# Summer Solutions Problem Solving Level 4. Level 4. Problem Solving. Help Pages

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1 Level Problem Solving 6

2 General Terms acute angle an angle measuring less than 90 addend a number being added angle formed by two rays that share a common endpoint area the size of a surface; always expressed in square units (inches, meters, ) circumference the distance around the outside of a circle composite number a number that has more than factors congruent figures with the same shape and the same size denominator diameter the bottom number of a fraction Example: 1 ; the denominator is. the widest distance across a circle; the diameter always passes through the center equation a math sentence that uses numbers, math symbols, and an = sign difference factor the result or answer to a subtraction problem Example: the difference of 5 and 1 is. a whole number that can be divided into a given number without a remainder fraction improper fraction line of symmetry a part of a whole Example: This box has parts; 1 part is shaded. 1 is shaded. a fraction in which the numerator is larger than the denominator Example: 9 a line along which a figure can be folded so that the two halves match exactly mixed number the sum of a whole number and a fraction Example: 5 1 6

3 General Terms numerator the top number of a fraction Example: 1 ; the numerator is 1. obtuse angle an angle measuring more than 90 perimeter the distance around the outside of a polygon prime number a number that has only factors, one and itself product quotient radius the result or answer to a multiplication problem Example: The product of 5 and is 15. the result or answer to a division problem Example: The quotient of 8 and is. the distance from any point on the circle to the center; half of the diameter ray a line that has a starting point, but no endpoint represent show right angle an angle measuring exactly 90 similar figures having the same shape, but different sizes straight angle an angle measuring exactly 180 sum volume the result or answer to an addition problem Example: The sum of 5 and is 7. the measure of space inside a solid figure; always expressed in cubic units (m, ft, ) 65

4 -Dimensional Shapes circle ellipse (oval) triangle any shape with sides quadrilateral any shape with sides parallelogram rectangle square rhombus (diamond) trapezoid pentagon any shape with 5 sides hexagon any shape with 6 sides octagon any shape with 8 sides -Dimensional Shapes pyramid cone rectangular prism cube sphere cylinder 66

5 Measurement Relationships Volume Distance 1 inches = 1 foot 8 ounces = 1 cup 6 inches = 1 yard teaspoons = 1 tablespoon 1,760 yards = 1 mile cups = 1 pint 5,80 feet = 1 mile pints = 1 quart 100 centimeters = 1 meter quarts = 1 gallon 1,000 millimeters = 1 meter Weight Temperature 16 ounces = 1 pound 0 Celsius freezing point of water,000 pounds = 1 ton 100 Celsius boiling point of water Time Fahrenheit freezing point of water 10 years = 1 decade 1 Fahrenheit boiling point of water 100 years = 1 century Place Value Whole Numbers 8, 9 6, 7 1, 0 5 Billions Hundred Millions Ten Millions Millions The number above is read: eight billion, nine hundred sixty-three million, two hundred seventy-one thousand, four hundred five. Place Value Decimal Numbers Hundred Thousands Ten Thousands Thousands Hundreds Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Point Tenths The number above is read: one hundred seventy-eight and six hundred forty thousand, five hundred ninety-two millionths. Hundredths Thousandths Ten-thousandths Hundred-thousandths Tens Millionths Ones 67

6 Whole Numbers Think of rounding numbers as an easier way to work with numbers. Rounding is a way of estimating. The rounded number (or estimate) is close to the actual value, but has zeros at the end. Use a place value chart if needed. Examples: Round 7 to the tens place. 7 rounding place 1. Identify the place value to round to. What number is in that place? () Look at the digit to its right. (7). If this digit is 5 or greater, increase the number in the rounding place by 1 (round up). If the digit is less than 5, keep the number in the rounding place the same.. Replace all digits to the right of the rounding place with zeros. Round,86 to the hundreds place., 86 rounding place, Identify the place value to round to. What number is in that place? (8). Look at the digit to its right. (),800. If this digit is 5 or greater, increase the number in the rounding place by 1 (round up). If the digit is less than 5, keep the number in the rounding place the same.. Replace all digits to the right of the rounding place with zeros. Round 7,9 to the thousands place. 7,9 7,9 8,000 7 is in the rounding place. 9 is greater than 5, so the rounding place will go up by 1. The digits to the right of the rounding place are changed to zeros. 68

7 Whole Numbers (continued) When adding or subtracting whole numbers, first the numbers must be lined-up from the right. Starting with the ones place, add (or subtract) the numbers. When adding, if the answer has two digits, write the ones digit and regroup the tens digit. For subtraction, it may also be necessary to regroup first. Then, add (or subtract) the numbers in the tens place. Continue with the hundreds, etc. Look at these addition examples. Find the sum of 1 and 1. Add 6,78 and 1,8. 1. Line up the numbers on the right Beginning with the ones place, add. 6, Regroup if necessary. 1, 8 6. Repeat with the tens place. 8, 1. Continue this process with the hundreds place, etc. Look at these subtraction examples. Subtract 7 from Begin with the ones place. 9 8 Since 7 is larger than, regroup to 8 tens and 1 ones. 1. Now look at the tens place Since is less than 8, the regrouping is complete.. Subtract each place value beginning with the ones. Find the difference of,15 and,0. 0 1, 15, 0,09 1. Begin with the ones place. Since is less than 5, do not regroup.. Now look at the tens place. Since is larger than, regroup to 0 hundreds and 1 tens.. Now look at the hundreds place. Since 0 can be taken from 0, do not regroup.. Now look at the thousands place. Since is smaller than, do not regroup. 5. Subtract each place value beginning with the ones. When subtracting from zero, always regroup. Subtract,61 from 5, Begin with the ones place. Since 1 is larger than 0, regroup , 000 Continue to the thousands place, and then begin regrouping., 6 1. Regroup the thousands place to thousand and 10 hundreds.,69. Next, regroup the hundreds place to 9 hundreds and 10 tens.. Then, regroup the tens place to 9 tens and 10 ones. 5. Finally, subtract each place value beginning with the ones. Example: Find the difference between 600 and

