3 Pinhole Camera (or Camera Obscura) Whenever light passes through a small hole or aperture it creates an image opposite the hole This is an effect wherever apertures occur in nature Essentially, a pinhole camera consists of two components: An aperture A surface on which to project the image A designed pinhole camera is usually a light-proof box that is black other than the surface capturing the image
4 Pinhole Camera Properties The image appears inverted (see diagram) The farther the source is from the aperture, the smaller the image appears. Why? source what other everyday imaging device has a similar feature? Simplifying (e.g., ignore diffraction) A bigger aperture produces a brighter image A smaller hole produces a sharper image. Why? With a pinhole camera it is impossible to create an image that is bright and sharp image
5 F-number The basic quantities for a pinhole camera are the aperture (or pupil ) diameter (d ) and the focal length (f ) The f-number is defined as f/d and is confusingly written, e.g., f/2 A 100mm focal length and a 5mm aperture has an f-number of f/20 Note that increasing f decreases f-number! Devices can be built that change d (an iris ) and f (a focuser ) d f Then cameras can have adjustable f-ratios to let in more light and change the size of the image
6 F-number in telescopes For telescopes d is the diameter of the d slow - usually easy to design light-collector f-number is then a measure of field of view, and image resolution (of how sharp the image is) d f f fast - usually hard to design fast Telescopes with large f-numbers (e.g., f/20) are called slow and have large focal lengths and small fields of view Telescopes with small f-numbers (e.g., f/2) are called fast and have small focal lengths and large fields of view
7 Pinhole Camera Model A point on a source P passes through a pinhole O to create hole X P a point on an image Q Q y = f X x IMAGE f Q X How can I make the image smaller by changing the camera? smaller by not changing the camera? not inverted? f P
8 Airy Disks and Rayleigh Criterion Airy Disk θr is the angular resolution d is the aperture diameter λ is the wavelength of light When the image points of two source points overlap they are spatially unresolved (you can t detect both) A diffraction limited image is when the minimum of one image overlaps the maximum of the other this is called the Rayleigh Criterion
9 Pinhole Camera Aperture Model sinθ R = 1.22λ (Rayleigh Criterion) tanθ R = y f d For Small Angles : tanθ R ~ sinθ R ~ θ R d = 1.22 f λ y d θr Airy Disk y If everything that passes through the aperture ends up in the f central part of the Airy Disk or spot then the diameters of the aperture and spot would equate 2y = d The optimal pinhole diameter is about d ~ sqrt(2.44λf) Can a pinhole camera produce a bright and sharp image? What would happen to the size of the image?
10 Angular Resolution for a Telescope For a telescope the angular resolution for a slit rather than a circular aperture is appropriate R = λ d (R in radians) Again, d for a telescope is the diameter of the light-collector rather than the pinhole Rayleigh Criterion Most principles for astronomical cameras resemble pinhole cameras
11 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this?
12 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this? A light-sensitive image sensor (photo film, CCDs)
13 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this? A light-sensitive image sensor (photo film, CCDs) A sensor exposed to too much light may saturate (record the same level of white light everywhere in the image). What new component can prevent this?
14 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this? A light-sensitive image sensor (photo film, CCDs) A sensor exposed to too much light may saturate (record the same level of white light everywhere in the image). What new component can prevent this? A shutter
15 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this? A light-sensitive image sensor (photo film, CCDs) A sensor exposed to too much light may saturate (record the same level of white light everywhere in the image). What new component can prevent this? A shutter With a pinhole camera it is impossible to create an image that is bright and sharp and big. Is there a new component that can help make this possible?
