# Exercises Exercises. 1. List all the permutations of {a, b, c}. 2. How many different permutations are there of the set {a, b, c, d, e, f, g}?

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1 Exercises Exercises 1. List all the permutations of {a, b, c}. 2. How many different permutations are there of the set {a, b, c, d, e, f, g}? 3. How many permutations of {a, b, c, d, e, f, g} end with a? 4. Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. a) List all the 3 permutations of S. b) List all the 3 combinations of S. 5. Find the value of each of these quantities. a) P(6, 3) b) P(6, 5) c) P(8, 1) d) P(8, 5) e) P(8, 8) f) P(10, 9) 6. Find the value of each of these quantities. a) C(5, 1) b) C(5, 3) c) C(8, 4) d) C(8, 8)

2 e) C(8, 0) f) C(12, 6) 7. Find the number of 5 permutations of a set with nine elements. 8. In how many different orders can five runners finish a race if no ties are allowed? 9. How many possibilities are there for the win, place, and show (first, second, and third) positions in a horse race with 12 horses if all orders of finish are possible? 10. There are six different candidates for governor of a state. In how many different orders can the names of the candidates be printed on a ballot? 11. How many bit strings of length 10 contain a) exactly four 1s? b) at most four 1s? c) at least four 1s? d) an equal number of 0s and 1s? 12. How many bit strings of length 12 contain a) exactly three 1s? b) at most three 1s? c) at least three 1s? d) an equal number of 0s and 1s? 13. A group contains n men and n women. How many ways are there to arrange these people in a row if the men and women alternate? 14. In how many ways can a set of two positive integers less than 100 be chosen? 15. In how many ways can a set of five letters be selected from the English alphabet? 16. How many subsets with an odd number of elements does a set with 10 elements have?

3 17. How many subsets with more than two elements does a set with 100 elements have? 18. A coin is flipped eight times where each flip comes up either heads or tails. How many possible outcomes a) are there in total? b) contain exactly three heads? c) contain at least three heads? d) contain the same number of heads and tails? 19. A coin is flipped 10 times where each flip comes up either heads or tails. How many possible outcomes a) are there in total? b) contain exactly two heads? c) contain at most three tails? d) contain the same number of heads and tails? 20. How many bit strings of length 10 have a) exactly three 0s? b) more 0s than 1s? c) at least seven 1s? d) at least three 1s? Page How many permutations of the letters ABCDEFG contain a) the string BCD?

4 b) the string CFGA? c) the strings BA and GF? d) the strings ABC and DE? e) the strings ABC and CDE? f) the strings CBA and BED? 22. How many permutations of the letters ABCDEFGH contain a) the string ED? b) the string CDE? c) the strings BA and FGH? d) the strings AB, DE, and GH? e) the strings CAB and BED? f) the strings BCA and ABF? 23. How many ways are there for eight men and five women to stand in a line so that no two women stand next to each other? [Hint: First position the men and then consider possible positions for the women.] 24. How many ways are there for 10 women and six men to stand in a line so that no two men stand next to each other? [Hint: First position the women and then consider possible positions for the men.] 25. One hundred tickets, numbered 1, 2, 3,, 100, are sold to 100 different people for a drawing. Four different prizes are awarded, including a grand prize (a trip to Tahiti). How many ways are there to award the prizes if a) there are no restrictions? b) the person holding ticket 47 wins the grand prize? c) the person holding ticket 47 wins one of the prizes?

5 d) the person holding ticket 47 does not win a prize? e) the people holding tickets 19 and 47 both win prizes? f) the people holding tickets 19, 47, and 73 all win prizes? g) the people holding tickets 19, 47, 73, and 97 all win prizes? h) none of the people holding tickets 19, 47, 73, and 97 wins a prize? i) the grand prize winner is a person holding ticket 19, 47, 73, or 97? j) the people holding tickets 19 and 47 win prizes, but the people holding tickets 73 and 97 do not win prizes? 26. Thirteen people on a softball team show up for a game. a) How many ways are there to choose 10 players to take the field? b) How many ways are there to assign the 10 positions by selecting players from the 13 people who show up? c) Of the 13 people who show up, three are women. How many ways are there to choose 10 players to take the field if at least one of these players must be a woman? 27. A club has 25 members. a) How many ways are there to choose four members of the club to serve on an executive committee? b) How many ways are there to choose a president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer of the club, where no person can hold more than one office? 28. A professor writes 40 discrete mathematics true/false questions. Of the statements in these questions, 17 are true. If the questions can be positioned in any order, how many different answer keys are possible? 29. *How many 4 permutations of the positive integers not exceeding 100 contain three consecutive integers k, k + 1, k + 2, in the correct order

