# 4/30/2012. General Class Element 3 Course Presentation. Practical Circuits. Practical Circuits. Subelement G7. 2 Exam Questions, 2 Groups

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1 General Class Element 3 Course Presentation ti ELEMENT 3 SUB ELEMENTS General Licensing Class Subelement G7 2 Exam Questions, 2 Groups G1 Commission s Rules G2 Operating Procedures G3 Radio Wave Propagation G4 Amateur Radio Practices G5 Electrical Principles G6 Circuit Components G7 G8 Signals and Emissions G9 Antennas G0 Electrical and RF Safety 2 A power supply bleeder resistor is a safety feature in that it discharges the filter capacitors. (G7A01) The peak inverse voltage across the rectifiers in a full wave power bridge supply is equal to the normal peak output voltage of the power supply. (G7A03) Notice Waveforms R1 and R2 are bleeder resistors The output of a rectifier connects to a filter made up of capacitors and inductors. Capacitors and inductors are used in a power supply filter network. (G7A02) Full-Wave Bridge Solid State Power Supply with pi network filter and resistive load The peak inverse voltage across the rectifiers in a half wave power supply is two times the normal output voltage of the power supply. (G7A04) 360 degrees is the portion of the AC cycle is converted to DC by a full wave rectifier. (G7A06) 180 degrees is the portion of the AC cycle that is converted to DC by a half wave rectifier. (G7A05) Half-wave rectifier power supply A series of DC pulses at twice the frequency of Full-wave rectifier power supply A series of DC pulses at twice the frequency of the AC input is the output waveform of an unfiltered full wave rectifier connected to a resistive load (G7A07) 1

2 One advantage of a switched mode power supply as compared to a linear power supply is that high frequency operation allows the use of smaller components.(g7a08) Regulated supply showing outputs Symbol 1 in figure G7 1 represents a field effect transistor. (G7A09) Interior view of a switched-mode d power supply: A -bridge rectifier B - Input filter capacitors C - Transformer D - output filter coil E - output filter capacitors Schematic symbol for: Field Effect Transistor. Symbol 5 in figure G7 1 represents a Zener diode. (G7A10) Symbol 2 in figure G7 1 represents an NPN junction transistor. (G7A11) Schematic symbol for: Zener Diode. Schematic symbol for: NPN Junction Transistor Symbol 6 in Figure G7 1 represents a multiplewinding transformer. (G7A12) Symbol 7 in Figure G7 1 represents a tapped inductor. (G7A13) Schematic symbol for: Multiple-winding transformer. Schematic symbol for: Tapped Inductor. 2

3 Complex digital circuitry can often be replaced by a microcontroller. (G7B01) LSI Devices For a two input AND gate, the output is high only when both inputs are high. (G7B03) DVD Recorder Intel 8742 An advantage of using the binary system when processing digital signals is that binary "ones" and "zeros" are easy to represent with an "on" or "off" state. (G7B02) In digital systems, binary numbers are used to write and keep track of the many possible combinations of the two electrical states Truth table for AND Gate For a two input NOR gate, the output is low when either or both inputs are high. (G7B04) Integrated circuits that provide more complex logic functions, such as counters and shift registers, are also available. A 3 bit binary counter has 8 states. (G7B05) There are 8 states in a 3 bit binary counter A shift register is a clocked array of circuits that passes data in steps along the array. (G7B06) Truth table for NOR Gate 4-Bit SIPO Shift Register The basic components of virtually all sine wave oscillators are a filter and an amplifier operating in a feedback loop. (G7B07) To determine the efficiency i of an RF power amplifier, divide the RF output power by the DC input power. (G7B08) Example: Voltage waveforms Sine wave Square wave Triangle wave Sawtooth wave A 100 watt 2 meter power amplifier that draws 10 amperes from a 13.8 Volt Power supply has an efficiency of 72%. Efficiency = 100 watts / (13.8 * 10) Efficiency = 100/138 Efficiency = 72% 3

4 The inductance and capacitance in the tank circuit determines the frequency of an LC oscillator. (G7B09) Linear amplifiers are usually Class A amplifiers. Low distortion is a characteristic of a Class A amplifier. (G7B10) This is because 100 % of the waveform is amplified. They are, therefore, most appropriate for amplifying phone signals. The Class C amplifier is not linear. A Class C power stage is appropriate for amplifying a CW modulated signal. (G7B11) Class C amplifiers have the highest efficiency. (G7B12) Lowest Distortion Inductors (variable) Capacitors Tank Circuits Various Classes of Transistorized Amplifiers Highest Efficiency A filter is used to process signals from the balanced modulator and send them to the mixer in a singlesideband phone transmitter. (G7C01) Filters are also used in amateur radio transmitters. A balanced modulator is the circuit used to combine signals from the carrier oscillator and speech amplifier and send the result to the filter in a typical single sideband sideband phone transmitter. (G7C02) SSB Transmitter Block Diagram Actual circuit it Block diagram A mixer is the circuit used to process signals from the RF amplifier and local l oscillator and send the result to the IF filter in a superheterodyne receiver. (G7C03) A product detector is the circuit is used to combine signals from the IF amplifier and BFO and send the result to the AF amplifier in a singlesideband receiver. (G7C04) IF Amplifier Stages One mixer (single conversion) Single conversion receiver Two mixers (dual conversion) Remember: (a) Product detector is used in AM/SSB and CW. (b) Discriminator is in FM Dual conversion receiver 4