8 Whole Numbers (continued) When multiplying multi-digit whole numbers, it is important to know the multiplication facts. Follow the steps and the examples below. Examples: Multiply by Line up the numbers on the right.. Multiply the digits in the ones place. Regroup if necessary.. Multiply the digits in the tens place. Add any regrouped tens.. Repeat step for the hundreds place, etc = 15 ones or 1 ten and 5 ones 5 = 10 tens + 1 ten (regrouped) or 11 tens Find the product of,51 and. 1 1, 1 10, 5 5 = 1 ones or 1 ten and ones 1 = tens + 1 ten (regrouped) or tens 5 = 15 hundreds or 1 thousand and 5 hundreds = 9 thousands + 1 thousand (regrouped) or 10 thousands The process for multiplying by two-digit numbers is a lot like the process above. There are a few differences. Follow the steps carefully. Examples: Multiply by. Find the product of 5 and Multiply each digit in the top number by the ones digit in the bottom number. Regroup if necessary. ( = 8; = 1). When working with the tens digit, the answer will be written below the previous answer. Before multiplying by the tens digit, put a zero in the ones place.. Multiply each digit in the top number by the tens digit in the bottom number. Regroup if necessary. ( = ; = 6). Add the products , 50 1,

9 Whole Numbers (continued) The next group of examples involves long division using one-digit divisors with remainders. This process, called long division, will be used to divide numbers with multiple digits. Example: Divide 79 by R In this problem, 79 is the dividend, and is the divisor. Look at each digit in the dividend, starting on the left.. Does the divisor () go into the left-most digit in the dividend ()? It doesn t, so keep going to the right.. Does the divisor () go into the two left-most digits (7)? It does. How many times does go into 7? (9 times). Multiply 9. (6) 5. Subtract 6 from 7. (1) Bring down the 9 ones from the first line. This leaves 19 left from the original Does the divisor () go into 19? It does. How many times does go into 19? ( times) 7. Multiply. (16) 8. Subtract 16 from 19. () There s nothing left to bring down from above. Once this number is smaller than the divisor, it is called the remainder. The problem is finished. The remainder is. 9. Write the answer with the remainder. Example: What is 556 divided by 6? R Does the divisor (6) go into the left-most digit in the dividend? (5) It doesn t, so keep going to the right.. Does the divisor (6) go into the two left-most digits? (55) It does. How many times does 6 go into 55? (9 times). Multiply 6 9. (5). Subtract 5 from 55. (1) Bring down the 6 ones from the first line. This leaves 16 left from the original Does the divisor (6) go into 16? It does. How many times does 6 go into 16? () 6. Multiply 6. (1) 7. Subtract 1 from 16. () There s nothing left to bring down from above. Once this number is smaller than the divisor, it is called the remainder. The problem is finished. The remainder is. 8. Write the answer with the remainder. (9 R ) Remember: The remainder can NEVER be larger than the divisor! 71

10 Fractions Equivalent Fractions are fractions that are equal to each other. Problems often ask for a missing numerator or denominator. Examples: Find a fraction that is equivalent to 5 and has a denominator of = 5? 7 1. Ask, What was done to 5 to get 5? (Multiply by 7.). Whatever is done in the denominator, must be done in the numerator. x 7 = 8 The missing numerator is 8. So, is equivalent to Example: Find a fraction that is equivalent to 5 and has a numerator of. 6 5 =? 6 1. Ask, What was done to to get? (Multiply by 6.). Whatever is done in the numerator, must be done in the denominator. 5 x 6 = 0 The missing denominator is 0. So, is equivalent to 5 0. To add (or subtract) fractions with the same denominator, simply add (or subtract) the numerators, keeping the same denominator. To add mixed numbers, follow a process similar to the one used with fractions. If the sum is an improper fraction, be sure to simplify it. Examples: = = 7 9 Example: is improper. 6 5 can be rewritten as So, 6 5 is =

12 Geometry (continued) Example: Find the perimeter of the regular pentagon below. A pentagon has 5 sides. Each of the sides is m long. P = m + m + m + m + m m P = 5 m P = 0 m Area is the size of a surface. To find the area of a rectangle or a square, multiply the length by the width. The area is expressed in square units (ft, in., etc.). Examples: Find the area of the figures below. Area of rectangle = length width or A = l w Area = length width 5 in. A = 10 in. 5 in. 10 in. A = 50 in. Say 50 square inches. 7 cm A square has equal sides, so its length and its width are the same. A = 7 cm 7 cm A = 9 cm 7

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