# CS 443: Imaging and Multimedia Cameras and Lenses

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1 CS 443: Imaging and Multimedia Cameras and Lenses Spring 2008 Ahmed Elgammal Dept of Computer Science Rutgers University Outlines Cameras and lenses! 1

2 They are formed by the projection of 3D objects. Figure from US Navy Manual of Basic Optics and Optical Instruments, prepared by Bureau of Naval Personnel. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., Images are two-dimensional patterns of brightness values. 2

3 Reproduced by permission, the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. A.L. Nowicki, Stereoscopy. Manual of Photogrammetry, Thompson, Radlinski, and Speert (eds.), third edition, Figure from US Navy Manual of Basic Optics and Optical Instruments, prepared by Bureau of Naval Personnel. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., Animal eye: a looonnng time ago. Photographic camera: Niepce, Pinhole perspective projection: Brunelleschi, XV th Century. Camera obscura: XVI th Century. Lensless imaging systems - pinhole optics Pinhole optics focuses images without lens with infinite depth of field Smaller the pinhole better the focus less the light energy from any single point 3

4 Pinhole cameras Abstract camera model - box with a small hole in it Each point in the image plane collect light from a cone of rays. If the pinhole is reduced to a single point (impossible) exactly one ray would pass through each point. Pinhole Perspective Abstract camera model - box with a small hole in it Assume a single point pinhole: Pinhole (central) perspective projection {Brunellleschi 15 th Century} Extremely simple model for imaging geometry Doesn t strictly apply Mathematically convenient acceptable approximation. Concepts: image plane, virtual image plane Moving the image plane merely scales the image. 4

5 Distant objects are smaller Parallel lines meet 5

6 Diffraction θ = Two disadvantages to pinhole systems light collecting power diffraction Diffraction when light passes through a small aperture it does not travel in a straight line it is scattered in many directions process is called diffraction and is a quantum effect Human vision at high light levels, pupil (aperture) is small and blurring is due to diffraction at low light levels, pupil is open and blurring is due to lens imperfections λ D Diffraction and pinhole optics 6

7 Pinhole too big - many directions are averaged, blurring the image Pinhole too smalldiffraction effects blur the image Generally, pinhole cameras are dark, because a very small set of rays from a particular point hits the screen. 7

8 The reason for lenses Because of pinhole cameras limitations, we do need lenses With a lens, diverging rays from a scene point are converged back to an image point 8

9 Kepler s retinal theory Even though light rays from many surface points hit the same point on the lens, they approach the lens from different directions. Therefore, they are refracted in different directions - separated by the lens Snell s law Willebrord Snellius (Snel) 1621 Descartes law!, Earlier known by Ibn Sahl !, earlier by Ptolemy! If φ is the angle of incidence and φ is the angle of refraction then nsinφ = n sin φ Where n and n are the refractive indices of the two media Refractive index is the ratio of speed of light in a vacuum to speed of light in the medium reflected ray refracted ray φ φ surface normal φ incident ray Refractive indices glass water air mercifully 9

10 Applying Snell s Law twice Pass light into and out of a prism (symmetric piece of glass) By combining many infinitesimally small prisms we form a convex lens that will bring all of the refracted rays incident from a given surface point into coincidence at a point behind the lens If the image or film plane is placed that distance behind the lens, then that point will be in focus If the image plane is in front of or behind that ideal location, the image of that point will be out of focus The structure of eyes -compound eyes Many (small) animals have compound eyes - each photoreceptor has its own lens - images seen by these eyes are equally sharp in all directions - images seen by these eyes are equally bright in all directions when viewing a field of constant brightness -examples: flies and other insects But these eyes do not scale well biologically 10

