7 Grounding for Power Quality NEC states that ground resistance should be less than 25 ohms. Is this true?
8 Grounding for Power Quality No! NEC states A single electrode shall be supplemented by an additional electrode... If a single electrode has a resistance to earth of 25 ohms or less the supplemental electrode shall not be required. Is this good enough?
9 NFPA 70 the NEC
10 Conventional Industry Standard IEEE Std
11 Grounding for Power Quality Why do we ground our electrical systems? We ground our electrical systems for two reasons: 1. For Safety 2. For Power Quality This seminar will discuss safety, however, our primary topic is POWER QUALITY.
12 The Power Quality Pyramid Custom Solution Custom Solution Uninterruptible Power Supply System Uninterruptible Power Supply System Power Conditioning Power Conditioning Harmonic Cancellation Harmonic Cancellation Grounding and Surge Protection Devices Grounding and Surge Protection Devices (SPD)
13 The basic Safety grounding system (Normal Conditions) Transformer 480V Secondary Panel Motor/Load (40 Ohms) 20Amp CB N G 480 Volts 40 Ohms Equivalent Circuit? Amps 12 V A R
14 The basic Safety grounding system (Ground Fault condition) Transformer 480V Secondary Panel 20Amp CB Breaker Trips Motor/Load Internal Ground Fault.2 Ohms N G 480 Volts.2 Ohms Equivalent Circuit? Amps 2400 V A R
15 The basic Safety grounding system (No/poor ground) Transformer 480V Secondary Panel 20Amp CB Motor/Load Internal Ground Fault.2 Ohms N G 480 Volts.2 Ohms Equivalent Circuit? Amps Ohms V A R
16 The basic Safety grounding system (No/poor ground w/people) Transformer 480V Secondary Panel 20Amp CB Motor/Load Internal Ground Fault.2 Ohms N G 20,000 Ohms 480 Volts.2 Ohms Equivalent Circuit 24mA Can Kill! Ohms? Amps 20,000 Ohms V A R
17 Why Grounding for Power Quality? IEEE 142 IEEE The grounding of sensitive electronic equipment, such as computers, programmable logic controllers, process plants, distributed control systems, and similar electronic equipment, has been found to be one of the important items in achieving useful operation from these systems. The low operating voltage of computers and other sensitive electronic equipment makes them susceptible to random voltages far below levels that are perceptible to humans and that have no effect on electrical power equipment. Certainly the voltages injected into the earth by lightning strokes even within several thousand feet, unless suitable neutralization is accomplished, can cause malfunction and can possibly damage the equipment.
18 Grounded vs. UnGrounded Systems UnGrounded system An electrical system in which there is no intentional connection between the conductors and earth.
19 UnGrounded Systems UnGrounded system An electrical system in which there is no intentional connection between the conductors and earth. Advantages Service Continuity. Disadvantages Very High ground currents due to leakage Capacitance in the entire system. Power System overvoltages passed into the premises wiring system. (Lightning, switching surges, inter-contact between high voltage systems) Transients are not controlled. System voltages can be unbalanced.
20 Grounded Systems Grounded system - Delta An electrical system in which there is an intentional connection between the conductors and earth. Advantages High fault currents may flow on the first ground fault, requiring the immediate clearance of this first fault. The voltage to ground in this system will be the system voltage, usually 240 or 480 volts. Disadvantages Avoidance of installing equipment ground fault protection as required by the NEC on solidly grounded Wye electrical services. The system is unable to supply dual-voltage service for lighting and power loads. It requires a positive identification of the grounded phase throughout the system. A higher line-to-ground voltage exists on two phases than in a neutral-grounded system. Fault switching (opening) is much more severe for the clearing device, and ratings may be greatly reduced. Many manufacturers electrical distribution equipment is not rated for use on this system. They are not recommended for new installations because more suitable and reliable systems are available today Power System overvoltages passed into the premises wiring system. Transients are not controlled.
