General Licensing Class Circuits


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1 General Licensing Class Circuits Valid July 1, 2011 Through June 30,
2 Amateur Radio General Class Element 3 Course Presentation ELEMENT 3 SUBELEMENTS (Groupings) Your Passing CSCE Your New General Bands FCC Rules Be a VE! Voice Operation CW Lives! Digital Operating In an Emergency Skywave Excitement! 2
3 Amateur Radio General Class Element 3 Course Presentation ELEMENT 3 SUBELEMENTS (Groupings) Your HF Transmitter Your Receiver Oscillators & Components Electrical Principles Circuits Good Grounds HF Antennas Coax Cable RF & Electrical Safety 3
4 Circuits G7A9 Symbol 1 is the Field Effect Transistor. Notice the arrow is NOT POINTING IN, so this is an N Channel FET. 4
5 Circuits G7A10 Symbol 5 is the Zener diode, used for voltage regulation. 5
6 Circuits G7A11 See the transistor all the way to the right, symbol 2? Again, the arrow is NOT POINTING IN so it is an NPN junction transistor. 6
7 Circuits G7A12 It s easy to spot the transformer we find it at symbol 6, and the 2 vertical lines may indicate an iron core. 7
8 Circuits G7A13 This is what gives away the Hartley oscillator; symbol 7, the tapped inductor. This provides us with the feedback necessary to keep the oscillator oscillating! G5C4 If we have three equal value resistors in parallel, we will have three individual paths for current to flow, decreasing each like resistor s ohmic resistance by 1/3. You can do this one in your head: 1/3 the resistance of each 100 ohm resistor is 33.3 ohms. If you want to do it the long way, here is the formula: G6A6 Heating a resistor always decreases its resistance. The amount of change for any particular temperature change depends on the resistor s temperature coefficient, which depends on the materials used in the resistor s construction. 8
9 Circuits G6A8 When you earn your new General license, you may hook up with another station thousands of miles away who will ask you what the weather is. Likely you have one of those new wireless weather stations, and the temperature sensor uses a component called a thermistor. The thermistor is a resistor that is designed to maximize changes in value with temperature variations. This makes it a great reference for slight changes in temperature. G5C10 Treat inductors like resistors when working an either series or parallel problem. This one you can do in your head. Three 10 millihenry inductors in parallel, total inductance will be 1/3 or 3.3 millihenrys when connected in parallel. G5B2 If you add up the current in each branch of a parallel circuit, you will come up with the total current in the circuit. 9
10 Circuits G5C5 If we have three like resistors in parallel that together produce 50 ohms of resistance, each individual resistor would have a value of 150 ohms ( ). Now check your answer if we have three 150 ohm resistors in series, the total resistance adds up to 450 ohms. G5C15 While you can solve this problem with a big formula, always remember that with unlike resistors in parallel, just like unlike capacitors in series, the resulting answer will always be less than the smallest value component. 5.9 ohms is a logical answer to solve for when you work the big long formula all the way out. G5C3 Another easy one here to add more resistance to a circuit, we add resistor(s) in series. G5C8 Calculating total capacitance in parallel is easy it is the sum of each individual capacitor (remember they say two) = picofarads. Capacitors in parallel simply add up. The formula is: CT = C1 + C2 + C3. 10
11 Circuits G5C9 We have three like capacitors in series since they are in series, like resistors in parallel, total capacitance will be 1/3 of each 100 microfarad cap microfarads is an answer you can do in your head! The formula is: CT = 1 (1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3.) G5C11 Easy one. Just like resistors add up in series, so do inductors = 70 millihenrys. G5C12 Calculating for total capacitance of unlike capacitors in series is much like the formula for calculating unlike resistors in parallel: (C1 x C2) (C1 + C2). In this equation, the total capacitance will always be less than the smaller capacitor, so 14.3 microfarads can be confirmed as the correct answer. G5C13 If we need to add some additional capacitance to a circuit which already has a fixed capacitor, we would add a second capacitor in PARALLEL. 11
12 Circuits G5C14 If we need to increase the inductance (L) of a circuit, we would simply add another inductor in SERIES. G5A2 Inductive reactance is the opposition to AC caused by inductors. Capacitive reactance is the opposition to AC caused by capacitors. Both reactances vary with frequency. When there is an inductor and a capacitor in the same circuit, there is a special frequency, called the resonant frequency, where the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance. G5A3 Think of an inductor as a coil of wire. Its opposition to AC is called inductive reactance, identified as XL. XL = 2 fl where f is the frequency in hertz and L is the inductance in henries. XL increases as frequency increases. G5A9 The ohm is the unit of measurement for reactance as well as resistance. 12