11 Thin lenses The optical behavior is determined by: optical axis going through the lens center O and perpendicular to the lens center plane the left and right focus (F l and F r ) located a distance f, called the focal length, from the lens center F l f O Thin lens f F r Optical axis Thin lenses The shape of the lens is designed so that all rays parallel to the optical axis on one side are focused by the lens on the other side: Any ray entering the lens parallel to the optical axis on one side goes through the focus on the other side. Any ray entering the lens from the focus on one side, emerges parallel to the optical axis on the other side. F l f O Thin lens f F r Optical axis 11

12 Optical power and accommodation Optical power of a lens - how strongly the lens bends the incoming rays short focal length lens bends rays significantly it images a point source at infinity at distance f behind the lens. The smaller f, the more the rays must be bent to bring them into focus sooner. optical power is 1/f, measured in meters. The unit is called the diopter Human vision: when viewing faraway objects the distance from the lens to the retina is.017m. So the optical power of the eye is 58.8 diopters Accommodation How does the human eye bring nearby points into focus on the retina? by increasing the power of the lens muscles attached to the lens change its shape to change the lens power accommodation: adjusting the focal length of the lens bringing points that are nearby into focus causes faraway points to go out of focus depth-of-field: range of distances in focus Physical cameras - mechanically change the distance between the lens and the image plane 12

13 Accommodation Accommodation sources at > 1 meter are imaged at same distance sources closer than 1 m are imaged at different distances 13

14 Real lenses Thick lenses Lens imperfection Lens imperfections might cause rays not to intersect at a point deviations in shape from the ideal lens material imperfections that might cause the refractive index to vary within the lens Scattering at the lens surface Some light entering the lens system is reflected off each surface it encounters (Fresnel s law gives details) Machines: coat the lens, interior Humans: live with it (various scattering phenomena are visible in the human eye) Geometric aberrations. Chromatic aberrations. 14

15 Spherical Aberration Distortion Spherical aberration 15

16 Complications of color Spectral composition of light Newton s original prism experiment light decomposed into its spectral components Complications of color Why does the prism separate the light into its spectral components? prism bends different wavelengths of light by different amounts refractive index is a function of wavelength shorter wavelengths are refracted more strongly than longer wavelengths Wavelength Color (*) 700 Red 610 Orange 580 Yellow 540 Green 480 Blue 400 Violet * - viewed in isolation Figure from US Navy Manual of Basic Optics and Optical Instruments, prepared by Bureau of Naval Personnel. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc.,

17 Complications of color Chromatic aberration Chromatic aberration The prism effect of focusing different wavelengths of light from the same point source at different distances behind the lens when incident light is a mixture of wavelengths, we can observe a chromatic fringe at edges accommodation can bring any wavelength into good focus, but not all simultaneously human visual system has other mechanisms for reducing chromatic aberration (adapt to it) color cameras have similar problems 17

18 Chromatic abberation Lens systems Aberrations can be minimized by aligning several simple lenses (compound lenses) 18

19 Vignetting Vignetting effect in a two-lens system. The shaded part of the beam never reaches the second lens. Result: brightness drops at image periphery. Sensing Milestones: First Photograph: Niepce 1816 Daguerreotypes (1839) Photographic Film (Eastman, 1889) Cinema (Lumière Brothers, 1895) Color Photography (Lumière Brothers, 1908) Television (Baird, Farnsworth, Zworykin, 1920s) Collection Harlingue-Viollet.. Photographs (Niepce, La Table Servie, 1822) CCD Devices (1970) 19

20 CCD cameras Charge-coupled device CCD Image is read one row at a time This process is repeated several times per second (frame rate) Analog or digital Frame grabber Computer memory Color cameras Two types of color cameras Single CCD array in front of each CCD element is a filter - red, green or blue color values at each pixel are obtained by hardware interpolation subject to artifacts lower intensity quality than a monochromatic camera similar to human vision 3 CCD arrays packed together, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light 20

21 3 CCD cameras Sources Computer Vision a Modern approach: 1.1, 1.2,1.4 Wandell, Foundations of Vision Slides by: D. Berkeley J. L. 21

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