7.1 Experiments, Sample Spaces, and Events


 Jerome Fowler
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 7.1 Experiments, Sample Spaces, and Events An experiment is an activity that has observable results. Examples: Tossing a coin, rolling dice, picking marbles out of a jar, etc. The result of an experiment is called an outcome of the experiment. The sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes. It is important to keep in mind what is being observed or recorded in the experiment. Example: Determine the sample space, S, for the following experiments. Flipping a coin and observing whether it lands heads or tails. Rolling a fair die and observing the number that is rolled. Rolling two fair dice and observing the sum of the numbers rolled. An event is a subset of the sample space of an experiment. An elementary (or simple) event is an event that consists of a single outcome. Example: Consider the experiment of rolling two fair dice and observing the numbers that are rolled on each die. The sample space S for this experiment is: S = (1,1), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4), (1,5), (1,6), (2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6), (3,1), (3,2), (3,3), (3,4), (3,5), (3,6), (4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,4), (4,5), (4,6), (5,1), (5,2), (5,3), (5,4), (5,5), (5,6), (6,1), (6,2), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5), (6,6) A shorthand way of working with the outcomes is: The first coordinate of these ordered pairs represents the first die and the second coordinate represents the second die. (3,5) and (5,3) are different outcomes. You can think of one die as red and the other as green. Determine the event E that the sum of the two dice is 6. Determine the event F that a double is rolled or the sum of the dice is less than 5. Determine the event G that a 6 is rolled. Determine the event H that the sum of the two dice is 12. Determine the event K that a 7 is rolled. How many events are there total? How many simple events are there? 1
2 The empty set is called the impossible event. The sample space S is called the certain event, since whatever outcome occurs is guaranteed to be in S. We can have unions, intersections, and complements of events just as before. If E and F are two events of an experiment, then: E F is the set of outcomes that are in E or F, i.e. E F is the event that E OR F (or both) occurs. E c is the set of outcomes that are not in E, i.e. E c is the event that E does NOT occur. E F is the set of outcomes that are in both E and F, i.e. E F is the event that both E AND F occur. If two events CANNOT happen at the same time, then E F =, and these events are said to be mutually exclusive. (The sets E and F are disjoint.) From the dice example above we saw that: E = {(1,5),(2,4),(3,3),(4,2),(5,1)} F = {(1,1),(2,2),(3,3),(4,4),(5,5),(6,6),(1,2),(2,1),(3,2),(2,3)} G = {(1,6),(2,6),(3,6),(4,6),(5,6),(6,6),(6,1),(6,2),(6,3),(6,4),(6,5)} Are E and F mutually exclusive? Are E and G mutually exclusive? Often, tree diagrams can be used to help find the sample space. Example: Suppose I flip a coin twice and record the side that lands up on each toss. Determine the sample space for this experiment. Determine the event E that at least 1 tail is tossed. Determine the event F that exactly 1 head is tossed. Are E and F mutually exclusive? 2
3 A note on decks of cards: A deck of cards consists of 52 cards. There are 13 cards for each of the four suits: clubs, spades, diamonds, and hearts. The 13 cards are numbered 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Jack, Queen, King, Ace. Clubs and spades are black. Diamonds and hearts are red. A face card is a Jack, Queen, or King. (An Ace is NOT considered a face card.) Example: A fair 5sided die is rolled, observing the number rolled, and then a card is selected from a standard deck, observing the color of the card. Determine the sample space for this experiment. Determine the event E that an even number is rolled or a black card is selected. Example: A letter is selected at random from the word MATH, observing if it is a vowel or not, and then a card is randomly selected from a standard deck, observing the suit of the card. What is the sample space for this experiment? Determine the event F that a vowel is not drawn and a black card is selected. Example: An experiment consists of selecting a letter at random from the word MATHEMATICS, observing the letter chosen, rolling a fair 6sided die and observing whether the number rolled is even or odd, and then randomly selecting a marble from a jar containing 3 yellow, 2 green, and 4 white marbles and observing the color of the marble. How many outcomes would be in the sample space for this experiment? List one possible outcome. 3