13 Circuits G5A4 A capacitor has plates separated by an insulating dielectric. Its opposition to AC is called capacitive reactance, identified as XC. XC =1/2 fc where f is the frequency in hertz and C is the capacitance in farads. XC decreases as frequency increases. G5A6 Capacitors offer reactance to AC inversely proportional to the frequency. Capacitors have high reactance at low frequencies and low reactance at high frequencies. Remember, as f increases, XC decreases (XC =1 2 fc). G5A5 Inductors (coils) are effective in reducing alternator whine in highfrequency mobile installations. The higher the alternator whine frequency, the greater the reactance from the inductor. Remember, as f increases, XL increases (XL = 2 fl). 13
14 Circuits G5A1 The term impedance means the opposition to the flow of alternating current in a circuit. Impedance to AC can be made up of resistance only, reactance only, or both resistance and reactance. You can create impedance to AC by winding a wire around a pencil to create a coil. This handy choke might minimize the alternator whine that may come in on your new worldwide mobile highfrequency station temporarily mounted in your vehicle. G5A10 The ohm is also used for measuring impedance. Thus, the ohm may mean impedance, reactance, or resistance. G5A11 Two AC circuits might be impedance matched by using coils and capacitors (LC) between the two circuits. G5A12 When impedances are matched, we will have the greatest amount of power transfer. An impedance matching transformer allows us to precisely match radio stages for the maximum transfer of power. 14
15 Circuits G5A8 When internal source and load impedances are matched, maximum power will be delivered to the load. Most new ham HF radios will automatically reduce power output when there is an impedance mismatch. G5A13 There are plenty of ways we can match impedances at radio frequencies. Up at the antenna, we sometimes will use fractional wavelength impedancematching transmission lines. In a radio RF output stage, we might use an impedancematching Pinetwork. And within the radio, small transformers will allow us to impedance match. All of these are great ways for providing the maximum transfer of radio frequency energy. G5A7 Always make sure your new General Class worldwide antenna systems have an impedance around 50 ohms for maximum power transfer. Some General Class ham transceivers have builtin, automatic impedancematching antenna tuner networks. 15
16 Circuits G5C6 As we discussed earlier, impedances should always be the same for maximum transfer of power. Therefore, you want the lowpass filter to have the same impedance as both the transmission line and the ham transceiver to which it is connected. G6A5 As a Technician Class operator preparing for your General Class ticket, you probably had a chance to look at VHF/UHF equipment circuit boards. Pieces of art, right? These rigs use SMT (surface mount technology) that places components directly on the board to minimize lead inductance. Conventional capacitors with long lead connection wires have reduced effective capacitance. 16
17 Circuits G6A7 If you were able to scrape off the brown glaze coating on a wirewound resistor, you would quickly see it looks exactly like a coil with evenly spaced turns. Actually, it IS an inductor and would not be suitable in any circuit that could be detuned accidentally through the use of the wrong component. Normally, we find wirewound resistors in simple DC applications where we need to drop a small amount of voltage with relatively high current being passed. G6A3 The ceramic capacitor is the workhorse in ham radio equipment. Their reliability is very good, and their comparatively low cost helps to keep ham radio equipment reasonably priced. 17
18 Circuits G6A9 When you pass this test and earn General Class privileges, you may begin to operate High Frequency PORTABLE. A couple of rigs actually have batteries on the inside! With any portable transceiver, including VHF/UHF handhelds, make sure they never get dropped! Dropping radio equipment can fracture the brittle iron cores within a toroidal inductor, which fractures easily. The ferrite core within a toroidal inductor offers large values of inductance, with most of the magnetic field contained within the core so it does not affect other nearby components. The toroidal inductor may be used in applications where core saturation is desirable, so all of the answer choices to this question are correct. G6A10 Solenoid inductors will interact if they are placed side by side, due to mutual inductance. To minimize this, 2 solenoid inductors should be placed at right angles to their winding axes to minimize unwanted mutual inductance. Just think of how a transformer winding FAVORS mutual inductance, but in this case, at right 18 angles will MINIMIZE the effect.