5 An advantage of a transceiver controlled by a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) is that t it provides variable frequency with iththe stability of a crystal oscillator. (G7C05) Digital circuits called a synthesizer control the receive and transmit frequencies. The simplest combination of stages that implement a superheterodyne receiver is HF oscillator, mixer, detector. (G7C07) The impedance of a low pass filter should be about the same as the impedance of the transmission line into which it is inserted. (G7C06) Simple Generic Superheterodyne Receiver A discriminator circuit is used in many FM receivers to convert signals coming from the IF amplifier to audio. (G7C08) FM receivers have different types of circuits than the superheterodyne receivers designed for AM, CW and SSB. Digital Signal Processor filtering is accomplished by converting the signal from analog to digital and using digital processing followed by converting back to analog. (G7C10) Discriminator circuit Frequency to voltage conversion The following is needed for a Digital Signal Processor IF filter. (G7C09) An analog to digital converter A digital processor chip A digital to analog converter All of the choices are correct. Basic Digital Signal Processing (DSP) System The term "software defined radio" (SDR) means a radio in which most major signal processing functions are performed by software. (G7C11) G7A01 What safety feature does a power supply bleeder resistor provide? G7A02 What components are used in a power supply filter network? A. It acts as a fuse for excess voltage B. It discharges the filter capacitors C. It removes shock hazards from the induction coils D. It eliminates ground loop current A. Diodes B. Transformers and transistors C. Quartz crystals D. Capacitors and inductors 5

6 G7A03 What is the peak inverse voltage across the rectifiers in a full wave bridge power supply? G7A04 What is the peak inverse voltage across the rectifier in a half wave power supply? l? A. One quarter the normal output voltage of the power supply B. Half the normal output voltage of the power supply C. Double the normal peak output voltage of the power supply D. Equal to the normal output voltage of the power supply A. One half the normal peak output voltage of the power supply B. One half the normal output voltage of the power supply C. Equal to the normal output voltage of the power supply D. Two times the normal peak output voltage of the power supply G7A05 What portion of the AC cycle is converted to DC by a half wave rectifier? A. 90 degrees B. 180 degrees C. 270 degrees D. 360 degrees G7A06 What portion of the AC cycle is converted to DC by a full wave rectifier? A. 90 degrees B. 180 degrees C. 270 degrees D. 360 degrees G7A07 What is the output waveform of an unfiltered full wave rectifier connected to a resistive load? G7A08 Which of the following is an advantage of a switched mode power supply as compared to a linear power supply? A. A series of DC pulses at twice the frequency of the AC input B. A series of DC pulses at the same frequency as the AC input C. A sine wave at half the frequency of the AC input D. A steady DC voltage A. Faster switching time makes higher output voltage possible B. Fewer circuit components are required C. High frequency operation allows the use of smaller components D. All of these choices are correct 6

7 G7A09 Which symbol in figure G7 1 represents a field effect transistor? A. Symbol 2. B. Symbol 5. C. Symbol 1. D. Symbol 4. G7A10 Which symbol in figure G7 1 represents a Zener diode? A. Symbol 4. B. Symbol 1. C. Symbol 11. D. Symbol 5. G7A11 Which symbol in figure G7 1 represents an NPN junction transistor? t A. Symbol 1. G7A12 A. Symbol 4. Which symbol in figure G7 1 represents a multiple winding transformer? B. Symbol 2. B. Symbol 7. C. Symbol 7. C. Symbol 6. D. Symbol 11. D. Symbol 1. G7A13 Which symbol in figure G7 1 represents a tapped inductor? G7B01 Complex digital circuitry can often be replaced by what type of integrated circuit? A. Symbol 7. B. Symbol 11. C. Symbol 6. D. Symbol 1. A. Microcontroller. B. Charge coupled device. A. Phase detector. B. Window comparator. 7

