11. Chapter: Amplitude stabilization of the harmonic oscillator


 Annabelle Hamilton
 11 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter Chapter: Amplitude stabilization of the harmonic oscillator Time of study: 3 hours Goals: the student should be able to define basic principles of oscillator amplitude stabilization describe low distortion oscillator (spot sinus) Text Two basic oscillator structures you can see in the 6.Chapter. A positivefeedback loop is formed by an amplifier A and a frequencyselective network β. The amplifier produces a 0 or 180 voltage phase shift, as does the feedback network. This results in a combined 0 voltage phase shift around the loop, which is the same thing as a 360 phase shift. In order to oscillate, the loop gain (return ration) Aβ must be equal to unity. Because circuit components and transistors change characteristics (drift) with age, temperature, voltage, etc., the Aβ =1 condition could not be permanently satisfied. The product will become either less or larger than unity. In the former case the oscillation simply stops, and in the latter case nonlinearity is required in order to limit the amplitude. An oscillator in which the loop gain is exactly unity is an abstraction completely unrealizable in practice. In every practical oscillator the loop gain is slightly larger than unity, and the amplitude of the oscillations is limited by the onset of nonlinearity. The distortion is low if the amplitude of oscillation remains within the linear region of the amplifier. It must not be allowed to go into a fullswing oscillation. An amplitudelimiting mechanism is basically an automatic gain control (AGC) circuit that forces the amplifier gain to decrease when the amplitude of the oscillation increases. Wien bridge oscillator The positive feedback network (RC + RC) is frequency selective, and at the most favored frequency passes a maximum of 1/3 of the output swing back to the + input Fig.1. The negative feedback (560Ω + lamp; R lamp grows with current  positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor) adjusts the gain (noninverting amplifier, 1+560/R lamp ). The incan
2 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 2 descent lamp is used as a variableresistance element (with a long timeconstant of response; the lamp is rated at 14 ma and 10V). The initial gain (not yet oscillation, the lamp is cold, R lamp is small) is greater than 3 the oscillator begins to oscillate. As the output level rises, the lamp heats slightly, reducing the gain to 3. Fig.1: Wien bridge oscillator amplitude stabilization (LAMP) Figure 2 shows Wienbridge oscillators with diode amplitude limiting mechanisms; when the diodes are off, the gain is 1 + R2 R1; and when a diode is on, the gain is reduced to 1 + (R2 R3 )/R1. The start up condition requires a gain slightly greater than 3 or The inequality above can be satisfied by making it equal to a value between 2.1 to 2.2. When a diode is on, the gain should be slightly less than 3, or The inequality above can be satisfied by making it equal to a value between 1.8 to 1.9. When a diode is conducting, the amplitude of the output voltage is limited. Since v + = v = v o /3, a nodal equation gives or
3 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 3 where V D» 0.5V for an actual diode. Fig.2: Wien bridge oscillator amplitude stabilization (diodes) Fig.3: Wien bridge oscillator another amplitude stabilization (diodes) Another Wienbridge oscillator with a diode amplitudelimiting circuit is shown in Figure 3. In this oscillator the amplitudelimiting circuit consists of the diodes D1 and D2, and the resistors R3, R4, R5, and R6. To understand the operation of the amplitudelimiting circuit, observe that as v o increases, the voltage at node v y will exceed the voltage v 1, forcing D2 to conduct. When D2 conducts, the value of v y is v y = v , and v o is clamped at the value v o(max), given by (superposition theorem)