19 Circuits G6A11 If you have ever opened up your radio for a close look at all of the gizmos inside, you probably spotted several copper wire coils near the antenna output jack. Notice that none of these coils are parallel to each other. And the same thing for any coils deep within the receiver or transmitter RF sections of your radio most coils are at right angles to each other to eliminate stray coupling between the RF stages, or are placed in small cans to minimize mutual inductance. G6A13 An inductor may be a small coil of wire and, in addition to offering a specific value of inductance, it may inadvertently offer interturn capacitance at some frequencies. This could cause the coil to become selfresonant, because we have now created both inductance and capacitance within a single component. G5C1 Think of a transformer with interlaced coils. Through mutual inductance within the transformer, voltage applied to the primary will also appear across the secondary. Mutual inductance. 19
20 Circuits G5C2 We normally hook the source of energy to the primary winding of a transformer. G5C6 This is a turns ratio problem, and is relatively easy to solve using the following equation: Es = Ep X (Ns / Np) = (Ep X Ns) / Np which means the voltage of the secondary is equal to the voltage of the primary times the number of turns of the secondary divided by the number of turns of the primary. It is derived from the equation that says that the ratio of the secondary voltage, ES, to the primary voltage, Ep, is equal to the ratio of the turns on the secondary, NS, to the turns on the primary, Np. Es / Ep = Ns / Np Multiply 120 (EP) times 500 (NS), and then divide your answer by This gives you 26.7 volts. Calculator keystrokes are: Clear, 120 x = and the answer is 26.7 volts. 20
21 Circuits G5C7 The equation that applies is: Np / Ns = qzp / Zs The ratio of the turns on the primary, NP, to the turns on the secondary, NS, is equal to the square root of the ratio of the primary impedance, ZP, to the secondary impedance, ZS. Remember that this turns ratio is primary to secondary. Don t worry if you have forgotten about square roots. There s an easy way to solve the problem. The primary impedance, ZP, of the transformer must match the 600ohms output impedance of the amplifier; therefore, ZP is 600 ohms. Divide 600 ohms by 4 ohms, the speaker load impedance on the secondary, and you end up with 150. Cont. 21
22 Circuits Cont. Now you need to find the square root of 150. You know that a square root multiplied by itself gives you the number you want. You can do it by approximation. Since 12 x 12 = 144 and 13 x 13 = 169, you know that the square root of 150 is between 12 and 13. The only answer given that is close is Choose it and you have the correct answer. See, you didn t have to remember how to do square roots. The calculator keystrokes are: Clear, x 150, then press the square root key to produce the answer,
23 Element 3 General Class Question Pool Circuits Valid July 1, 2011 Through June 30,
24 G7A09 Which symbol in figure G71 represents a field effect transistor? A. Symbol 2. B. Symbol 5. C. Symbol 1. D. Symbol 4. 24
25 G7A10 Which symbol in figure G71 represents a Zener diode? A. Symbol 4. B. Symbol 1. C. Symbol 11. D. Symbol 5. 25
26 G7A11 Which symbol in figure G71 represents an NPN junction transistor? A. Symbol 1. B. Symbol 2. C. Symbol 7. D. Symbol
27 G7A12 Which symbol in Figure G71 represents a multiplewinding transformer? A. Symbol 4. B. Symbol 7. C. Symbol 6. D. Symbol 1. 27
28 G7A13 Which symbol in Figure G71 represents a tapped inductor? A. Symbol 7. B. Symbol 11. C. Symbol 6. D. Symbol 1. 28
29 G5C04 What is the total resistance of three 100 ohm resistors in parallel? A ohms. B ohms. C ohms. D. 300 ohms. 29
30 G6A06 What will happen to the resistance if the temperature of a resistor is increased? A. It will change depending on the resistor s reactance coefficient. B. It will stay the same. C. It will change depending on the resistor s temperature coefficient. D. It will become time dependent. 30