8 G7B02 Which of the following is an advantage of using the binary system when processing digital signals? G7B03 Which of the following describes the function of a two input AND gate? A. Binary "ones" and "zeros" are easy to represent with an "on" or "off" state B. The binary number system is most accurate C. Binary numbers are more compatible with analog circuitry D. All of these answers are correct A. Output is high h when either or both inputs are low. B. Output is high only when both inputs are high. C. Output is low when either or both inputs are high. D. Output is low only when both inputs are high. Which of the following describes the function of a two input NOR gate? G7B04 A. Output is high when either or both inputs are low. B. Output is high only when both inputs are high. C. Output is low when either or both inputs are high. D. Output is low only when both inputs are high G7B05 A. 3 B. 6 C. 8 D. 16 How many states does a 3 bit binary counter have? G7B06 What is a shift register? A. A clocked array of circuits that passes data in steps along the array B. An array of operational amplifiers used for tri state arithmetic operations C. A digital mixer What are the basic components of virtually all sine wave oscillators? G7B07 A. An amplifier and a divider B. A frequency multiplier and a mixer C. A circulator and a filter operating in a feedback loop D. A filter and an amplifier operating in a feedback loop A. An analog mixer 8

9 G7B08 How is the efficiency of an RF power amplifier determined? G7B09 What determines the frequency of an LC oscillator? A. Divide the DC input power by the DC output power B. Divide the RF output power by the DC input power C. Multiply the RF input power by the reciprocal of the RF output power D. Add the RF input power to the DC output power A. The number of stages in the counter B. The number of stages in the divider C. The inductance and capacitance in the tank circuit D. The time delay of the lag circuit G7B10 Which of the following is a characteristic i of a Class A amplifier? A. Low standby power B. High Efficiency C. No need for bias D. Low distortion For which of the following modes is a Class C power stage appropriate p for amplifying i a modulated d signal? G7B11 A. SSB B. CW C. AM D. All of these answers are correct G7B12 Which of these classes of amplifiers has the highest efficiency? G7B13 What is the reason for neutralizing the final amplifier stage of a transmitter? A. Class A. A. To limit the modulation index B. Class B. B. To eliminate self oscillations C. Class AB. C. To cut off the final amplifier during standby periods D. Class C. D. To keep the carrier on frequency 9

10 G7B14 Which of the following describes a linear amplifier? G7C01 Which of the following is used to process signals from the balanced modulator and send them to the mixer in a single sideband phone transmitter? A. Any RF power amplifier used in conjunction with an amateur transceiver B. An amplifier whose output preserves the input waveform C. A Class C high efficiency amplifier D. An amplifier used as a frequency multiplier A. Carrier oscillator B. Filter C. IF amplifier D. RF amplifier G7C02 Which circuit is used to combine signals from the carrier oscillator and speech amplifier and send the result to the filter in a typical single sideband id d phone transmitter? A. Mixer B. Detector C. IF amplifier D. Balanced modulator G7C03 What circuit is used to process signals from the RF amplifier and local oscillator and send the result to the IF filter in a superheterodyne receiver? A. Balanced modulator B. IF amplifier C. Mixer D. Detector G7C04 A. RF oscillator B. IF filter What circuit is used to combine signals from the IF amplifier and BFO and send the result to the AF amplifier in a single sideband receiver? C. Balanced modulator D. Product detector G7C05 Which of the following is an advantage of a transceiver controlled by a direct digital it synthesizer (DDS)? A. Wide tuning range and no need for band switching. B. Relatively l high h power output. t C. Relatively low power consumption. D. Variable frequency with the stability of a crystal oscillator. 10

11 G7C06 What should be the impedance of a low pass filter as compared to the impedance of the transmission line into which it is inserted? G7C07 What is the simplest combination of stages that implement a superheterodyne receiver? A. Substantially higher B. About the same C. Substantially lower D. Twice the transmission line impedance A. RF amplifier, detector, audio amplifier B. RF amplifier, mixer, discriminator C. HF oscillator, mixer, detector D. HF oscillator, pre scaler, audio amplifier G7C08 What type of circuit is used in many FM receivers to convert signals coming from the IF amplifier to audio? G7C09 Which of the following is needed for a Digital Signal Processor IF filter? A. Product detector B. Phase inverter C. Mixer D. Discriminator A. An analog to digital converter B. A digital to analog converter C. A digital processor chip D. All of the these answers are correct G7C10 How is Digital Signal Processor filtering i accomplished? What is meant by the term software defined radio (SDR)? G7C11 A. By using direct signal phasing B. By converting the signal from analog to digital and using digital processing C. By differential spurious phasing. D. By converting the signal from digital to analog and taking the difference of mixing products A. A radio in which h most major signal processing functions are performed by software. B. A radio which provides computer interface for automatic logging of band and frequency. C. A radio which uses crystal filters designed using software. D. A computer model which can simulate performance of a radio to aid in the design process. 11

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