If a regular sixsided die is rolled, the possible outcomes can be listed as {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} there are 6 outcomes.


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1 Section 11.1: The Counting Principle 1. Combinatorics is the study of counting the different outcomes of some task. For example If a coin is flipped, the side facing upward will be a head or a tail the outcomes can be listed as {H, T} there are 2 possible outcomes. If a regular sixsided die is rolled, the possible outcomes can be listed as {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} there are 6 outcomes. 2. List and then count the number of different outcomes that are possible when one letter is chosen from the word Mississippi. 3. In combinatorics, an experiment is an activity with an observable outcome. The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called the sample space of the experiment. Experiment / Sample Space Flipping a Coin / {H, T} Rolling a Die / {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} Choosing a Letter from Mississippi / {M, i, s, p} An event is one or more of the possible outcomes of an experiment. 4. One digit is chosen from the digits 0 through 9. The sample space S is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. List the elements in the following events. (a) The number is odd. (b) The number is divisible by 3. (c) The number is greater than 7. 1
2 5. A singlestage experiment is an experiment for which there is a single outcome. Some experiments have two, three or more stages such experiments are called multistage experiments. 6. Consider the twostage experiment of rolling two dice, one red and one green. How many different outcomes are possible? We can construct the following table to determine the answer. Number of outcomes of the experiment of rolling two dice: How many outcomes are there for the following events: The sum of the pips (dots) on the upward faces is 7. The sum of the pips on the upward faces is 11. The number of pips on the upward faces are equal. 7. A die is tossed and then a coin is flipped. Find the sample space and determine the number of elements in the sample space. 2
3 8. A tree diagram is another way to organize the outcomes of a multistage experiment. To illustrate the method, consider a computer store that offers a threecomponent computer system. the system consists of a central processing unit (CPU), a hard drive, and a monitor. If there are two CPUs, three hard drives and two monitors from which to choose, how many different computer systems are possible? 9. Draw a tree diagram to determine the sample space from Problem 7 above. 3
4 10. For each of the previous problems, the possible outcomes were listed and then counted to determine the number of different outcomes. However, it is not always possible or practical to list and count outcomes. For example, the number of different fivecard poker hands that can be drawn from a standard deck of 52 playing cards is 2,598,960. We can return to our previous examples and determine the possible number of outcomes in a much more mathematical way: Let E be a multistage experiment. If n 1, n 2, n 3,..., n k are the number of possible outcomes of each of the k stages of E, then there are n 1 n 2 n 3 n k possible outcomes for E. 11. Nine runners are entered in a 100meter dash for which a gold, silver, and bronze medal will be awarded for first, second, and third place finishes, respectively. In how many possible ways can the medals be awarded? 4
5 12. Counting WITH and WITHOUT Replacement Consider an experiment in which balls colored red, blue, and green are placed in a box. A person reaches into the box and repeatedly pulls out a colored ball, keeping note of the color picked. The sequence of colors that can result depends on whether or not the balls are returned to the box after each pick. This is referred to as performing the experiment with replacement or without replacement. Consider the following two situations 1. How many fourdigit numbers can be formed from the digits 1 through 9 if not digit can be repeated? 2. How many fourdigit numbers can be formed from the digits 1 through 9 if a digit can be used repeatedly? 13. In how many ways can a mail carrier place three letters in five mailboxes if (a) each box may receive more than one letter? (b) each mailbox may receive no more than one letter? 5
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