31 G6A08 Which of the following describes a thermistor? A. A resistor that is resistant to changes in value with temperature variations. B. A device having a specific change in resistance with temperature variations. C. A special type of transistor for use at very cold temperatures. D. A capacitor that changes value with temperature. 31
32 G5C10 What is the inductance of three 10 millihenry inductors connected in parallel? A Henrys. B. 3.3 Henrys. C. 3.3 millihenrys. D. 30 millihenrys. 32
33 G5B02 How does the total current relate to the individual currents in each branch of a parallel circuit? A. It equals the average of each branch current. B. It decreases as more parallel branches are added to the circuit. C. It equals the sum of the currents through each branch. D. It is the sum of the reciprocal of each individual voltage drop. 33
34 G5C05 If three equal value resistors in parallel produce 50 ohms of resistance, and the same three resistors in series produce 450 ohms, what is the value of each resistor? A ohms. B. 90 ohms. C. 150 ohms. D. 175 ohms. 34
35 G5C15 What is the total resistance of a 10 ohm, a 20 ohm, and a 50 ohm resistor in parallel? A. 5.9 ohms. B ohms. C ohms. D. 80 ohms. 35
36 G5C03 Which of the following components should be added to an existing resistor to increase the resistance? A. A resistor in parallel. B. A resistor in series. C. A capacitor in series. D. A capacitor in parallel. 36
37 G5C08 What is the equivalent capacitance of two 5000 picofarad capacitors and one 750 picofarad capacitor connected in parallel? A picofarads. B picofarads. C picofarads. D picofarads. 37
38 G5C09 What is the capacitance of three 100 microfarad capacitors connected in series? A microfarads. B microfarads. C microfarads. D. 300 microfarads. 38
39 G5C11 What is the inductance of a 20 millihenry inductor in series with a 50 millihenry inductor? A millihenrys. B millihenrys. C. 70 millihenrys. D millihenrys. 39
40 G5C12 What is the capacitance of a 20 microfarad capacitor in series with a 50 microfarad capacitor? A microfarads. B microfarads. C. 70 microfarads. D microfarads. 40
41 G5C13 Which of the following components should be added to a capacitor to increase the capacitance? A. An inductor in series. B. A resistor in series. C. A capacitor in parallel. D. A capacitor in series. 41
42 G5C14 Which of the following components should be added to an inductor to increase the inductance? A. A capacitor in series. B. A resistor in parallel. C. An inductor in parallel. D. An inductor in series. 42
43 G5A02 What is reactance? A. Opposition to the flow of direct current caused by resistance. B. Opposition to the flow of alternating current caused by capacitance or inductance. C. A property of ideal resistors in AC circuits. D. A large spark produced at switch contacts when an inductor is deenergized. 43
44 G5A03 Which of the following causes opposition to the flow of alternating current in an inductor? A. Conductance. B. Reluctance. C. Admittance. D. Reactance. 44
45 G5A09 What unit is used to measure reactance? A. Farad. B. Ohm. C. Ampere. D. Siemens. 45
46 G5A04 Which of the following causes opposition to the flow of alternating current in a capacitor? A. Conductance. B. Reluctance. C. Reactance. D. Admittance. 46
47 G5A06 How does a capacitor react to AC? A. As the frequency of the applied AC increases, the reactance decreases. B. As the frequency of the applied AC increases, the reactance increases. C. As the amplitude of the applied AC increases, the reactance increases. D. As the amplitude of the applied AC increases, the reactance decreases. 47
48 G5A05 How does an inductor react to AC? A. As the frequency of the applied AC increases, the reactance decreases. B. As the amplitude of the applied AC increases, the reactance increases. C. As the amplitude of the applied AC increases, the reactance decreases. D. As the frequency of the applied AC increases, the reactance increases. 48
49 G5A01 What is impedance? A. The electric charge stored by a capacitor. B. The inverse of resistance. C. The opposition to the flow of current in an AC circuit. D. The force of repulsion between two similar electric fields. 49
50 G5A10 What unit is used to measure impedance? A. Volt. B. Ohm. C. Ampere. D. Watt. 50