4 7.2 Definition of Probability Definition: A sample space S in which all outcomes are equally likely is called a uniform sample space. If S is a finite uniform sample space and E is any event, then the probability of E, P(E), is given by: P(E) = Number of ways for E to occur Total number of possible outcomes in S = n(e) n(s) Note: Probabilities will ALWAYS be between 0 and 1, inclusive. The larger the probability, the more likely it is to occur. Example: Suppose a fair die is rolled and the number that lands up is recorded. The sample space for this experiment is S = {1,2,3,4,5,6}. Is this a uniform sample space? What is the probability that an even number is rolled? What is the probability that a number less than 3 is rolled? Example: A card is drawn from a standard deck of cards. What is the probability that: a Jack is drawn? A club? A face card? Example: Consider the experiment of rolling two fair dice and observing the numbers that land up. We already found the sample space. What is the probability that the sum of the dice is more than 10? What is the probability that a 5 is rolled? What is the probability that a double is not rolled? What is the probability that exactly one 4 is rolled or the sum of the dice is 5? 4
5 Example: Consider the composition of a threechild family in which the children were born at different times. Assume that a girl is as likely as a boy at each birth. What is the sample space for this experiment? What is the probability that there is exactly 1 boy in the family? What is the probability that there are at least two boys in the family? Sometimes experiments are run to help estimate the probability of certain events. Probabilities that are based on collected data are called empirical probabilities. If an experiment is performed n times and an event E occurs m times, then the relative frequency of the event E is m n. Example: In a survey conducted to see how long Americans keep their cars, a group of 2000 car owners were asked how long they plan to keep their present cars. The results are: Years Car is Kept, x Respondents 0 x < x < x < x < x < x What is the empirical probability that a randomly selected car owner in America plans to keep his/her car less than 2 years? At least 6 years? The probability distribution for an experiment is a TABLE which gives the probabilities associated with events in the experiment. A probability distribution must satisfy the following properties: The events listed must be mutually exclusive. (If each outcome is listed separately, this will be satisfied.) The sum of the probabilities must be 1. 5
6 Example: SupposeIhave ajar filledwith 4redmarbles, 2bluemarbles, and7whitemarbles. Anexperiment consists of selecting one marble from the jar and observing its color. Find the probability distribution for the color of the marble. What is the probability that the marble is not red? Example: Find the probability distribution for the sum of the dice when two fair 6sided dice are rolled. Example: An unfair 6sided die is rolled over and over and the number rolled each time is recorded. The results are given below. Number Rolled Frequency Find the empirical probability distribution for this data. What is the (empirical) probability that an odd number is rolled? 6
7 7.3 Rules of Probability Rules of Probability: 1. 0 P(E) 1 for any event E in a sample space S. In particular P( ) = 0 and P(S) = If E and F are mutually exclusive events, then P(E F) = P(E)+P(F) 3. Union rule for probability: If E and F are ANY two events (not necessarily mutually exclusive), then P(E F) = P(E)+P(F) P(E F) Note: This formula is consistent with (2) because if two events are mutually exclusive, then E F = and thus P(E F) = P( ) = Complement Principle: P(E c ) = 1 P(E) or P(E) = 1 P(E c ) Example: SupposeyouaregiventhefollowingprobabilitydistributionforasamplespaceS = {s 1,s 2,s 3,s 4,s 5,s 6 } Outcome s 1 s 2 s 3 s 4 s 5 s Probability Supppose E = {s 1,s 4,s 5 }, F = {s 2,s 3 }, and G = {s 2,s 5 }. Fill in the missing probability in the table and then calculate the following. P(E) P(F G) P(E F) P(E c ) P(E G) P(F c G c ) 7
8 Example: Let E and F be two events of an experiment with sample space S. Suppose P(E) = 0.5, P(F) = 0.4, and P(E F) = 0.1. Compute the following. P(F c ) P(E c F) P(E c F c ) P(E c F) Example: If P(E c ) = 0.3 and P(F) = 0.2 with E and F mutually exclusive, what is P(E F c )? Example: Among 400 people surveyed, 250 people said they did not like Pepsi, 300 people said they liked Coke, and 375 liked at least one of the two. Find the probability that a person selected at random does not like Pepsi or does not like Coke. 8
