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1 AREA..1.. After measuring various angles, students look at measurement in more familiar situations, those of length and area on a flat surface. Students develop methods and formulas for calculating the areas of triangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids. They also find the areas of more complicated shapes by partitioning them into shapes for which they can use the basic area formulas. Students also learn how to determine the height of a figure with respect to a particular. See the Math Notes box in Lesson.. for more information about area. Example 1 In each figure, one side is labeled as the. For this, draw in a corresponding height. a. b. c. d. To find how tall a person is, we have them stand straight up and measure the distance from the highest point on their head straight down to the floor. We measure the height of figures in a similar way. One way to calculate the height is to visualize that the shape, with its horizontal, needs to slide into a tunnel. How tall must the tunnel be so that the shape will slide into it? How tall the tunnel is equals the height of the shape. The height is perpendicular to the (or a line that contains the ) from any of the shape s highest point(s). In class, students also used a card to help them draw in the height. a. It is often easier to draw in the height of a figure when the is horizontal, or the bottom of the figure. The height of the triangle at right is drawn from the highest point down to the and forms a right angle with the. height Parent Guide with Extra Practice 1

2 b. Even though the shape at right is not a triangle, it still has a height. In fact, the height can be drawn in any number of places from the side opposite the. Three heights, all of equal length, are shown. height height c. The of the first triangle at right is different from the one in part (a) in that no side is horizontal or at the bottom. Rotate the shape, then draw the height as we did in part (a). d. Shapes like the trapezoid at right or the parallelogram in part (b) have at least one pair of parallel sides. Because the is always one of the parallel sides, we can draw several heights. The height at far right shows a situation where the height is drawn to a segment that contains the segment. Example Find the area of each shape or its shaded region below. Be sure to include the appropriate units of measurement. a. b. cm c. feet feet 1 feet 1 cm 1 cm x + 1 x d. e. f. inches inches 1 inches Students have the formulas for the areas of different shapes in their Area Toolkit (Lesson..B Resource Page). For part (a), the area of a triangle is A = 1 bh, where b and h are perpendicular to each other. In this case, the is 1 feet and the height is feet. The side which is feet is not a height because it does not meet the at a right angle. Therefore, A = 1 (1 feet)( feet) = feet. Area is measured in square units, while length (such as a perimeter) is measured in linear units, such as feet. 1 Core Connections Geometry

3 The figure in part (b) is a parallelogram and the area of a parallelogram is A = bh where b and h are perpendicular. Therefore A = (1 cm)( cm) = square cm. The figure in part (c) is a rectangle so the area is also A = bh, but in this case, we have variable expressions representing the lengths of the and height. We still calculate the area in the same way. A = (x + 1)(x) = x + x square units. Since we do not know in what units the lengths are measured, we say the area is just square units. Part (d) shows a trapezoid; the students found several different ways to calculate its area. The most common way is: A = 1 (b 1 + b )h where b is the upper and b 1 is the lower. As always, b and h must be perpendicular. The area is A = 1 ( in.+1 in.) in.=. square inches. The figures shown in parts (e) and (f) are more complicated and one formula alone will not give us the area. In part (e), there are several ways to divide the figure into rectangles. One way is shown at right. The 1 areas of the rectangles on either end are easy to find since the dimensions are labeled on the figure. The area of rectangle (1) is A = ()() = 1 square units. The area of rectangle () is A = ()() = 1 square units. To find the area of rectangle (), we know the length is but we have to determine its height. The height is shorter than, so the height is. Therefore, the area of rectangle () is A = ()() = 0 square units. Now that we know the area of each rectangle, we can add them together to find the area of the entire figure: A(entire figure) = = square units. In part (f), we are finding the area of the shaded region, and again, there are several ways to do this. One way is to see it as the sum of a rectangle and a triangle. Another way is to see the shaded figure as a tall rectangle with a triangle cut out of it. Either way will give the same answer. Using the top method, A = () + 1 ()() = square units. The bottom method gives the same answer: A = (1)! 1 ()() = square units. -or- 1 Parent Guide with Extra Practice 1

4 Problems For each figure below, draw in a corresponding height for the labeled Find the area of the following triangles, parallelograms and trapezoids. Pictures are not drawn to scale. Round answers to the nearest tenth Core Connections Geometry

5 Find the area of the shaded regions Find the area of each shape and/or shaded region. Be sure to include the appropriate units. x +.. x. cm.. 1 in. 1. in. in.. 1 cm 0. cm cm 1. in. cm cm cm. cm in. 1 in. cm 1 in. Parent Guide with Extra Practice 1

6 1.. 1 Find the area of each of the following figures. Assume that anything that looks like a right angle is a right angle Core Connections Geometry

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