4 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 4 Since v 1 is approximately v o /3, it follows from equation above that Similarly, as v o decreases, the voltage v x will drop below v 1, forcing D1 to conduct. When D1 conducts, the voltage v x is v x = v 1 0.7, and v o is clamped at the value v o(min), given by The simultaneous solution of equations gives the value of the resistors that limit the output voltage to v o(min) < v o < v o(max). In order to obtain a symmetrical sinusoidal voltage, the selection R3 = R6 and R4 = R5 is usually made. Example 1 Design the Wienbridge oscillator shown in Fig. 3 to oscillate at 5 khz.  Design an amplitudelimiting circuit. The amplitude of the sinusoidal output voltage is to be limited to v o = 5V. Solution A practical value of 0.01 μ F for the capacitors can be selected. Then, using the value of R is A practical value of 3 kω can be used in series with a trimming potentiometer to set the frequency of oscillation at 5 khz. To start the oscillation, a value of A vo = 3.2 is used. From a gain of 3.2 is obtained with R 2 = 22 kω and R 1 = 10 kω. The supply voltages of the op amp can be selected as 12V and 12V.Tthe output voltage will reach saturation producing a clipping in the output waveform and, therefore, a significant amount of distortion. This occurs because the starting condition requires A vo > 3, and the gain of the amplifier changes when its output reaches saturation. Some sort of amplitudelimiting mechanism is needed to reduce the harmonic distortion. With v o(max) = 5V and v o(min) = 5V, it follows from
5 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 5 that R3 = R6 = 10.9 kω and R4 = R5 = 2 kω. In the circuit in Fig.4, an amplitude discriminator consisting of the diodes and RC adjusts the AC gain by varying the resistance of the JFET, which behaves like a voltagevariable resistance for small voltages. The LM103 is a twoterminal monolithic reference diode electrically equivalent to a breakdown diode. The long time constant is used (2s) to avoid distortion, since fast feedback will distort the wave by attempting to control the amplitude within the time of one cycle. 1 μf 2N5457 A 1N914 LM103 6,8 k 2,2 μf Fig.4: Wien bridge oscillator JFET amplitude stabilization The small amplitude generates a small voltage (negative) JFET is open (small resistor in parallel with 6,8 kω) small JFET resistance determines the maximum gain of more than 3. As the amplitude grows, the voltage (negative, on RC) grows too and JFET closes the minimum amplifier gain is about 1+ 10/6,8 = 2,47. We can add a buffer (voltage gain of 1) to isolate the nonlinear effects of rectifier (diodes) from the oscillator output Fig. 5 and thus reduce the distortion of the oscillator.
6 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 6 A output BUFFER 1 to 1N914 Fig.5: Wien bridge oscillator JFET amplitude stabilization; buffer reduces distortion of the oscillator Phase shift oscillator Phaseshift oscillators usually use RC networks in the feedback path. The op amp is used in an inverting configuration with a gain of R 2 /R 1. Thus, the signal experiences a phase shift of 180 through the amplifier, and the phase shift from each RC section is 60 at the frequency of oscillation, for a total phase shift in the feedback path of 180. In this oscillator the RC sections are connected without isolation and, therefore, there is loading. In the last stage the resistors R and R 1 appear in parallel. The loading of R 1 can be neglected if R 1 R» R, or in some cases by removing R in the third stage and letting R1 = R. To summarize, the phaseshift oscillator in Fig. 6 will oscillate at the frequency ω o given by if the gain is A vo = R 2 /R 1 > 29. The loading of the op amp is minimized by making R1 > 10R. Fig.6: Phase shift oscillator amplitude stabilization (diodes)
7 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 7 The harmonic distortion can be significantly reduced with an amplitudelimiting circuit. The amplitudelimiting circuit is designed using (see Fig. 3) and with v 1 set equal to zero (i.e., v y = 0.7V and v x = 0.7V). Example 2 Design the phase shift oscillator shown in Fig. 3 to oscillate at 1 khz.  Design an amplitudelimiting circuit. The amplitude of the sinusoidal output voltage is to be limited to v o = 5V. Solution A practical value of 0.01 μ F for the capacitors can be selected. Then, using The resistors R 1 and R 2 must provide the gain A vo > 29 in order to prevent loading R 1 R R. Letting R 1 = 15 kω, then R 2 = 29R 1 = 435 kω. A 495kΩ resistor was used to implement R 2. This will allow for some extra gain to satisfy the start of oscillation condition (i.e., A vo > 29). From (supply voltage ± 12 V) with v 1 = 0 and v o(max) = 5V, we obtain which can be satisfied with R 5 = 2 kω and R 6 = 5.9 kω. From for symmetry, we obtain R 3 = R 6 = 5.9 kω and R 4 = R 5 = 2 kω.