9 Example: An experiment consists of selecting a card at random from a 52card deck. Find the probability that a red face card is drawn. Find the probability that a diamond or a club is drawn. Find the probability that a spade or a queen is drawn. Find the probability that a face card is not drawn. Find the probability that neither a 3 nor a red card is drawn. Example: The table below gives the number of students of each classification who are majoring and not majoring in business in a class of 110 students. Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors Total Business NonBusiness Total A student is randomly selected from this class. What is the probability that... The student is not a junior? The student is an upper classman (junior or senior) nonbusiness major? The student is a business major or a sophomore? The student is a lower classman (freshman or sophomore) or a nonbusiness major? 9
4.1 Sample Spaces and Events
4.1 Sample Spaces and Events An experiment is an activity that has observable results. Examples: Tossing a coin, rolling dice, picking marbles out of a jar, etc. The result of an experiment is called an
More informationChapter 1: Sets and Probability
Chapter 1: Sets and Probability Section 1.31.5 Recap: Sample Spaces and Events An is an activity that has observable results. An is the result of an experiment. Example 1 Examples of experiments: Flipping
More information4.3 Rules of Probability
4.3 Rules of Probability If a probability distribution is not uniform, to find the probability of a given event, add up the probabilities of all the individual outcomes that make up the event. Example:
More informationProbability Rules. 2) The probability, P, of any event ranges from which of the following?
Name: WORKSHEET : Date: Answer the following questions. 1) Probability of event E occurring is... P(E) = Number of ways to get E/Total number of outcomes possible in S, the sample space....if. 2) The probability,
More informationMath Exam 2 Review. NOTE: For reviews of the other sections on Exam 2, refer to the first page of WIR #4 and #5.
Math 166 Spring 2007 c Heather Ramsey Page 1 Math 166  Exam 2 Review NOTE: For reviews of the other sections on Exam 2, refer to the first page of WIR #4 and #5. Section 7.1  Experiments, Sample Spaces,
More informationMath Exam 2 Review. NOTE: For reviews of the other sections on Exam 2, refer to the first page of WIR #4 and #5.
Math 166 Spring 2007 c Heather Ramsey Page 1 Math 166  Exam 2 Review NOTE: For reviews of the other sections on Exam 2, refer to the first page of WIR #4 and #5. Section 7.1  Experiments, Sample Spaces,
More informationMath 1313 Section 6.2 Definition of Probability
Math 1313 Section 6.2 Definition of Probability Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event occurs. For example, if there is a 20% chance of rain tomorrow, that means that the probability
More informationSection Introduction to Sets
Section 1.1  Introduction to Sets Definition: A set is a welldefined collection of objects usually denoted by uppercase letters. Definition: The elements, or members, of a set are denoted by lowercase
More informationIntermediate Math Circles November 1, 2017 Probability I
Intermediate Math Circles November 1, 2017 Probability I Probability is the study of uncertain events or outcomes. Games of chance that involve rolling dice or dealing cards are one obvious area of application.
More informationIf you roll a die, what is the probability you get a four OR a five? What is the General Education Statistics
If you roll a die, what is the probability you get a four OR a five? What is the General Education Statistics probability that you get neither? Class Notes The Addition Rule (for OR events) and Complements
More informationProbability. Ms. Weinstein Probability & Statistics
Probability Ms. Weinstein Probability & Statistics Definitions Sample Space The sample space, S, of a random phenomenon is the set of all possible outcomes. Event An event is a set of outcomes of a random
More informationDefine and Diagram Outcomes (Subsets) of the Sample Space (Universal Set)
12.3 and 12.4 Notes Geometry 1 Diagramming the Sample Space using Venn Diagrams A sample space represents all things that could occur for a given event. In set theory language this would be known as the
More informationProbability: introduction
May 6, 2009 Probability: introduction page 1 Probability: introduction Probability is the part of mathematics that deals with the chance or the likelihood that things will happen The probability of an
More informationExam III Review Problems
c Kathryn Bollinger and Benjamin Aurispa, November 10, 2011 1 Exam III Review Problems Fall 2011 Note: Not every topic is covered in this review. Please also take a look at the previous WeekinReviews
More informationClassical vs. Empirical Probability Activity
Name: Date: Hour : Classical vs. Empirical Probability Activity (100 Formative Points) For this activity, you will be taking part in 5 different probability experiments: Rolling dice, drawing cards, drawing
More informationSection 7.1 Experiments, Sample Spaces, and Events
Section 7.1 Experiments, Sample Spaces, and Events Experiments An experiment is an activity with observable results. 1. Which of the follow are experiments? (a) Going into a room and turning on a light.
