NOTE: Some nouns may be both COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE but the meaning changes

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1 GRAMMAR 8 > PAGE 1 OF 5 COUNTABLE A / an + singular noun an apple, a job, a man Can be made plural apples, jobs, men Use some / any + plural some answers, any ideas Few, many with plurals few people, many weeks UNCOUNTABLE Do not use a / an an advice, a music Cannot be plural advice advices, music musics Use verbs in singular The countryside is beautiful. Little, much little money, much homework Express a quantity a piece of news, lots of stuff NOTE: Some nouns may be both COUNTABLE and UNCOUNTABLE but the meaning changes IRON, GLASS, PAPER, LIGHT, SPACE, The windows in this lecture hall are glass. (material) I would like a glass of water please. (container) It s bright in here because of the light. (substance) Switch off the lights when you leave. (physical thing) COFFEE, WATER, SUGAR, I like coffee but only if it has sugar in it. (substance) Can we have 2 coffees with 2 sugars each. (quantity) So, do you mean two sachets of sugar in each cup of coffee? (container) CONTAINERS + QUANTITIES make uncountables countable No singular form > cannot use with a / an > plural verb Your jeans are filthy! Put on a pair of clean trousers! Take all of your belongings with you as you leave the plane. Remember your manners when visiting foreign countries like japan. Refer to a group of people > plural verb Our staff are highly motivated and efficient! The police have such a difficult job to do these days. MANY + MUCH, FEW / A FEW + LITTLE / A LITTLE Use many and few with countable nouns: Use much and little with uncountable nouns: many friends / many people / few cars / few countries much time / much effort / little energy / little money We normally use many in positive sentences.a lot (of) is also very common in spoken English:

2 A lot of people drive too fast. / Many people drive too fast. SNC GRAMMAR 8 > PAGE 2 OF 5 Much is unusual in positive sentences in spoken English: We spent a lot of money. He goes out a lot. > not 'We spent much money'. > not 'He goes out much'. We also usually use too much and so much in positive sentences: We spent too much money. / We had so much fun. We use much / many especially in negative sentences and questions. A lot (of) is also possible: We didn't spend much money. > or, We didn't spend a lot of money.) Do you know many people? > or, Do you know a lot of people?) I don't go out much. > or, I don't go out a lot.) SO, SUCH, SUCH A / AN > mean very, extremely You are so considerate. I had such a good time. SO, SUCH, SUCH A / AN > cause and effect He was running so late that he missed the bus. She did such good research that she was promoted. SO + ADJECTIVE / ADVERB (+ THAT) He knows English so well that he is likely to be a journalist. His comment was so stupid! SUCH + ADJ + UNCOUNTABLE NOUN / PLURAL NOUN (+ THAT) She has such kind manners. Japan has such spectacular scenery that we re going to visit it next year. SO + MUCH / MANY / FEW / LITTLE + NOUN (+ THAT) We had so little money after the first week of the holiday that we had to get by on rice! They make so many mistakes when they speak English. SUCH A / AN + ADJECTIVE + SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN + (THAT) Why did you buy such an unusual car? It was such a glorious day that we went for a walk. SUCH A LOT OF Mark has got such a lot of work to do that he gets very little sleep. TOO = MORE THAN IS NEEDED OR WANTED ENOUGH = AS MUCH AS IS NECESSARY / NEEDED

3 GRAMMAR 8 > PAGE 3 OF 5 TOO + ADJECTIVE (+ NOUN) + (FOR SOMEBODY) (+ INFINITIVE) You are too young to drink. TOO + ADVERB + (FOR SOMEBODY) (+ INFINITIVE) You are driving too dangerously! Please slow down! TOO + MUCH / MANY + NOUN (FOR SOMEBODY) (+ INFINITIVE) It s too much food to eat. I have too many things to do! ADJECTIVE / ADVERB + ENOUGH + (FOR SOMEBODY) (+ INFINITIVE) Your car isn t safe enough for us to drive in. You don t drive safely enough. ENOUGH + NOUN + (FOR SOMEBODY) (+ INFINITIVE) Have you done enough study to pass the exam? I don t have enough coins for all of us to have a cup of coffee. A LITTLE and A FEW express positive ideas. A little = some, a small amount: Let's get a drink. We've got a little time before the train leaves. (a little = some time, enough time for a drink) 'Do you speak English? 'A little.' (a little = so we can talk a bit) A few = some, a small number: I enjoy my life. I have a few friends who I meet quite often. (a few = not many but enough for a good time) 'When did you last see Clare? 'A few days ago.' (a few = some days ago) He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him. He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him. She's lucky. She has few problems. (= not many problems) Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems) Little and few (without 'a') are negative ideas We must be quick. There is little time. He isn't popular. He has few friends. = Not much / not many = Not much, not enough = Not many, not enough You can say very little and very few: There is very little time. He has very few friends.

4 GRAMMAR 8 > PAGE 4 OF 5 Choose the correct options 1. - / The weather was terrible but at least there was not much / many traffic. 2. I have some advice / advises for you: Do your homework / homeworks every day / days. 3. There is so much / many to do and so little / few time. 4. He has been so / such / such a stupid!! 5. Only a few / few students will probably fail the exam. 6. I ve been to very much / much / very many / many parties but I had so / such / such a fun at Max s yesterday. Complete with the correct option: so, such, such a, such an 1. I always enjoy going to my grandma s for Sunday lunch. She makes lovely food. 2. There are many innovative restaurants in town. It s difficult choice. 3. I don t think having take away is good idea. You have worked hard exercising. 4. Italian cuisine is delicious, yet simple. 5. I ve got little patience that I need to really control my temper. 6. It was interesting conversation that we spent long talking! Complete with the correct option: too, too many, too much, enough 1. School meals typically contain unhealthy dishes and not fresh food alternatives. 2. Parents today don t spend time with their children as they have work to do. 3. I speak quickly and make far mistakes. 4. I think I have time to do some extra study before bedtime. 5. My garden is small to think about getting a dog. 6. money is not! Complete with the correct option: too, too many, too much, enough, not enough 1. I have water left. there's enough to share. 2. I have good friends. i'm not lonely. 3. He has education. he can't read or write and he can hardly count. 4. There are people she really trusts. it's a bit sad. 5. We have time later if you want to meet. 6. Jo gave us apples from his garden to share. 7. She has self-confidence. she has a lot of trouble talking to new people. 8. There are women politicians in the UK. Many people think there should be more. 9. It's a great pity, but that hospital has medicine. They can't help many people. 10. I've got cakes to give away. Would you like one?

5 GRAMMAR 8 > PAGE 5 OF There's milk left in the fridge. It should be enough for our coffee. 12. It s a pity but children go on to uni. 13. Do you need info on English grammar? I have books if you d like to borrow them. 14. She's lucky. She has problems. 15. London has sunshine in the winter. That's why so many British people go away on holiday to sunny places! 16. There's spaghetti left in the cupboard. Shall we eat it tonight? 17. There are programmes on tv that I want to watch. I prefer to download a film or read a book. 18. He has free time. He hardly ever even manages to call his mother! 19. Unfortunately, I have problems at the moment. 20. Are you thirsty? There's juice left in this bottle if you'd like it. SNC

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