8 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 8 Band pass filter comparator oscillator (spot sinus) The basic idea of low THD BPFbased oscillators is to incorporate a bandpass filter (BPF) along with a limiter and a comparator, in a positive feedback loop Fig.7. The oscillation frequency is set by the center frequency of the filter while the amplitude is set by the limiter (this filter has independent control of frequency, amplitude and distortion of the output). Fig.7: Bandpass filter comparator oscillator Input of BPF is roughly a square wave. According to its Fourier series, a 50% dutycycle square wave consists of odd order harmonic sine waves with the fundamental at the same frequency as the square wave. Fourier Series for a Square Wave where k = peak amplitude of the square wave. Thus THD is dominated by lower order harmonics. The THD is directly proportional to the quality factor of the loop filter Fig.8. Fig.9 shows the THD of the oscillator versus the quality factor (Q) of a secondorder filter. Achieving linearity better than 62 db requires very highq filter (Q > 70). Implementing such highq filter requires large opamp gain bandwidth product as well as a large spread of the capacitor values, and will end up with larger silicon area. Fig.8: The Fourier series versus Q of BPF
9 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10 9 Fig.9: The third harmonic versus Q Notice that although the filter has unity gain, the amplitude of the sine wave output signal is greater than that of the square wave. This is because the fundamental has an amplitude of 4/π times that of the square wave as shown by the Fourier series. The bandpass filter will also filter out any DC component of the square wave input. The very simple (only limiter is used) circuit is shown in Fig. 10, for example. The limiter is a pair of diodes (and R 1 ) to have a squarewave at v 2. The active filter (other circuit elements) selects the fundamental frequency and provides the sinus output at v 1 (any filter circuit with positive gain can be used to implement the bandpass filter). Fig.10: Bandpass filter the limiter used only
10 Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter Basic texts Other text Questions Answers you find in this text 1. Why isn t an input signal (to the oscillator) needed to obtain an output voltage signal? 2. Compare the operation of the described oscillator circuits. 3. Why does a harmonic oscillator need an amplitude control circuit? 4. Explain the function of the buffer on Fig.4 5. How can we get the sinusoidal voltage from the square wave voltage? 6. Why we need highq band pass filter on Fig.7? Problems 1. Redesign the circuit of Fig. 3 for operation at 1 khz. The amplitude of the sinusoidal output voltage is to be limited to v o = 2V. 2. Redesign the circuit of Fig. 3 for operation at 5 khz. The amplitude of the sinusoidal output voltage is to be limited to v o = 2V. 3. Determine the needed Q of BPF (Fig.7) if we need HD 340 DB. Problems key See example 1 and example 2 and Fig
Precision Rectifier Circuits
Precision Rectifier Circuits Rectifier circuits are used in the design of power supply circuits. In such applications, the voltage being rectified are usually much greater than the diode voltage drop,
More informationBENE 2163 ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER BENE 263 ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS LAB SESSION 3 WEIN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR Revised: February 20 Lab 3 Wien Bridge Oscillator
More informationTest Your Understanding
074 Part 2 Analog Electronics EXEISE POBLEM Ex 5.3: For the switchedcapacitor circuit in Figure 5.3b), the parameters are: = 30 pf, 2 = 5pF, and F = 2 pf. The clock frequency is 00 khz. Determine the
More informationPhysical Limitations of Op Amps
Physical Limitations of Op Amps The IC OpAmp comes so close to ideal performance that it is useful to state the characteristics of an ideal amplifier without regard to what is inside the package. Infinite
More informationLecture # 11 Oscillators (RC Circuits)
December 2014 Benha University Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra ECE312 Electronic Circuits (A) Lecture # 11 Oscillators (RC Circuits) Instructor: Dr. Ahmad ElBanna Agenda Introduction Feedback Oscillators
More informationAUDIO OSCILLATOR DISTORTION
AUDIO OSCILLATOR DISTORTION Being an ardent supporter of the shunt negative feedback in audio and electronics, I would like again to demonstrate its advantages, this time on the example of the offered
More informationFor the filter shown (suitable for bandpass audio use) with bandwidth B and center frequency f, and gain A:
Basic Op Amps The operational amplifier (Op Amp) is useful for a wide variety of applications. In the previous part of this article basic theory and a few elementary circuits were discussed. In order to
More informationEXPERIMENT 2.2 NONLINEAR OPAMP CIRCUITS
2.16 EXPERIMENT 2.2 NONLINEAR OPAMP CIRCUITS 2.2.1 OBJECTIVE a. To study the operation of 741 opamp as comparator. b. To study the operation of active diode circuits (precisions circuits) using opamps,
More informationHomework Assignment 07
Homework Assignment 07 Question 1 (Short Takes). 2 points each unless otherwise noted. 1. A singlepole opamp has an openloop lowfrequency gain of A = 10 5 and an open loop, 3dB frequency of 4 Hz.
More informationBasic Operational Amplifier Circuits
Basic Operational Amplifier Circuits Comparators A comparator is a specialized nonlinear opamp circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an output state that indicates which one is greater.