16 Augmentations to the Pinhole Camera The pinhole camera does not capture an image permanently. What new component is needed for this? A light-sensitive image sensor (photo film, CCDs) A sensor exposed to too much light may saturate (record the same level of white light everywhere in the image). What new component can prevent this? A shutter With a pinhole camera it is impossible to create an image that is bright and sharp and big. Is there a new component that can help make this possible? A lens or a mirror
17 2. Focusing Light
18 Refraction and Snell s Law Light is deflected at the interface between two materials The angle to the normal to the interface changes depending on what the materials are made of: n 1 sinθ 1 = n 2 sinθ 2, v 2 sinθ 1 = v 1 sinθ 2 This is Snell s Law where n is refractive index, v is velocity A prism will split out different colors of light because different wavelengths of light have slightly different velocities in most media (including in glass)
19 Lenses Converging Lens Lenses can replace a pinhole in order to focus light with more control The collecting area of the lens is then the aperture and the distance from the Diverging Lens lens to the focal point is the focal length d Compound Lens Lenses can be used to help circumvent the fact that a pinhole can only make f large images that are bright or sharp
20 The (thin, convex) lens equation From the geometry of the situation it is possible to relate the image-lens and source-lens distances to f This is similar to the quick derivation for the pinhole camera, but with more triangles Lenses can be designed with any theoretical focal length If an image is not in focus di > f, how can we bring it into focus? 1 d i + 1 d o = 1 f How will an image that is out of focus look? Why?
21 The (spherical, concave) mirror equation It is always possible to create a mirror with equivalent optics to a lens f The situation is very similar to the geometry of a lens except the optics stay on the same side of a mirror There are several benefits to using a mirror to focus light for a telescope rather than a lens 1 d i + 1 d o = 1 f What are two advantages?
22 platescale= 1 f Plate Scale for a Telescope The plate scale for a telescope is how an angle on the sky translates into a physical distance on the imaging surface It turns out that the plate scale (in radians) is just:
23 Refracting Telescopes: Lenses Problems: Lenses focus colors differently Limited wavelengths Requires longer gap between objective lens and eyepiece as objective lens gets larger Sag: Large lens distorted as it hangs Limits lens size
24 Bigger is Better The light gathering power of a telescope is just the area of the light collector (the primary lens or mirror) Light Gathering Power = Area = πr 2 = πd 2 4
25 The Largest Refractor At Yerkes Observatory in southern WI 40 inch diameter lens, 63½ feet long! A 1-meter telescope, 20 meters long
26 The Largest Refractor External shot of Yerkes Observatory
27 A much larger telescope 3.5-meter (138-inch) at APO
28 A much larger telescope 2.5-meter (98-inch) external shot at APO
29 3. Light Detection and CCDs
30 Charge-Coupled Devices We have discussed how to focus light to a surface but not how to make a permanent image from that light For many years, astronomy used photographic film to capture images, but now CCDs are almost exclusively used For what equation did Albert Einstein win the Nobel Prize in Physics?
31 Charge-Coupled Devices We have discussed how to focus light to a surface but not how to make a permanent image from that light For many years, astronomy used photographic film to capture images, but now CCDs are almost exclusively used For what equation did Albert Einstein win the Nobel Prize in Physics? K = h( f f ) 0
32 Charge-Coupled Devices We have discussed how to focus light to a surface but not how to make a permanent image from that light For many years, astronomy used photographic film to capture images, but now CCDs are almost exclusively used For what equation did Albert Einstein win the Nobel Prize in Physics? K = h( f f ) 0 This is called the photoelectric effect. It relates the kinetic energy of an electron ejected from a metal to the frequency of light that hits the metal
33 Charge-Coupled Devices The photoelectric effect shows that particles of light (photons) can be used to produce electrons A CCD is basically a series of photoelectric sensors with individual capacitors placed beneath them Incident light causes electrons (charge) to be stored in the capacitors, which are simply devices for storing charge In a CCD, charge builds up in photons the capacitors proportional to the number of photons (the intensity of light) that hits electrons each sensor capacitors
34 Reading out the Charge Moving charge is just electric current, and a series of voltages can be applied to shift the charge Over the CCD grid, charge is shifted horizontally then vertically until the amount of charge in each capacitor (bucket) has been read out We then know how much light fell on each photoelectric sensor cell The total readout time is important...long readout times could delay subsequent images photons telescopes/buckets.html
35 How to make color images CCDs only measure the total amount of light that fell on each cell...not the color or wavelength of that light There are several ways to then make a color image multiple CCDs with a color filter in front of each CCD multiple telescopes each with its own CCD looking through a different color filter Interpolating across a series of color filters laid out across a single CCD grid The PROMPT array S D S S C a m e r a
36 The Bayer Filter All colors of light can be determined by combining red, green and blue light The Bayer filter is a series of red, green and blue filters laid out across the surface of a CCD and combined to make any color Each photoelectric sensor cell then has a single color filter placed in front of it How would you populate the CCD grid to the right with red, green, blue filters to optimally measure red, green and blue light in each cell?