More informationI. WHAT IS PROBABILITY?
C HAPTER 3 PROAILITY Random Experiments I. WHAT IS PROAILITY? The weatherman on 10 o clock news program states that there is a 20% chance that it will snow tomorrow, a 65% chance that it will rain and
More information8.2 Union, Intersection, and Complement of Events; Odds
8.2 Union, Intersection, and Complement of Events; Odds Since we defined an event as a subset of a sample space it is natural to consider set operations like union, intersection or complement in the context
More informationCHAPTER 7 Probability
CHAPTER 7 Probability 7.1. Sets A set is a welldefined collection of distinct objects. Welldefined means that we can determine whether an object is an element of a set or not. Distinct means that we can
More informationProbability and Statistics. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Probability and Statistics Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14.2 Probability Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Objectives What Is Probability? Calculating Probability by
More informationSection 7.2 Definition of Probability
Section 7.2 Definition of Probability Question: Suppose we have an experiment that consists of flipping a fair 2sided coin and observing if the coin lands on heads or tails? From section 7.1 weshouldknowthatthereare
More informationKey Concepts. Theoretical Probability. Terminology. Lesson 111
Key Concepts Theoretical Probability Lesson  Objective Teach students the terminology used in probability theory, and how to make calculations pertaining to experiments where all outcomes are equally
More informationAP Statistics Ch InClass Practice (Probability)
AP Statistics Ch 1415 InClass Practice (Probability) #1a) A batter who had failed to get a hit in seven consecutive times at bat then hits a gamewinning home run. When talking to reporters afterward,
More informationMAT104: Fundamentals of Mathematics II Counting Techniques Class Exercises Solutions
MAT104: Fundamentals of Mathematics II Counting Techniques Class Exercises Solutions 1. Appetizers: Salads: Entrées: Desserts: 2. Letters: (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U,
More informationUnit 1 Day 1: Sample Spaces and Subsets. Define: Sample Space. Define: Intersection of two sets (A B) Define: Union of two sets (A B)
Unit 1 Day 1: Sample Spaces and Subsets Students will be able to (SWBAT) describe events as subsets of sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions,
More informationIntroduction to probability
Introduction to probability Suppose an experiment has a finite set X = {x 1,x 2,...,x n } of n possible outcomes. Each time the experiment is performed exactly one on the n outcomes happens. Assign each
More informationChapter 11: Probability and Counting Techniques
Chapter 11: Probability and Counting Techniques Diana Pell Section 11.3: Basic Concepts of Probability Definition 1. A sample space is a set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. Exercise 1. An experiment
More informationUnit 9: Probability Assignments
Unit 9: Probability Assignments #1: Basic Probability In each of exercises 1 & 2, find the probability that the spinner shown would land on (a) red, (b) yellow, (c) blue. 1. 2. Y B B Y B R Y Y B R 3. Suppose
More informationInstructions: Choose the best answer and shade in the corresponding letter on the answer sheet provided. Be sure to include your name and student ID.
Math 3201 Unit 3 Probability Test 1 Unit Test Name: Part 1 Selected Response: Instructions: Choose the best answer and shade in the corresponding letter on the answer sheet provided. Be sure to include
More informationProbability. Dr. Zhang Fordham Univ.
Probability! Dr. Zhang Fordham Univ. 1 Probability: outline Introduction! Experiment, event, sample space! Probability of events! Calculate Probability! Through counting! Sum rule and general sum rule!