More informationEE301 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS CHAPTER 2 : OSCILLATORS. Lecturer : Engr. Muhammad Muizz Bin Mohd Nawawi
EE301 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS CHAPTER 2 : OSCILLATORS Lecturer : Engr. Muhammad Muizz Bin Mohd Nawawi 2.1 INTRODUCTION An electronic circuit which is designed to generate a periodic waveform continuously at
More informationLesson number one. Operational Amplifier Basics
What About Lesson number one Operational Amplifier Basics As well as resistors and capacitors, Operational Amplifiers, or Opamps as they are more commonly called, are one of the basic building blocks
More informationOscillator Principles
Oscillators Introduction Oscillators are circuits that generates a repetitive waveform of fixed amplitude and frequency without any external input signal. The function of an oscillator is to generate alternating
More informationFor input: Peak to peak amplitude of the input = volts. Time period for 1 full cycle = sec
Inverting amplifier: [Closed Loop Configuration] Design: A CL = V o /V in =  R f / R in ; Assume R in = ; Gain = ; Circuit Diagram: RF +10V F.G ~ + Rin 2 3 7 IC741 + 4 6 v010v CRO Model Graph Inverting
More informationProject Report Designing WeinBridge Oscillator
Abu Dhabi University EEN 360  Electronic Devices and Circuits II Project Report Designing WeinBridge Oscillator Author: Muhammad Obaidullah 03033 Bilal Arshad 0929 Supervisor: Dr. Riad Kanan Section
More informationDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 019.101 Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Laboratory No. READING ASSIGNMENT
More informationHigh Speed BUFFER AMPLIFIER
High Speed BUFFER AMPLIFIER FEATURES WIDE BANDWIDTH: MHz HIGH SLEW RATE: V/µs HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT: 1mA LOW OFFSET VOLTAGE: 1.mV REPLACES HA33 IMPROVED PERFORMANCE/PRICE: LH33, LTC11, HS APPLICATIONS OP
More informationECE3204 D2015 Lab 1. See suggested breadboard configuration on following page!
ECE3204 D2015 Lab 1 The Operational Amplifier: Inverting and Noninverting Gain Configurations GainBandwidth Product Relationship Frequency Response Limitation Transfer Function Measurement DC Errors
More informationPHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps. Characteristics of an Ideal Op Amp
PHYS 536 The Golden Rules of Op Amps Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to illustrate the golden rules of negative feedback for a variety of circuits. These concepts permit you to create and
More informationLaboratory 9. Required Components: Objectives. Optional Components: Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore)
Laboratory 9 Operational Amplifier Circuits (modified from lab text by Alciatore) Required Components: 1x 741 opamp 2x 1k resistors 4x 10k resistors 1x l00k resistor 1x 0.1F capacitor Optional Components:
More informationProject 6: Oscillator Circuits
: Oscillator Circuits Ariel Moss The purpose of this experiment was to design two oscillator circuits: a WienBridge oscillator at 3 khz oscillation and a Hartley Oscillator using a BJT at 5 khz oscillation.
More informationLM675 Power Operational Amplifier
Power Operational Amplifier General Description The LM675 is a monolithic power operational amplifier featuring wide bandwidth and low input offset voltage, making it equally suitable for AC and DC applications.
More informationModule 4 Unit 4 Feedback in Amplifiers
Module 4 Unit 4 Feedback in mplifiers eview Questions:. What are the drawbacks in a electronic circuit not using proper feedback? 2. What is positive feedback? Positive feedback is avoided in amplifier
More informationQ Multiplication in the Wienbridge Oscillator
Multiplication in the Wienbridge Oscillator The Wienbridge oscillator earns its name from the typical bridge arrangement of the feedbac loops (fig.). This configuration is capable of delivering a clean
More informationChapter 8: Field Effect Transistors
Chapter 8: Field Effect Transistors Transistors are different from the basic electronic elements in that they have three terminals. Consequently, we need more parameters to describe their behavior than
More informationExample #6 1. An amplifier with a nominal gain
1. An amplifier with a nominal gain A=1000 V/V exhibits a gain change of 10% as the operating temperature changes from 25 o C to 75 o C. If it is required to constrain the change to 0.1% by applying negative
More informationDimensions in inches (mm) .268 (6.81).255 (6.48) .390 (9.91).379 (9.63) .045 (1.14).030 (.76) 4 Typ. Figure 1. Typical application circuit.