37 The Bayer Filter The Bayer filter is a layout of red, green and blue filters The Bayer filter can be used to determine how many photons of light of each color fell on each cell of a CCD
38 The Bayer Filter Let s look at the cell pattern highlighted in yellow
39 The Bayer Filter What were the intensities of light (the numbers of photons of each color, red, green, blue) through the position in the CCD covered by the central green filter?
40 The Bayer Filter Let s look at the cell pattern highlighted in yellow
41 The Bayer Filter What were the intensities of light (the numbers of photons of each color, red, green, blue) through the position in the CCD covered by the blue filter?
42 A Far Less Intelligent Filter Pattern
43 4. Telescopes and Astronomical Cameras
44 Astronomical Cameras You now know all of the critical concepts to understand astronomical cameras and detectors field of view size is controlled by f-number; by the focal length and the size of the primary mirror (big mirrors have large fields of view unless the focal length is big) It is tough to focus the light from a big mirror so it is typical to have a larger focal length with a big mirror...but lenses and mirrors can be used to manipulate focal length the total amount of light collected is controlled by the size of the primary mirror (big mirrors collect more light) the angular resolution is controlled by the size of the primary mirror (big mirrors have better resolution)
45 Some Modern Astronomical Cameras The Large Synoptic Survey telescope has a very large f/1.23 primary mirror (8.4m) What are two reasons why a large mirror is desirable? Look at the design to the right...why build a telescope with 3 mirrors like this? What does f/1.23 at the sensor mean? Is the LSST fast or slow?
46 Some Modern Astronomical Cameras The Large Synoptic Survey telescope has a very large f/1.23 primary mirror (8.4m) What are two reasons why a large mirror is desirable? f Look at the design to the right...why build a telescope with 3 mirrors like this? What does f/1.23 at the sensor mean? Is the LSST fast or slow? d The LSST has a 3.5 o field of view (c.f. WIRO with a 2.3 meter primary mirror and a < 1 o field of view)
47 Some Modern Astronomical Cameras The Sloan Digital Sky Survey camera contains 30 Sky Drifts this way CCDs arranged in 5 columns of different color filters (in the picture, columns run left-right!) The camera is fixed and the sky drifts over it, taking 5 minutes to cross the entire camera For what aspect of how CCDs function is the SDSS camera trying to compensate? Is CCD readout time important, here?
48 Some Modern Astronomical Cameras The Sloan Digital Sky Survey camera contains 30 Sky Drifts this way CCDs arranged in 5 columns of different color filters (in the picture, columns run left-right!) The camera is fixed and the sky drifts over it, taking 5 minutes to cross the entire camera For what aspect of how CCDs function is the SDSS camera trying to compensate? Is CCD readout time important, here? The SDSS readout time was about 1 minute, meaning each column could be read in real time
1 Telescope Types - Telescopes collect and concentrate light (which can then be magnified, dispersed as a spectrum, etc). - In the end it is the collecting area that counts. - There are two primary telescope
Chapter 9 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Introduction Thin lenses Double-lens systems Aberrations Camera Human eye Compound microscope Summary INTRODUCTION Knowledge of geometrical optics, diffraction and interference,
Basic principles of photography David Capel 346B IST Latin Camera Obscura = Dark Room Light passing through a small hole produces an inverted image on the opposite wall Safely observing the solar eclipse
Lenses Sandy Skoglund 2 Converging and Diverging s AIR Converging If the surface is convex, it is a converging surface in the sense that the parallel rays bend toward each other after passing through the
Lecture Outline Chapter 27 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 27 Optical Instruments Units of Chapter 27 The Human Eye and the Camera Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics The Magnifying
Reflection and Refraction of Light Physics 102 28 March 2002 Lecture 6 28 Mar 2002 Physics 102 Lecture 6 1 Light waves and light rays Last time we showed: Time varying B fields E fields B fields to create
Name: Class: Date: Exam 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mirages are a result of which physical phenomena a. interference c. reflection
Two Fundamental Properties of a Telescope 1. Angular Resolution smallest angle which can be seen = 1.22 / D 2. Light-Collecting Area The telescope is a photon bucket A = (D/2)2 D A Parts of the Human Eye
Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 25 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the
Light from distant things Chapter 36 We learn about a distant thing from the light it generates or redirects. The lenses in our eyes create images of objects our brains can process. This chapter concerns
Chapter 34 Geometric Optics (also known as Ray Optics) by C.-R. Hu 1. Principles of image formation by mirrors (1a) When all length scales of objects, gaps, and holes are much larger than the wavelength
PHY385H1F Introductory Optics Practicals Day 6 Telescopes and Microscopes October 31, 2011 Group Number (number on Intro Optics Kit):. Facilitator Name:. Record-Keeper Name: Time-keeper:. Computer/Wiki-master:..