More informationSection 6.5 Conditional Probability
Section 6.5 Conditional Probability Example 1: An urn contains 5 green marbles and 7 black marbles. Two marbles are drawn in succession and without replacement from the urn. a) What is the probability
More informationThe probability setup
CHAPTER 2 The probability setup 2.1. Introduction and basic theory We will have a sample space, denoted S (sometimes Ω) that consists of all possible outcomes. For example, if we roll two dice, the sample
More informationChapter 1. Probability
Chapter 1. Probability 1.1 Basic Concepts Scientific method a. For a given problem, we define measures that explains the problem well. b. Data is collected with observation and the measures are calculated.
More information19.4 Mutually Exclusive and Overlapping Events
Name Class Date 19.4 Mutually Exclusive and Overlapping Events Essential Question: How are probabilities affected when events are mutually exclusive or overlapping? Resource Locker Explore 1 Finding the
More informationTEST A CHAPTER 11, PROBABILITY
TEST A CHAPTER 11, PROBABILITY 1. Two fair dice are rolled. Find the probability that the sum turning up is 9, given that the first die turns up an even number. 2. Two fair dice are rolled. Find the probability
More informationProbability. Probabilty Impossibe Unlikely Equally Likely Likely Certain
PROBABILITY Probability The likelihood or chance of an event occurring If an event is IMPOSSIBLE its probability is ZERO If an event is CERTAIN its probability is ONE So all probabilities lie between 0
More informationSuch a description is the basis for a probability model. Here is the basic vocabulary we use.
5.2.1 Probability Models When we toss a coin, we can t know the outcome in advance. What do we know? We are willing to say that the outcome will be either heads or tails. We believe that each of these
More informationDef: The intersection of A and B is the set of all elements common to both set A and set B
Def: Sample Space the set of all possible outcomes Def: Element an item in the set Ex: The number "3" is an element of the "rolling a die" sample space Main concept write in Interactive Notebook Intersection:
More informationProbability. The MEnTe Program Math Enrichment through Technology. Title V East Los Angeles College
Probability The MEnTe Program Math Enrichment through Technology Title V East Los Angeles College 2003 East Los Angeles College. All rights reserved. Topics Introduction Empirical Probability Theoretical
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Statistics Homework Ch 5 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Provide an appropriate response. 1) A coin is tossed. Find the probability
More informationChapter 1. Probability
Chapter 1. Probability 1.1 Basic Concepts Scientific method a. For a given problem, we define measures that explains the problem well. b. Data is collected with observation and the measures are calculated.
More information05 Adding Probabilities. 1. CARNIVAL GAMES A spinner has sections of equal size. The table shows the results of several spins.
1. CARNIVAL GAMES A spinner has sections of equal size. The table shows the results of several spins. d. a. Copy the table and add a column to show the experimental probability of the spinner landing on
More informationFall (b) Find the event, E, that a number less than 3 is rolled. (c) Find the event, F, that a green marble is selected.
Fall 2018 Math 140 WeekinReview #6 Exam 2 Review courtesy: Kendra Kilmer (covering Sections 3.13.4, 4.14.4) (Please note that this review is not all inclusive) 1. An experiment consists of rolling
More informationPROBABILITY. 1. Introduction. Candidates should able to:
PROBABILITY Candidates should able to: evaluate probabilities in simple cases by means of enumeration of equiprobable elementary events (e.g for the total score when two fair dice are thrown), or by calculation
More informationMath 1324 Finite Mathematics Sections 8.2 and 8.3 Conditional Probability, Independent Events, and Bayes Theorem
Finite Mathematics Sections 8.2 and 8.3 Conditional Probability, Independent Events, and Bayes Theorem What is conditional probability? It is where you know some information, but not enough to get a complete
More informationFundamentals of Probability
Fundamentals of Probability Introduction Probability is the likelihood that an event will occur under a set of given conditions. The probability of an event occurring has a value between 0 and 1. An impossible
More informationProbability Test Review Math 2. a. What is? b. What is? c. ( ) d. ( )
Probability Test Review Math 2 Name 1. Use the following venn diagram to answer the question: Event A: Odd Numbers Event B: Numbers greater than 10 a. What is? b. What is? c. ( ) d. ( ) 2. In Jason's homeroom
More informationProbability Models. Section 6.2
Probability Models Section 6.2 The Language of Probability What is random? Empirical means that it is based on observation rather than theorizing. Probability describes what happens in MANY trials. Example
More informationThe probability setup
CHAPTER The probability setup.1. Introduction and basic theory We will have a sample space, denoted S sometimes Ω that consists of all possible outcomes. For example, if we roll two dice, the sample space
More informationSection 6.1 #16. Question: What is the probability that a fivecard poker hand contains a flush, that is, five cards of the same suit?