21 Grounded Systems Grounded system - Wye An electrical system in which there is an intentional connection between the conductors and earth.
22 Grounded Systems Grounded system - Wye An electrical system in which there is an intentional connection between the conductors and earth. Advantages Low ground currents due to no leakage Capacitance in the system. Power System overvoltages attenuated into the premises wiring system. Transients attenuated. System voltages balanced. Personnel Safety. Disadvantages Some may argue for Service Continuity, however, many more power quality problems usually occur with ungrounded systems.
23 Earth Reference IEEE 142 (4.1.2) states that ground resistance should be 1 ohm for substations and 1-5 ohms for commercial and industrial services. Many equipment vendors require less than 3 ohms. Why?
24 Why ground resistance less than 5 ohms? IEEE States: A quality connection to earth through the grounding electrode system for a commercial or industrial facility's power system is necessary for: Providing a low impedance path for lightning stroke current dissipation The reduction of Step and Touch potentials under line-to-earth fault conditions The dissipation of electrostatic charges The proper operation of electrical and electronic equipment The proper operation of Surge Protection Devices (SPD s) (TVSS units)
25 Earth Reference IEEE Recommended Acceptable Values The most elaborate grounding system may not perform satisfactorily unless the connection of the system to earth is adequate for the particular installation. The earth connection is one of the most important parts of the whole grounding system. The connection to earth or the electrode system, needs to have a sufficiently low resistance to help permit prompt operation of the circuit protective devices in the event of a ground fault, to provide the required safety from shock to personnel who may be in the vicinity of equipment frames, enclosures, conductors, or the electrodes themselves and to limit transient overvoltages.
26 How many rods do you need? Using information from two sources lets look at a typical ground rod installation. Source #1- ANSI/IEEE 142 Source #2- White Paper - DEEP EARTH GROUNDING VERSUS SHALLOW EARTH GROUNDING by Martin D. Conroy and Paul G. Richard
27 How many rods do you need? Service Entrance Panel Service Entrance Panel 1-10 ground rod 25 ohms to earth 2-10 ground rods 15 ohms to earth 3-10 ground rods 11 ohms to earth Using IEEE Does this meet IEEE standards? 1-10 ground rod 25 ohms to earth 1-20 ground rod 7 ohms to earth 1-30 ground rod 4 ohms to earth Using Deep Earth paper
28 Soil Moisture Changes NEC states.that ground electrodes shall be embedded below permanent moisture level. This is prefaced by the term If practicable
29 Soil Moisture Changes Soil moisture content varies greatly down to about 10 feet Does not peak dry much below 30 feet. Nevada
33 Earth Reference After Installation IEEE Need for Measurement Many indeterminate factors exists in any formula for the calculation of the resistance to earth. Total reliance should not be placed on the calculated results. For example, the soil resistivity varies inversely with the soil temperature and directly with the moisture content and may vary with the depth. The only certain way to determine the resistance is to measure it after the system has been completed. IEEE Periodic Testing Tests should be made periodically after the original installation and test so that it can be determined whether the resistance is remaining constant or is increasing. If later tests show that the resistance is increasing to an undesirable value, steps should be taken to reduce the resistance Don t bury it and forget it!
34 Ground Measurement Techniques Two Main Methods: 1. Fall of Potential Method 2. Signal Injection Method
35 Fall of Potential Method Service Entrance Panel Ground Meter Ground Electrode Area of Influence
36 Signal Injection Method Service Entrance Panel Ground Electrode Area of Influence
37 Pulling Green Wire IEEE Insulated Grounding Conductors Reliance on the metal raceway is not recommended. An internal grounding conductor improves the efficiency of the ground return path. Internal ground-return conductors do improve reliability, especially when sensitive electronic equipment grounding is a concern.