SUBJECT: PHYSICS I hope this collection of questions will help to test your preparation level and useful to recall the concepts in different areas of all the chapters. Use and Succeed. Navaneethakrishnan.V
Early Telescopes & Geometrical Optics C. A. Griffith, Class Notes, PTYS 521, 2016 Not for distribution. 1 1.2. Image Formation Fig. 1. Snell s law indicates the bending of light at the interface of two
IMAGE FORMATION Light source properties Sensor characteristics Surface Exposure shape Optics Surface reflectance properties ANALOG IMAGES An image can be understood as a 2D light intensity function f(x,y)
The Wave Nature of Light Physics 102 Lecture 7 4 April 2002 Pick up Grating & Foil & Pin 4 Apr 2002 Physics 102 Lecture 7 1 Light acts like a wave! Last week we saw that light travels from place to place
APAS Laboratory Optics I OPTICS I LENSES AND IMAGES If at first you don t succeed try, try again. Then give up- there s no sense in being foolish about it. -W.C. Fields SYNOPSIS: In Optics I you will learn
Image Formation and Capture Acknowledgment: some figures by B. Curless, E. Hecht, W.J. Smith, B.K.P. Horn, and A. Theuwissen Image Formation and Capture Real world Optics Sensor Devices Sources of Error
Person s Optics Test KEY SSSS 2017-18 Competitors Names: School Name: All questions are worth one point unless otherwise stated. Show ALL WORK or you may not receive credit. Include correct units whenever
VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE DEPTH STUDY: ELECTRON MICROSCOPES Shortly after the experimental confirmation of the wave properties of the electron, it was suggested that the electron could be used to examine objects
PHY 431 Homework Set #5 Due Nov. 0 at the start of class 1) Newton s rings (10%) The radius of curvature of the convex surface of a plano-convex lens is 30 cm. The lens is placed with its convex side down
Chapter 29/30 Refraction and Lenses Refraction Refraction the bending of waves as they pass from one medium into another. Caused by a change in the average speed of light. Analogy A car that drives off
Phys 322 Lecture 16 Chapter 5 Geometrical Optics Optical systems Magnifying glass Purpose: enlarge a nearby object by increasing its image size on retina Requirements: Image should not be inverted Image
Chapter 34 Geometric Optics Lecture by Dr. Hebin Li Goals of Chapter 34 To see how plane and curved mirrors form images To learn how lenses form images To understand how a simple image system works Reflection
Chapter 23. Light Geometric Optics There are 3 basic ways to gather light and focus it to make an image. Pinhole - Simple geometry Mirror - Reflection Lens - Refraction Pinhole Camera Image Formation (the
Sharpness, Resolution and Interpolation Introduction There are a lot of misconceptions about resolution, camera pixel count, interpolation and their effect on astronomical images. Some of the confusion
FRAUNHOFER AND FRESNEL DIFFRACTION IN ONE DIMENSION Revised November 15, 2017 INTRODUCTION The simplest and most commonly described examples of diffraction and interference from two-dimensional apertures
Division C Optics KEY 2017-2018 Captains Exchange 1.) If a laser beam is reflected off a mirror lying on a table and bounces off a nearby wall at a 30 degree angle, what was the angle of incidence of the
Practice Problems for Chapter 25-26 1. What are coherent waves? 2. Describe diffraction grating 3. What are interference fringes? 4. What does monochromatic light mean? 5. What does the Rayleigh Criterion
CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE (CCD) Definition A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an analog shift register, enabling analog signals, usually light, manipulation - for example, conversion into a digital value that
Chapter 26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 26.1 The Index of Refraction Light travels through a vacuum at a speed c=3. 00 10 8 m/ s Light travels through materials at a speed less
Page 1 of 17 Physics Week 12(Sem. 2) Name Light Chapter Summary Cont d with a smaller index of refraction to a material with a larger index of refraction, the light refracts towards the normal line. Also,