LINEAR OPTOCOUPLER FEATURES Couples AC and DC signals.% Servo Linearity Wide Bandwidth, > KHz High Gain Stability, ±.%/C Low InputOutput Capacitance Low Power Consumption, < mw Isolation Test Voltage,
More informationEECE251 Circuit Analysis I Set 5: Operational Amplifiers
EECE251 Circuit Analysis I Set 5: Operational Amplifiers Shahriar Mirabbasi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of British Columbia shahriar@ece.ubc.ca 1 Amplifiers There are various
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Continuing the discussion of Op Amps, the next step is filters. There are many different types of filters, including low pass, high pass and band pass. We will discuss each of the
More informationES250: Electrical Science. HW6: The Operational Amplifier
ES250: Electrical Science HW6: The Operational Amplifier Introduction This chapter introduces the operational amplifier or op amp We will learn how to analyze and design circuits that contain op amps,
More informationLab 10: Single Supply Amplifier
Overview This lab assignment implements an inverting voltage amplifier circuit with a single power supply. The amplifier output contains a bias point which is removed by AC coupling the output signal.
More informationFeedback and Oscillator Circuits
Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Feedback and Oscillator Circuits Feedback Concepts The effects of negative feedback on an amplifier: Disadvantage Lower gain Advantages Higher input impedance More stable gain Improved
More informationApplication Note AN45
Application Note Wien Bridge Oscillators using E 2 POTs by Applications Staff, October 1994 Wien Bridge Oscillators In 1939, William R. Hewlett (later of HewlettPackard fame) first combined the network
More informationChapter 9: Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 9: Operational Amplifiers The Operational Amplifier (or opamp) is the ideal, simple amplifier. It is an integrated circuit (IC). An IC contains many discrete components (resistors, capacitors,
More informationGechstudentszone.wordpress.com
8.1 Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) UNIT 8: Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier ("opamp") is a DCcoupled highgain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a singleended
More information10. Chapter: A/D and D/A converter principles
Punčochář, Mohylová: TELO, Chapter 10: A/D and D/A converter principles 1 10. Chapter: A/D and D/A converter principles Time of study: 6 hours Goals: the student should be able to define basic principles
More informationOp Amp Booster Designs
Op Amp Booster Designs Although modern integrated circuit operational amplifiers ease linear circuit design, IC processing limits amplifier output power. Many applications, however, require substantially
More informationECE ECE285. Electric Circuit Analysis I. Spring Nathalia Peixoto. Rev.2.0: Rev Electric Circuits I
ECE285 Electric Circuit Analysis I Spring 2014 Nathalia Peixoto Rev.2.0: 140124. Rev 2.1. 140813 1 Lab reports Background: these 9 experiments are designed as simple building blocks (like Legos) and students
More informationExperiments #7. Operational Amplifier part 1
Experiments #7 Operational Amplifier part 1 1) Objectives: The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic opamp
More informationEKT 314 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION
EKT 314 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION Elektronik Instrumentasi Semester 2 2012/2013 Chapter 3 Analog Signal Conditioning Session 2 Mr. Fazrul Faiz Zakaria school of computer and communication engineering.
More informationCMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component
CMOS Schmitt Trigger A Uniquely Versatile Design Component INTRODUCTION The Schmitt trigger has found many applications in numerous circuits, both analog and digital. The versatility of a TTL Schmitt is
More informationSingle Supply, Rail to Rail Low Power FETInput Op Amp AD820
a FEATURES True Single Supply Operation Output Swings RailtoRail Input Voltage Range Extends Below Ground Single Supply Capability from + V to + V Dual Supply Capability from. V to 8 V Excellent Load
More informationLM6118/LM6218 Fast Settling Dual Operational Amplifiers
Fast Settling Dual Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM6118/LM6218 are monolithic fastsettling unitygaincompensated dual operational amplifiers with ±20 ma output drive capability. The
More informationKH103 Fast Settling, High Current Wideband Op Amp
KH103 Fast Settling, High Current Wideband Op Amp Features 80MHz fullpower bandwidth (20V pp, 100Ω) 200mA output current 0.4% settling in 10ns 6000V/µs slew rate 4ns rise and fall times (20V) Direct replacement
More informationLecture 8: More on Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps)
Lecture 8: More on Operational mplifiers (Op mps) Input Impedance of Op mps and Op mps Using Negative Feedback: Consider a general feedback circuit as shown. ssume that the amplifier has input impedance
More informationOperational Amplifier BME 360 Lecture Notes Ying Sun
Operational Amplifier BME 360 Lecture Notes Ying Sun Characteristics of OpAmp An operational amplifier (opamp) is an analog integrated circuit that consists of several stages of transistor amplification
