E G 2 3. MATH 1012 Section 8.1 Basic Geometric Terms Bland


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1 MATH 1012 Section 8.1 Basic Geometric Terms Bland Point A point is a location in space. It has no length or width. A point is represented by a dot and is named by writing a capital letter next to the dot. For example: Point R. R Line A line is a straight row of points that goes on forever in both directions. A line is named using the letters of any two points on the line. For example: Line Segment A piece of line that has two endpoints is called a line segment. For example: Ray A ray is part of a line that has only one endpoint and goes on forever in one direction. For example: Plane A plane is an infinitely large flat surface. A floor or a wall is part of a plane. Parallel Lines Lines that are in the same plane, but that never intersect (never cross), are called parallel lines. Angle An angle is made up of two rays that start at a common endpoint. This common endpoint is called the vertex. H E G J F Acute Angles Perpendicular Lines Two lines are called perpendicular lines if they intersect to form a right angle. Obtuse Angles Right Angles
2 MATH 1012 Section 8.2 Angles and Their Relationships Bland Complementary Angles Two angles are called complementary angles if the sum of their measures is 90. If two angles are complementary, each is the complement of the other. Supplementary Angles Two angles are called supplementary angles if the sum of their measures is 180. If two angles are supplementary, each angle is the supplement of the other. Congruent Angles Two angles are called congruent angles if they measure the same number of degres.
3 MATH 1012 Section 8.3 Rectangles and Squares Bland A Rectangle has four sides that meet to form 90 angles. Each set of opposite sides is parallel and congruent (has the same length). Find the perimeter and area of the rectangle.
4 MATH 1012 Section 8.4 Parallelograms and Trapezoids Bland A parallelogram is a foursided figure with opposite sides parallel, such as the ones below. Notice that the opposite sides have the same length. Find the perimeter and area of the parallelogram. A trapezoid is a foursided figure with exactly one pair of parallel sides, such as the figures shown below. Unlike the parallelogram, opposite sides of a trapezoid might not have the same length. Find the perimeter and area of the trapezoid.
5 MATH 1012 Section 8.5 Triangles Bland A triangle is a figure with exactly three sides. Examples are below. Find the perimeter of the third triangle above. The height of a triangle is the distance from one vertex of the triangle to the opposite side (base). The height line must be perpendicular to the base; that is, it must form a right angle with the base. Find the area of the triangles.
6 MATH 1012 Section 8.6 Circles Bland Circumference The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. Circumference is the distance around the edge of a circle. Find the radius circumference and area of the circle.
7 MATH 1012 Section 8.7 Volume Bland A shoe box and a cereal box are examples of threedimensional (or solid) figures. The three dimensions are length, width, and height. If you want to know how much a shoe box will hold, you find its volume. 8 in. Volume of a Cone or Pyramid 1 3 Where B is the area of the base and h is the height of the cone or pyramid.
8 MATH 1012 Section 8.8 Pythagorean Theorem Bland A number that has a whole number as its square root is called a perfect square. The first few perfect squares are listed below. For other numbers we will have to use our calculators. Example: Use your calculator to find the square root of each number. Round to the nearest thousandth. a) 46 b) 136 One place you will use square roots is when working with the Pythagorean Theorem. This theorem applies only to right triangles. Recall that a right triangle is a triangle that has one 90 angle. In a right triangle, the side opposite the right angles is called the hypotenuse. The other two sides are called legs.
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