Introduction to Light Microscopy (Image: T. Wittman, Scripps) The Light Microscope Four centuries of history Vibrant current development One of the most widely used research tools A. Khodjakov et al. Major
Chapters 11, 12, 24 Refraction and Interference of Waves Beats Two overlapping waves with slightly different frequencies gives rise to the phenomena of beats. Beats The beat frequency is the difference
David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 214 The human eye is a visual system that collects light and forms an image on the retina. The human eye is a visual system that collects light and forms an image
Binocular and Scope Performance 57 Diffraction Effects The resolving power of a perfect optical system is determined by diffraction that results from the wave nature of light. An infinitely distant point
Refraction is the bending of the path of a light wave as it passes from one material into another material. Refraction occurs at the boundary and is caused by a change in the speed of the light wave upon
Problem 5. University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy Physics23, Spring 202 Homework 5 - Solutions An optometrist finds that a farsighted person has a near point at 25 cm. a) If the eye
Physics Approximate Timeline Students are expected to keep up with class work when absent. CHAPTER 18 REFRACTION & LENSES Day Plans for the day Assignments for the day 1 18.1 Refraction of Light o Snell
O5. 1 O5: Lenses and the refractor telescope Introduction In this experiment, you will study converging lenses and the lens equation. You will make several measurements of the focal length of lenses and
Chapter 17: Wave Optics Key Terms Wave model Ray model Diffraction Refraction Fringe spacing Diffraction grating Thin-film interference What is Light? Light is the chameleon of the physical world. Under
Computer Generated Holograms for Optical Testing Dr. Jim Burge Associate Professor Optical Sciences and Astronomy University of Arizona firstname.lastname@example.org 520-621-8182 Computer Generated Holograms
Chapter 34: Geometric Optics It is all about images How we can make different kinds of images using optical devices Optical device example: mirror, a piece of glass, telescope, microscope, kaleidoscope,
The New 2 Practical Focusing Astronomy CCD cameras represent some pretty fancy technology, but in some ways they are just like ordinary cameras. As with a traditional film camera, the difference between
Telescope Basics 2009 by Keith Beadman Table of Contents Introduction...1 The Basics...2 What a telescope is...2 Aperture size...3 Focal length...4 Focal ratio...5 Magnification...6 Introduction In the
I am Watching YOU!! Human Retina Sharp Spot: Fovea Blind Spot: Optic Nerve Human Vision Optical Antennae: Rods & Cones Rods: Intensity Cones: Color Energy of Light 6 10 ev 10 ev 4 1 2eV 40eV KeV MeV Energy
Chapter 34 The Wave Nature of Light; Interference 34-7 Luminous Intensity The intensity of light as perceived depends not only on the actual intensity but also on the sensitivity of the eye at different
8 Chapter 1 1.6 Beam Wander vs. Image Jitter It is common at this point to look at beam wander and image jitter and ask what differentiates them. Consider a cooperative optical communication system that
ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 97 Optics - Lenses & Telescopes OPTICS LENSES AND TELESCOPES SYNOPSIS: In this lab you will explore the fundamental properties of a lens and investigate refracting and reflecting
1 Refraction of Light Activity: Disappearing coin Place an empty cup on the table and drop a penny in it. Look down into the cup so that you can see the coin. Move back away from the cup slowly until the
Contact Us Carl Zeiss Education in Microscopy and Digital Imaging ZEISS Home Products Solutions Support Online Shop ZEISS International ZEISS Campus Home Interactive Tutorials Basic Microscopy Spectral
Optics and Telescopes Properties of Light Law of Reflection - reflection Angle of Incidence = Angle of Law of Refraction - Light beam is bent towards the normal when passing into a medium of higher Index
