# Examples: Experiment Sample space

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1 Intro to Probability: A cynical person once said, The only two sure things are death and taxes. This philosophy no doubt arose because so much in people s lives is affected by chance. From the time a person awakes until he or she goes to bed, that person makes decisions regarding the possible events that are governed at least in part by chance. For example should I carry my umbrella today? Will my car battery last until spring? Should I accept a new job? Probability as a general concept can be defined as the chance of an event occurring. Many people are familiar with probability from observing or playing games of chance, such as card games, slot machines or lotteries. In addition to games of chance, probability theory is used in the fields of insurance, investments, and weather forecasting. A probability experiment is a chance process that leads to welldefined results called outcomes. An outcome is the result of a single trial of a probability experiment. A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment. Examples: Experiment Sample space Toss one coin Head, Tail Roll a die 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Answer true/false True/False Toss two coins head-head, tail-tail, head-tail, tail-head 1

2 Example 1) Find the sample space for the gender of the children if a family has three children. Use B for boy and G for girl. (Hint: 8 outcomes) Vocab: A tree diagram is a device consisting of line segments emanating from a starting point and also from the outcome point. It is used to determine possible outcomes of a probability experiment. An event consists of a set of outcomes of a probability experiment. It can be one outcome or more than one. 2

3 Example 2) A coin is tossed and a die is rolled. Use a tree diagram to find the number of outcomes for the sequence of events. How many outcomes are there for just the coin toss? How many outcomes are there for just the die roll? How many outcomes are there for the sequence of events? This introduces the fundamental counting principle... 3

4 0.4 The Counting Principle The Fundamental Counting Rule In a sequence of n events in which the first one has possibilities and the second event has possibilities and the third has, and so forth, the total number of possibilities of the sequence will be 4

5 Example 3) A paint manufacturer wishes to manufacture several different paints. The categories include Color: Type: Texture: Use: red, blue, white, black, green, brown, yellow latex, oil flat, semi gloss, high gloss outdoor, indoor How many different types of paint can be made if a person can select one color, one type, one texture, and one use? 5

6 Example 4) There are four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Blood can also be Rh+ and Rh-. Finally, a blood donor can be classified as either male or female. How many different ways can a donor have his or her blood labeled? 6

7 Example 5) The digits 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are to be used in a four-digit ID card. How many different cards are possible if repetitions are permitted? How many cards are possible is repetitions are NOT permitted? 7

8 Your turn! 1. Kim won a contest on a radio station. The prize was a restaurant gift certificate and tickets to a sporting event. She can select one of three different restaurants and tickets to a football, baseball, basketball, or hockey game. How many different ways can she select a restaurant followed by a sporting event? 2. Many answering machines allow owners to call home and get their messages by entering a 3-digit code. How many codes are possible? 3. Abby is registering at a Web site. She must select a password containing six digits from 1 to 9 to be able to use the site. How many passwords are allowed if no digit may be used more than once? 8

9 0.5 Permutations and Combinations Two other rules that can be used to determine the total number of possibilities of a sequence of events are the permutation rule and the combination rule. These rules use factorial notation. Recall: 5! = (5)(4)(3)(2)(1) 0! = 1 by definition A permutation is an arrangement of a group of objects or people in which the order of the objects is important. Example 6) Suppose a business owner has a choice of five locations in which to establish her business. She decides to rank each location according to certain criteria such as price of the store, parking facilities, etc. a. How many different ways can she rank the five locations? b. Now, suppose she only wanted to rank the top three. How many different ways can she rank them? These are examples of permutations. 9

10 Permutation Rule The arrangement of n objects in a specific order using r objects at a time is called a permutation of n objects taking r objects at a time. It is written as and the formula is Here's an example: Example 6a. can be written as: Example 6b. can be written as: 10

11 Example 7) A television news director wishes to use three news stories on an evening news show. One story will be the lead story, one will be the second story, and the last will be the closing story. If the director has a total of eight stories to choose from, how many possible ways can the program be set up? Example 8) How many possible ways can a chairperson and an assistant chairperson be selected for a research project if there are seven scientists available? 11

12 Intro to Combinations A combination in an arrangement of a group of objects or people in which the order is not important. Suppose a dress designer wishes to select two colors of material to design a new dress, and she has on hand four colors. How many different possibilities can there be in this situation? This type of problem differs from the previous ones in that order of selection is not important. That is, if the designer selects yellow and red, this is the same selection as red and yellow. This type of selection is called a combination. The difference between a permutation and a combination is that in a combination, the order or arrangement of objects is not important; by contrast, order is important in a permutation. The following example illustrates this difference. Example 9) Given the letters A, B, C, and D, list the permutations and combinations for selecting two letters. These are the listings: Note that in permutations, AB is different from BA. But in combinations, AB is the same as BA, so only AB is listed. Combinations are used when the order or arrangement is not important, as in the selecting process. Suppose a committee of 5 students is to be selected from 25 students. The five selected students represent a combination since it does not matter who is selected first, second, third, etc... 12

13 Combination Rule The number of combinations of r objects selected from n objects is denoted by and is given by the formula Here's an example: How many combinations of 4 objects are there, taken 2 at a time? Notice that the expression for is which is the expression for permutations, with an in the denominator. This divides out the duplicates from the number of permutations, as shown in example 9. For each two letters, there are two permutations but only one combination. Hence, dividing the number of permutations by eliminates the duplicates. 13

14 Example 10) A bicycle shop owner has 12 mountain bicycles in the showroom. The owner wishes to select 5 of them to display at a bicycle show. How many different ways can a group of 5 be selected? Example 11) In a club there are 7 women and 5 men. A committee of 3 women and 2 men is to be chosen. How many different possibilities are there? 14

15 Permutation or Combination? 15

16 Lesson Overview All three are used to determine total number of outcomes. Counting Rule: Permutation Rule: order matters! Combination Rule: order does not matter! 16

17 Your turn! 1. There are 10 finalists in a figure skating competition. How many ways can gold, silver, and bronze medals be awarded? 2. How many different ways can the letters of the word Mississippi be arranged? 3. A group of seven students working on a project needs to choose two students to present the group's report. How many ways can they select the two students? 17

18 4. Jack has a reading list of 12 books. How many ways can he select 9 books from the list to check out from the library? 5. The manager of a softball team has 7 possibly players in mind for the top 4 spots in the lineup. How many ways can she choose the top 4 spots? 18

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