Section 6.1 #16 What is the probability that a fivecard poker hand contains a flush, that is, five cards of the same suit? page 1 Section 6.1 #38 Two events E 1 and E 2 are called independent if p(e 1
More informationChapter 5  Elementary Probability Theory
Chapter 5  Elementary Probability Theory Historical Background Much of the early work in probability concerned games and gambling. One of the first to apply probability to matters other than gambling
More informationSimple Probability. Arthur White. 28th September 2016
Simple Probability Arthur White 28th September 2016 Probabilities are a mathematical way to describe an uncertain outcome. For eample, suppose a physicist disintegrates 10,000 atoms of an element A, and
More informationBefore giving a formal definition of probability, we explain some terms related to probability.
probability 22 INTRODUCTION In our daytoday life, we come across statements such as: (i) It may rain today. (ii) Probably Rajesh will top his class. (iii) I doubt she will pass the test. (iv) It is unlikely
More informationName: Class: Date: 6. An event occurs, on average, every 6 out of 17 times during a simulation. The experimental probability of this event is 11
Class: Date: Sample Mastery # Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. One repetition of an experiment is known as a(n) random variable expected value
More informationChapter 3: Elements of Chance: Probability Methods
Chapter 3: Elements of Chance: Methods Department of Mathematics Izmir University of Economics Week 34 20142015 Introduction In this chapter we will focus on the definitions of random experiment, outcome,
More informationFALL 2012 MATH 1324 REVIEW EXAM 4
FALL 01 MATH 134 REVIEW EXAM 4 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Write the sample space for the given experiment. 1) An ordinary die
More informationLenarz Math 102 Practice Exam # 3 Name: 1. A 10sided die is rolled 100 times with the following results:
Lenarz Math 102 Practice Exam # 3 Name: 1. A 10sided die is rolled 100 times with the following results: Outcome Frequency 1 8 2 8 3 12 4 7 5 15 8 7 8 8 13 9 9 10 12 (a) What is the experimental probability
More informationMATH 215 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTOR: P. WENG
MATH DISCRETE MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTOR: P. WENG Counting and Probability Suggested Problems Basic Counting Skills, InclusionExclusion, and Complement. (a An office building contains 7 floors and has 7 offices
More informationChapter 3: PROBABILITY
Chapter 3 Math 3201 1 3.1 Exploring Probability: P(event) = Chapter 3: PROBABILITY number of outcomes favourable to the event total number of outcomes in the sample space An event is any collection of
More informationATHS FC Math Department Al Ain Remedial worksheet. Lesson 10.4 (Ellipses)
ATHS FC Math Department Al Ain Remedial worksheet Section Name ID Date Lesson Marks Lesson 10.4 (Ellipses) 10.4, 10.5, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 Intervention Plan Page 1 of 19 Gr 12 core c 2 = a 2 b 2 Question
More informationProbability and Counting Techniques
Probability and Counting Techniques Diana Pell (Multiplication Principle) Suppose that a task consists of t choices performed consecutively. Suppose that choice 1 can be performed in m 1 ways; for each
More informationElementary Statistics. Basic Probability & Odds
Basic Probability & Odds What is a Probability? Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with calculating the likelihood of a given event to happen or not, which is expressed as a number between
More informationSection 11.4: Tree Diagrams, Tables, and Sample Spaces
Section 11.4: Tree Diagrams, Tables, and Sample Spaces Diana Pell Exercise 1. Use a tree diagram to find the sample space for the genders of three children in a family. Exercise 2. (You Try!) A soda machine
More informationMath 227 Elementary Statistics. Bluman 5 th edition
Math 227 Elementary Statistics Bluman 5 th edition CHAPTER 4 Probability and Counting Rules 2 Objectives Determine sample spaces and find the probability of an event using classical probability or empirical
More informationMutually Exclusive Events Algebra 1
Name: Mutually Exclusive Events Algebra 1 Date: Mutually exclusive events are two events which have no outcomes in common. The probability that these two events would occur at the same time is zero. Exercise
More informationProbability  Chapter 4
Probability  Chapter 4 In this chapter, you will learn about probability its meaning, how it is computed, and how to evaluate it in terms of the likelihood of an event actually happening. A cynical person
More informationGrade 6 Math Circles Fall Oct 14/15 Probability
1 Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Grade 6 Math Circles Fall 2014  Oct 14/15 Probability Probability is the likelihood of an event occurring.