Use with Text Pages 558 563 The Optics of Mirrors Use the terms in the list below to fill in the blanks in the paragraphs about mirrors. reversed smooth eyes concave focal smaller reflect behind ray convex
Physics 1C Lecture 27B Single Slit Interference! Example! Light of wavelength 750nm passes through a slit 1.00μm wide. How wide is the central maximum in centimeters, in a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern
Chapter 3 Optical Systems The Human Eye [Reading Assignment, Hecht 5.7.1-5.7.3; see also Smith Chapter 5] retina aqueous vitreous fovea-macula cornea lens blind spot optic nerve iris cornea f b aqueous
AP Physics Problems -- Waves and Light 1. 1974-3 (Geometric Optics) An object 1.0 cm high is placed 4 cm away from a converging lens having a focal length of 3 cm. a. Sketch a principal ray diagram for
THE TELESCOPE OBJECTIVE: As seen with the naked eye the heavens are a wonderfully fascinating place. With a little careful watching the brighter stars can be grouped into constellations and an order seen
At this point, you know lots about mirrors and lenses and can predict how they interact with light from objects to form images for observers. In the next part of the course, we consider applications of
Telescopes and their configurations Quick review at the GO level Refraction & Reflection Light travels slower in denser material Speed depends on wavelength Image Formation real Focal Length (f) : Distance
Physics 228 Lecture 3 Today: Spherical Mirrors Lenses www.physics.rutgers.edu/ugrad/228 a) Santa as he sees himself in a mirrored sphere. b) Santa as he sees himself in a flat mirror after too much eggnog.
E X P E R I M E N T 12 Mirrors and Lenses Produced by the Physics Staff at Collin College Copyright Collin College Physics Department. All Rights Reserved. University Physics II, Exp 12: Mirrors and Lenses
JPN Pahang Physics Module orm 4 HAPTER 5: LIGHT In each of the following sentences, fill in the bracket the appropriate word or words given below. solid, liquid, gas, vacuum, electromagnetic wave, energy
Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A plane mirror is placed on the level bottom of a swimming pool that holds water (n =
Physics 197 Lab 7: Thin Lenses and Optics Equipment: Item Part # Qty per Team # of Teams Basic Optics Light Source PASCO OS-8517 1 12 12 Power Cord for Light Source 1 12 12 Ray Optics Set (Concave Lens)
EE119 Introduction to Optical Engineering Fall 2009 Final Exam Name: SID: CLOSED BOOK. THREE 8 1/2 X 11 SHEETS OF NOTES, AND SCIENTIFIC POCKET CALCULATOR PERMITTED. TIME ALLOTTED: 180 MINUTES Fundamental
Exam 3 Review Name TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) An electromagnetic wave is a result of electric and magnetic fields acting together. T 1) 2) Electromagnetic
OPTICS DIVISION B School/#: Names: Directions: Fill in your response for each question in the space provided. All questions are worth two points. Multiple Choice (2 points each question) 1. Which of the
Linear Magnification (m) This is the factor by which the size of the object has been magnified by the lens in a direction which is perpendicular to the axis of the lens. Linear magnification can be calculated
General Physics II Exam 3 - Chs. 22 25 - EM Waves & Optics April, 203 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time For full credit, make your work clear. Show formulas used, essential steps, and results with correct units
Introduction to Geometrical Optics Milton Katz State University of New York VfeWorld Scientific «New Jersey London Sine Singapore Hong Kong TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii xiv CHAPTER 1:
ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 85 Intro to CCD Imaging INTRODUCTION TO CCD IMAGING SYNOPSIS: In this lab we will learn about some of the advantages of CCD cameras for use in astronomy and how to process an image.
Physics 3340 Spring 011 Purpose Fourier Optics In this experiment we will show how the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern or spatial Fourier transform of an object can be observed within an optical system.
Name: Class: Date: Exam 4--PHYS 102--S15 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A mirror produces an upright image. The object is 2 cm high; the