51 G5A11 Which of the following describes one method of impedance matching between two AC circuits? A. Insert an LC network between the two circuits. B. Reduce the power output of the first circuit. C. Increase the power output of the first circuit. D. Insert a circulator between the two circuits. 51
52 G5A12 What is one reason to use an impedance matching transformer? A. To minimize transmitter power output. B. To maximize the transfer of power. C. To reduce power supply ripple. D. To minimize radiation resistance. 52
53 G5A08 Why is impedance matching important? A. So the source can deliver maximum power to the load. B. So the load will draw minimum power from the source. C. To ensure that there is less resistance than reactance in the circuit. D. To ensure that the resistance and reactance in the circuit are equal. 53
54 G5A13 Which of the following devices can be used for impedance matching at radio frequencies? A. A transformer. B. A Pinetwork. C. A length of transmission line. D. All of these choices are correct. 54
55 G5A07 What happens when the impedance of an electrical load is equal to the internal impedance of the power source? A. The source delivers minimum power to the load. B. The electrical load is shorted. C. No current can flow through the circuit. D. The source can deliver maximum power to the load. 55
56 G7C06 What should be the impedance of a lowpass filter as compared to the impedance of the transmission line into which it is inserted? A. Substantially higher. B. About the same. C. Substantially lower. D. Twice the transmission line impedance. 56
57 G6A05 Which of the following is one effect of lead inductance in a capacitor used at VHF and above? A. Effective capacitance may be reduced. B. Voltage rating may be reduced. C. ESR may be reduced. D. The polarity of the capacitor might become reversed. 57
58 G6A07 Which of the following is a reason not to use wirewound resistors in an RF circuit? A. The resistor s tolerance value would not be adequate for such a circuit. B. The resistor s inductance could make circuit performance unpredictable. C. The resistor could overheat. D. The resistor s internal capacitance would detune the circuit. 58
59 G6A03 Which of the following is an advantage of ceramic capacitors as compared to other types of capacitors? A. Tight tolerance. B. High stability. C. High capacitance for given volume. D. Comparatively low cost. 59
60 G6A09 What is an advantage of using a ferrite core toroidal inductor? A. Large values of inductance may be obtained. B. The magnetic properties of the core may be optimized for a specific range of frequencies. C. Most of the magnetic field is contained in the core. D. All of these choices are correct. 60
61 G6A10 How should the winding axes of solenoid inductors be placed to minimize their mutual inductance? A. In line. B. Parallel to each other. C. At right angles. D. Interleaved. 61
62 G6A11 Why would it be important to minimize the mutual inductance between two inductors? A. To increase the energy transfer between circuits. B. To reduce unwanted coupling between circuits. C. To reduce conducted emissions. D. To increase the selfresonant frequency of the inductors. 62
63 G6A13 What is an effect of interturn capacitance in an inductor? A. The magnetic field may become inverted. B. The inductor may become self resonant at some frequencies. C. The permeability will increase. D. The voltage rating may be exceeded. 63
64 G5C01 What causes a voltage to appear across the secondary winding of a transformer when an AC voltage source is connected across its primary winding? A. Capacitive coupling. B. Displacement current coupling. C. Mutual inductance. D. Mutual capacitance. 64
65 G5C02 Which part of a transformer is normally connected to the incoming source of energy? A. The secondary. B. The primary. C. The core. D. The plates. 65
66 G5C06 What is the RMS voltage across a 500turn secondary winding in a transformer if the turn primary is connected to 120 VAC? A volts. B. 540 volts. C volts. D. 5.9 volts. 66
67 G5C07 What is the turns ratio of a transformer used to match an audio amplifier having a 600ohm output impedance to a speaker having a 4ohm impedance? A to 1. B to 1. C. 150 to 1. D. 300 to 1. 67
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