamp operates as a voltage follower. This is possible because C 1 is an open circuit for dc voltage. Therefore V O = V ref. As for as voltage V in at the inverting input is concerned during its negative halfcycle D1 conducts, charging C 1 to the negative peak value of the V P. However, during the positive halfcycle of V in diode D1 is reverse biased and hence the voltage V P across the capacitor acquired during the negative halfcycle is retained. Since this voltage V P is in series with the positive peak voltage V P, the output peak voltage V O =2V P. Thus the net output is V ref V P, so the negative peak of 2V P is at V ref. For precision clamping C 1 R d <<T/2, where R d is the forward resistance of the diode D1 (100Ω typically) and T is the time period of V in. The input and output wave forms are shown in fig. 225(b)

7 2.22 (i) (ii) (iii) Fig 225(b) Input and output waveforms (i) with V ref =0V, (ii) with V ref, (iii) with V ref Resistor R is used to protect the opamp against excessive discharge currents from capacitor C 1 especially when the dc supply voltages are switched off. Negative clamping at a negative voltage is accomplished by reversing diode D1 and using the negative reference voltage V ref as shown in figure 225(c) Peak Detector Circuit Square, triangular, sawtooth and pulse waves are typical examples of nonsinusoidal wave forms. A conventional ac voltmeter cannot be used to measure the rms value of the pure sine wave. One possible solution for this problem is to measure the peak values of the nonsinusoidal wave forms. Fig.226(a) shows a peak detector that measures the positive peak values of the input.

8 2.23 R1 Vcc 10k R2 D1 Vin 10k Vcc D2 C RL 10k Fig 226(a) Peak detector Fig 226(b) Input and output waveforms During the positive halfcycle of V in, the output of the opamp drives D1 on charging capacitor C to the positive peak value V P of the input voltage V in. Thus when D1 is forward biased, the opamp acts as a voltage follower. On the other hand, during the negative halfcycle of the V in, the diode D1 is reverse biased, and the voltage across C is retained. The only discharge path for C is through R L since the input bias current is negligible. For proper operation of the circuit, the charging time constant (CR d ) and the discharge time constant (CR L ) must satisfy the following conditions CR d << T/10 and CR L 10T where R d is the forward resistance of the diode, R L is the load resistor and T is the time period of the input waveform V in The wave form for a square wave input is shown in fig.226(b) For a very small R L, a voltage follower is connected between C and R L. The diode D2 conducts during the negative halfcycle of V in, thus preventing the opamp from going into saturation.

9 EXPERIMENT Use opamp dc power supply voltages of 15V. (1) Basic comparator 1.1 Design a voltage level detector as shown in fig.222 (a) to detect a voltage level of 1V in a sinusoidal input voltage. Consider R=1kΩ. Use 1N4002 diodes. Assemble the circuit. 1.2 Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 3V P and frequency 1KHz. Adjust the 10K POT so that V ref =1V. 1.3 Using a CRO observe the input and output waveforms simultaneously. Tabulate your readings in table Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale. (2) Active HWR 2.1 Design an active halfwave rectifier as shown in fig.223 (a) for a gain of 4.7. Choose the appropriate resistor values of R 1 and R 2. Consider R L = 10kΩ. Use 1N4002 diodes. Assemble the circuit. 2.2 Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 200mV PP and frequency 100Hz. 2.3 Using a CRO observe the input and output voltages simultaneously. Determine the amplitude and frequency of the output voltage. Increase the frequency of the input signal till distortion appears in the output. Record this frequency in table Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale. (3) Active clipper 3.1 Assemble the clipping circuit as shown in fig. 224 (a) with R=2.2kΩ. Use 1N4002 diode. 3.2 Feed 3V P, 1 KHz sinusoidal input. Observe the input and output voltages on a CRO. 3.3 Look at the output signal while turning the potentiometer through its entire range. 3.4 Record your readings in table 223 for a desired clipping level. Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale.

10 2.25 (4) Active clamper 4.1 Design a positive clamping circuit with clamping level at zero as shown in fig. 225 (a). Note that V ref = 0V. Consider C 1 = 0.1µF, R = 4.7 KΩ and R L = 10 KΩ. Use 1N4002 diode. Assemble the circuit. 4.2 Feed 5V PP, 10 KHz sinusoidal input. 4.3 Using a CRO observe the input and output voltages simultaneously. Determine the clamping levels of the output voltage. Tabulate your readings in table Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale. (5) Peak detector 5.1 Assemble the peak detector circuit as shown in fig (a). Assume R 1 =R 2 =R L =10kΩ and C=1µF. Use 1N4002 diode. 5.2 Feed 5V P, 1 KHz square input. 5.3 Using a DMM, measure and record the dc output value in table 225. V ref = Particulars Amplitude Time Period Frequency Input ltage Output ltage Table 221 Basic Comparator Particulars Amplitude Time Period Frequency Input ltage Output ltage Table 222 Active Halfwave Rectifier Clipping Level = Particulars Amplitude Time Period Frequency Input ltage Output ltage Table 223 Active Clipper

11 2.26 Clamping level = Particulars Amplitude Time Period Frequency Input ltage Output ltage Table 224 Active Clamper Particulars Magnitude Peak Value of AC Input voltage Output DC ltage across capacitor Table 225 Peak Detector POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. The circuit of fig. 222(a) can be called gono go detector. Explain why it is called so? 2. In the fig. 222 (a), if the POT is adjusted for V ref = 1V, what would be the output? 3. Set V ref = 0V in fig. 222 (a) to make a zero crossing detector observe the output waveform and record your comments. 4. If the diode is reversed in fig. 223 (a), what would the output voltage be? 5. If the diode is reversed in fig. 224 (a), what would the output be like? 6. Is this circuit of problem 5 a positive or negative clipper? 7. If the diode is reversed in fig. 225(a), what would be the output? 8. If the diode is reversed in fig. 226(a), what would be the output?

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