More informationEE 3305 Lab I Revised July 18, 2003
Operational Amplifiers Operational amplifiers are highgain amplifiers with a similar general description typified by the most famous example, the LM741. The LM741 is used for many amplifier varieties
More informationCapacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator. Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce
Capacitive Touch Sensing Tone Generator Corey Cleveland and Eric Ponce Table of Contents Introduction Capacitive Sensing Overview Reference Oscillator Capacitive Grid Phase Detector Signal Transformer
More informationIFB270 Advanced Electronic Circuits
IFB270 Advanced Electronic Circuits Chapter 13: Basic opamp circuits Prof. Manar Mohaisen Department of EEC Engineering Introduction Review of the Precedent Lecture Opamp operation modes and parameters
More informationAnalog Filter and. Circuit Design Handbook. Arthur B. Williams. Singapore Sydney Toronto. Mc Graw Hill Education
Analog Filter and Circuit Design Handbook Arthur B. Williams Mc Graw Hill Education New York Chicago San Francisco Athens London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Singapore Sydney Toronto Contents Preface
More informationChapter 5. Operational Amplifiers and Source Followers. 5.1 Operational Amplifier
Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and Source Followers 5.1 Operational Amplifier In single ended operation the output is measured with respect to a fixed potential, usually ground, whereas in doubleended
More informationSingle Supply, Rail to Rail Low Power FETInput Op Amp AD820
a FEATURES True Single Supply Operation Output Swings RailtoRail Input Voltage Range Extends Below Ground Single Supply Capability from V to V Dual Supply Capability from. V to 8 V Excellent Load Drive
More informationExperiment No. 4 The LM 741 Operational Amplifier
Experiment No. 4 The LM 741 Operational Amplifier By: Prof. Gabriel M. Rebeiz The University of Michigan EECS Dept. Ann Arbor, Michigan The LM * 741 is the most widely used opamp in the world due to its
More informationBJT Amplifier. Superposition principle (linear amplifier)
BJT Amplifier Two types analysis DC analysis Applied DC voltage source AC analysis Time varying signal source Superposition principle (linear amplifier) The response of a linear amplifier circuit excited
More informationBasic operational amplifier circuits In this lab exercise, we look at a variety of opamp circuits. Note that this is a twoperiod lab.
Basic operational amplifier circuits In this lab exercise, we look at a variety of opamp circuits. Note that this is a twoperiod lab. Prior to Lab 1. If it has been awhile since you last used the lab
More informationINC 253 Digital and electronics laboratory I
INC 253 Digital and electronics laboratory I Laboratory 4 Wave Shaping Diode Circuits Author: ID CoAuthors: 1. ID 2. ID 3. ID Experiment Date: Report received Date: Comments For Instructor Full Marks Pre
More informationFacility of Engineering. Biomedical Engineering Department. Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Postlab Forms
Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department Medical Electronic Lab BME (317) Postlab Forms Prepared by Eng.Hala Amari Spring 2014 Facility of Engineering Biomedical Engineering Department
More informationLAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS
LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS ELEC 225 Introduction Operational amplifiers (OAs) are highly stable, high gain, difference amplifiers that can handle signals from zero frequency (dc signals) up
More informationGATE: Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 1 of 13)
GATE: Electronics MCQs (Practice Test 1 of 13) 1. Removing bypass capacitor across the emitter leg resistor in a CE amplifier causes a. increase in current gain b. decrease in current gain c. increase
More informationElectronic PRINCIPLES
MALVINO & BATES Electronic PINCIPLES SEVENTH EDITION Chapter 20 Linear OpAmp Circuits Topics Covered in Chapter 20 Inverting amplifier circuits Noninverting amplifier circuits Inverter/noninverter circuits
More informationSource Transformation
HW Chapter 0: 4, 20, 26, 44, 52, 64, 74, 92. Source Transformation Source transformation in frequency domain involves transforming a voltage source in series with an impedance to a current source in parallel
More informationIntroduction to Op Amps By Russell Anderson, BurrBrown Corp
Introduction to Op Amps By ussell Anderson, BurrBrown Corp Introduction Analog design can be intimidating. If your engineering talents have been focused in digital, software or even scientific fields,
More informationWhen you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp
Op Amp Fundamentals When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to relate the gain and bandwidth of an op amp In general, the parameters are interactive. However, in this unit, circuit input
More informationCHARACTERISTICS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS  II