6 a) where these consecutive integers can perhaps be separated by other integers in the permutation? b) where they are in consecutive positions in the permutation? 30. Seven women and nine men are on the faculty in the mathematics department at a school. a) How many ways are there to select a committee of five members of the department if at least one woman must be on the committee? b) How many ways are there to select a committee of five members of the department if at least one woman and at least one man must be on the committee? 31. The English alphabet contains 21 consonants and five vowels. How many strings of six lowercase letters of the English alphabet contain a) exactly one vowel? b) exactly two vowels? c) at least one vowel? d) at least two vowels? 32. How many strings of six lowercase letters from the English alphabet contain a) the letter a? b) the letters a and b? c) the letters a and b in consecutive positions with a preceding b, with all the letters distinct? d) the letters a and b, where a is somewhere to the left of b in the string, with all the letters distinct? 33. Suppose that a department contains 10 men and 15 women. How many ways are there to form a committee with six members if it must have the same number of men and women? 34. Suppose that a department contains 10 men and 15 women. How many ways are there to form a committee with six members if it must have more women than men?

7 35. How many bit strings contain exactly eight 0s and 10 1s if every 0 must be immediately followed by a 1? 36. How many bit strings contain exactly five 0s and 14 1s if every 0 must be immediately followed by two 1s? 37. How many bit strings of length 10 contain at least three 1s and at least three 0s? 38. How many ways are there to select 12 countries in the United Nations to serve on a council if 3 are selected from a block of 45, 4 are selected from a block of 57, and the others are selected from the remaining 69 countries? 39. How many license plates consisting of three letters followed by three digits contain no letter or digit twice? A circular r permutation of n people is a seating of r of these n people around a circular table, where seatings are considered to be the same if they can be obtained from each other by rotating the table. 40. Find the number of circular 3 permutations of 5 people. 41. Find a formula for the number of circular r permutations of n people. 42. Find a formula for the number of ways to seat r of n people around a circular table, where seatings are considered the same if every person has the same two neighbors without regard to which side these neighbors are sitting on. 43. How many ways are there for a horse race with three horses to finish if ties are possible? [Note: Two or three horses may tie.] 44. *How many ways are there for a horse race with four horses to finish if ties are possible? [Note: Any number of the four horses may tie.) 45. *There are six runners in the 100 yard dash. How many ways are there for three medals to be awarded if ties are possible? (The runner or runners who finish with the fastest time receive gold medals, the runner or runners who finish with exactly one runner ahead receive silver medals, and the runner or runners who finish with exactly two runners ahead receive bronze medals.) 46. *This procedure is used to break ties in games in the championship round of the World Cup soccer tournament. Each team selects five players in a prescribed order. Each of these players takes a penalty kick, with a player from the first team followed by a player from the second team and so on, following the order of players specified. If the score is still tied at the end of the 10 penalty kicks, this procedure is repeated. If the score is still tied after 20 penalty kicks, a sudden death shootout occurs, with the first team scoring an unanswered goal victorious. a) How many different scoring scenarios are possible if the game is settled in the first round of 10 penalty kicks, where the round ends once it is impossible for a team to equal the number of goals scored by the other team?

8 b) How many different scoring scenarios for the first and second groups of penalty kicks are possible if the game is settled in the second round of 10 penalty kicks? c) How many scoring scenarios are possible for the full set of penalty kicks if the game is settled with no more than 10 total additional kicks after the two rounds of five kicks for each team?

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