38 Single Point Reference
39 Multiple Ground Rods IEEE Problems Analysis (indicates) that the separation of grounds was responsible for very large voltages being impressed on computer components under thunderstorm conditions. These voltages occurred whether or not computers were in operation. The large voltages were due to lightning striking either the building housing the computers or the power system serving the building. When charge centers on lightning clouds were overhead, charges were induced in buildings on the ground beneath them. For Example
40 Is this correct? Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment Ground Rod #1 Ground Rod #2
41 Grounding for Power Quality Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment 10 Ohms Ground Rod #1 Ground Rod #2
42 Grounding for Power Quality Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment 10 Ohms Ground current of 1000Amps caused by lightning Ground Rod #1 Ground Rod #2
43 Ohms x Amps = 10 Ohms x 1000Amps = 10,000Volts Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment 10 Ohms Ground current of 1000Amps caused by lightning Ground Rod #1 Ground Rod #2
44 Ohms x 10 Ohms x 1000Amps = 10,000Volts Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment 10 Ohms Ground current of Ground Rod #1 1000Amps caused Ground Rod #2 by lightning
45 Solution Service Entrance Sensitive Equipment Bond ground rods Ground Rod #1 Ground Rod #2
46 FYI IEEE Connection of the equipment ground to earth with an electrode that is physically separate from all other power system and structural grounding electrodes and is not bonded to any of these other grounding electrodes, will inevitably produce common mode noise, since it is not referenced to the power source ground. The magnitude of this common mode potential can be destructive to the equipment and hazardous to personnel, since a power system fault can raise the power system or structure several hundred or thousand volts above other earth references. This grounding method is also in violation of the NEC, Article 250.
47 Ground Loops Sub Panel Ungrounded Conductor Current Flow (Hot) Grounded Conductor Current Flow (Neutral) Main N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Panel L N G None Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment
48 Ground Loops Sub Panel Current Flow Return neutral current flowing on Ground Main N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Panel L N G Bad Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment
49 Ground Loops Sub Panel Current Flow Return neutral current flowing on Ground Main N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Panel L N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Worse G Stray neutral current flowing through sensitive equipment
50 Ground Loops Sub Panel Current Flow Return neutral current flowing on Ground L Main Panel N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Stray neutral current flowing through sensitive equipment via Phone &data cable N G Computers VFD s PLC s Sensitive Equipment Worst G Stray neutral current flowing through sensitive equipment
51 Dedicated Circuits Panel Sensitive Equipment Other Equipment Worst
52 Isolation Transformer Circuit Harmonic Cancellation Isolation Transformer or Low Harmonic UPS System Panel Panel Sensitive Equipment Other Equipment Must Be Bonded Better
53 Separate Circuits Panel Sensitive Equipment Panel Best Other Equipment
54 Isolated Ground Circuits L N IG EG
55 Isolated Ground Circuits IEEE Isolated ground systems are likely to exaggerate power line surges because they do not equalize voltages between different system feeders Isolated grounding may cause stray currents and voltages due to transients Isolated grounding systems rarely (if ever) provide the anticipated protection from EMI (electrical noise) on the system. This is due to the fact that almost all internal circuits in electronic equipment are grounded to the frame of that equipment..
56 The Grounding System An effective grounding system: Using SPD units provides a more stable system with a minimum of transient voltages and electrical noise. Provides a path to ground in fault conditions to insure proper operation of ground fault protection equipment. Provides grounding of all conductive enclosures that may be touched by personnel, thereby eliminating shock hazards.
57 The Grounding System An effective grounding system: Reduces static electricity that may be generated within facilities. Provides protection from large electrical disturbances (such as lighting) by creating a low resistive path to earth. Eliminates ground loops that induce voltages into sensitive equipment.
58 The Power Quality Pyramid Custom Solution Custom Solution Uninterruptible Power Supply System Uninterruptible Power Supply System Power Conditioning Power Conditioning Harmonic Cancellation Harmonic Cancellation Grounding and Surge Protection Devices Grounding and Surge Protection Devices (SPD)
59 Grounding for Power Quality END Please fill out the evaluation form to receive attendance credit. An Address MUST be Provided to receive your attendance certificate. Thank you for attending PQU s Grounding for Power Quality
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