CHARACTERISTICS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS  II OBJECTIVE The purpose of the experiment is to examine nonideal characteristics of an operational amplifier. The characteristics that are investigated include
More informationOperating Manual Ver.1.1
Phase Shift Oscillator Operating Manual Ver.1.1 An ISO 9001 : 2000 company 94101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura, Indore 452010, India Tel : 91731 2570301/02, 4211100 Fax: 91731 2555643 e mail :
More informationChapter 14 Operational Amplifiers
1. List the characteristics of ideal op amps. 2. Identify negative feedback in opamp circuits. 3. Analyze ideal opamp circuits that have negative feedback using the summingpoint constraint. ELECTRICAL
More informationXR8038A Precision Waveform Generator
...the analog plus company TM XR0A Precision Waveform Generator FEATURES APPLICATIONS June 1 Low Frequency Drift, 50ppm/ C, Typical Simultaneous, Triangle, and Outputs Low Distortion  THD 1% High FM
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Real Time Wireless Electrocardiogram (ECG) Monitoring System Introductory Analog Electronics Laboratory Guilherme K. Kolotelo, Rogers G. Reichert Cambridge, MA
More informationECE159H1S University of Toronto 2014 EXPERIMENT #2 OP AMP CIRCUITS AND WAVEFORMS ECE159H1S
ECE159H1S University of Toronto 2014 EXPERIMENT #2 OP AMP CIRCUITS AND WAVEFORMS ECE159H1S OBJECTIVES: To study the performance and limitations of basic opamp circuits: the inverting and noninverting
More informationPhysics 303 Fall Module 4: The Operational Amplifier
Module 4: The Operational Amplifier Operational Amplifiers: General Introduction In the laboratory, analog signals (that is to say continuously variable, not discrete signals) often require amplification.
More informationOBSOLETE. Low Cost Quad Voltage Controlled Amplifier SSM2164 REV. 0
a FEATURES Four High Performance VCAs in a Single Package.2% THD No External Trimming 12 db Gain Range.7 db Gain Matching (Unity Gain) Class A or AB Operation APPLICATIONS Remote, Automatic, or Computer
More informationBasic Information of Operational Amplifiers
EC1254 Linear Integrated Circuits Unit I: Part  II Basic Information of Operational Amplifiers Mr. V. VAITHIANATHAN, M.Tech (PhD) Assistant Professor, ECE Department Objectives of this presentation To
More informationFEEDBACK AMPLIFIER. Learning Objectives. A feedback amplifier is one in which a fraction of the amplifier output is fed back to the input circuit
C H P T E R6 Learning Objectives es Feedback mplifiers Principle of Feedback mplifiers dvantages of Negative Feedback Gain Stability Decreased Distortion Feedback Over Several Stages Increased Bandwidth
More informationFeatures CURRENT SOURCE CURRENT SOURCE #2
Data Sheet September 99 File Number 4. Precision Waveform Generator/Voltage ontrolled Oscillator The waveform generator is a monolithic integrated circuit capable of producing high accuracy sine, square,
More informationAn active filters means using amplifiers to improve the filter. An acive secondorder RC lowpass filter still has two RC components in series.
Active Filters An active filters means using amplifiers to improve the filter. An acive secondorder lowpass filter still has two components in series. Hjω ( )  2 = = 
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Monolithic Amplifier Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Chapter Jón Tómas Guðmundsson tumi@hi.is. Week Fall 200 Operational amplifiers (op amps) are an integral part of many analog and mixedsignal systems
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers Spring 2008 Sean Lynch Lambros Samouris Tom Groshans History of Op Amps Non Named for their originally intended functions: performing mathematical operations and amplification Addition
More informationMicroelectronic Circuits  Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright 2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
Feedback 1 Figure 8.1 General structure of the feedback amplifier. This is a signalflow diagram, and the quantities x represent either voltage or current signals. 2 Figure E8.1 3 Figure 8.2 Illustrating
More informationPHYS 536 Active Filters
PHYS 536 Active Filters Introduction Active filters provide a sudden change in signal amplitude for a small change in frequency. Several filters can be used in series to increase the attenuation outside
More informationCommonSource Amplifiers
Lab 2: CommonSource Amplifiers Introduction The commonsource stage is the most basic amplifier stage encountered in CMOS analog circuits. Because of its very high input impedance, moderatetohigh gain,
More informationChapter 10 Feedback ECE 3120 Microelectronics II Dr. Suketu Naik
1 Chapter 10 Feedback Operational Amplifier Circuit Components 2 1. Ch 7: Current Mirrors and Biasing 2. Ch 9: Frequency Response 3. Ch 8: ActiveLoaded Differential Pair 4. Ch 10: Feedback 5. Ch 11: Output
More informationOperational Amplifiers
Fundamentals of opamp Operation modes Golden rules of opamp Opamp circuits Inverting & noninverting amplifier Unity follower, integrator & differentiator Introduction An operational amplifier, or opamp,
More informationIntro To Engineering II for ECE: Lab 7 The Op Amp Erin Webster and Dr. Jay Weitzen, c 2014 All rights reserved.
Lab 7: The Op Amp Laboratory Objectives: 1) To introduce the operational amplifier or Op Amp 2) To learn the noninverting mode 3) To learn the inverting mode 4) To learn the differential mode Before You
More informationDual FETInput, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
www.burrbrown.com/databook/.html Dual FETInput, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES LOW DISTORTION:.3% at khz LOW NOISE: nv/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: 25V/µs WIDE GAINBANDWIDTH: MHz UNITYGAIN STABLE
More informationOperational Amplifiers
1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques
More informationIntroduction to Op Amps
Introduction to Op Amps ENGI 242 ELEC 222 Basic OpAmp The opamp is a differential amplifier with a very high open loop gain 25k AVOL 500k (much higher for FET inputs) high input impedance 500kΩ ZIN 10MΩ
More informationASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
555 TIMER ASTABLE MULTIIBRATOR MONOSTABLE MULTIIBRATOR 555 TIMER PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) PHYSICS (LAB MANUAL) 555 TIMER Introduction The 555 timer is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of
More informationDual FETInput, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
Dual FETInput, Low Distortion OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES LOW DISTORTION:.3% at khz LOW NOISE: nv/ Hz HIGH SLEW RATE: 2V/µs WIDE GAINBANDWIDTH: 2MHz UNITYGAIN STABLE WIDE SUPPLY RANGE: V S = ±4.
More informationLab 6: Building a Function Generator
ECE 212 Spring 2010 Circuit Analysis II Names: Lab 6: Building a Function Generator Objectives In this lab exercise you will build a function generator capable of generating square, triangle, and sine
More informationImproving Amplifier Voltage Gain
15.1 Multistage accoupled Amplifiers 1077 TABLE 15.3 ThreeStage Amplifier Summary HAND ANALYSIS SPICE RESULTS Voltage gain 998 1010 Input signal range 92.7 V Input resistance 1 M 1M Output resistance
More informationLow Cost, General Purpose High Speed JFET Amplifier AD825
a FEATURES High Speed 41 MHz, 3 db Bandwidth 125 V/ s Slew Rate 8 ns Settling Time Input Bias Current of 2 pa and Noise Current of 1 fa/ Hz Input Voltage Noise of 12 nv/ Hz Fully Specified Power Supplies:
More informationVALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE
VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SUBJECT QUESTION BANK : EC6401 ELECTRONICS CIRCUITSII SEM / YEAR: IV / II year B.E.
More informationHigh Output Current Differential Driver AD815
a FEATURES Flexible Configuration Differential Input and Output Driver or Two SingleEnded Drivers Industrial Temperature Range High Output Power Thermally Enhanced SOIC 4 ma Minimum Output Drive/Amp,
More informationTL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier
TL082 Wide Bandwidth Dual JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description These devices are low cost, high speed, dual JFET input operational amplifiers with an internally trimmed input offset voltage
More information6. Explain control characteristics of GTO, MCT, SITH with the help of waveforms and circuit diagrams.
POWER ELECTRONICS QUESTION BANK Unit 1: Introduction 1. Explain the control characteristics of SCR and GTO with circuit diagrams, and waveforms of control signal and output voltage. 2. Explain the different
More informationFunction Generator MODEL FG500 Instruction Manual ELENCO
Function Generator MODEL FG500 Instruction Manual ELENCO Copyright 2012, 2003 Elenco Electronics, Inc. REVD 753068 SPECIFICATIONS OUTPUT: Waveforms: Sine, triangle, square Impedance: 600Ω ±10% Frequency:
More informationChapter 10: Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical transistors with two inputs and two outputs. 2 Differential Amplifier Differential amplifier has two identical
More informationElectronic Devices. Floyd. Chapter 7. Ninth Edition. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd
Electronic Devices Ninth Edition Floyd Chapter 7 Power Amplifiers A power amplifier is a large signal amplifier that produces a replica of the input signal on its output. In the case shown here, the output
More information6.101 Final Project Theremin. Pedro Brito David Gomez Patrick McCabe May 12, 2016
6.101 Final Project Theremin Pedro Brito David Gomez Patrick McCabe May 12, 2016 1 Abstract The goal of this project is to create a theremin. A theremin is a musical instrument that is played without physical
More information