More information(a) Suppose you flip a coin and roll a die. Are the events obtain a head and roll a 5 dependent or independent events?
Unit 6 Probability Name: Date: Hour: Multiplication Rule of Probability By the end of this lesson, you will be able to Understand Independence Use the Multiplication Rule for independent events Independent
More informationProbability is often written as a simplified fraction, but it can also be written as a decimal or percent.
CHAPTER 1: PROBABILITY 1. Introduction to Probability L EARNING TARGET: I CAN DETERMINE THE PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT. What s the probability of flipping heads on a coin? Theoretically, it is 1/2 1 way to
More informationChapter 5: Probability: What are the Chances? Section 5.2 Probability Rules
+ Chapter 5: Probability: What are the Chances? Section 5.2 + TwoWay Tables and Probability When finding probabilities involving two events, a twoway table can display the sample space in a way that
More informationProbability and Randomness. Day 1
Probability and Randomness Day 1 Randomness and Probability The mathematics of chance is called. The probability of any outcome of a chance process is a number between that describes the proportion of
More informationChapter 4: Probability and Counting Rules
Chapter 4: Probability and Counting Rules Before we can move from descriptive statistics to inferential statistics, we need to have some understanding of probability: Ch4: Probability and Counting Rules
More information7 5 Compound Events. March 23, Alg2 7.5B Notes on Monday.notebook
7 5 Compound Events At a juice bottling factory, quality control technicians randomly select bottles and mark them pass or fail. The manager randomly selects the results of 50 tests and organizes the data
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Practice for Final Exam Name Identify the following variable as either qualitative or quantitative and explain why. 1) The number of people on a jury A) Qualitative because it is not a measurement or a
More informationThe point value of each problem is in the lefthand margin. You must show your work to receive any credit, except on problems 1 & 2. Work neatly.
Introduction to Statistics Math 1040 Sample Exam II Chapters 57 4 Problem Pages 4 Formula/Table Pages Time Limit: 90 Minutes 1 No Scratch Paper Calculator Allowed: Scientific Name: The point value of
More informationMATH CALCULUS & STATISTICS/BUSN  PRACTICE EXAM #1  SPRING DR. DAVID BRIDGE
MATH 205  CALCULUS & STATISTICS/BUSN  PRACTICE EXAM #  SPRING 2006  DR. DAVID BRIDGE TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. Tell whether the statement is
More information4. Are events C and D independent? Verify your answer with a calculation.
Honors Math 2 More Conditional Probability Name: Date: 1. A standard deck of cards has 52 cards: 26 Red cards, 26 black cards 4 suits: Hearts (red), Diamonds (red), Clubs (black), Spades (black); 13 of
More informationObjective: Determine empirical probability based on specific sample data. (AA21)
Do Now: What is an experiment? List some experiments. What types of things does one take a "chance" on? Mar 1 3:33 PM Date: Probability  Empirical  By Experiment Objective: Determine empirical probability
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Study Guide for Test III (MATH 1630) Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the number of subsets of the set. 1) {x x is an even
More informationChapter 11: Probability and Counting Techniques
Chapter 11: Probability and Counting Techniques Diana Pell Section 11.1: The Fundamental Counting Principle Exercise 1. How many different twoletter words (including nonsense words) can be formed when
More informationSTANDARD COMPETENCY : 1. To use the statistics rules, the rules of counting, and the characteristic of probability in problem solving.
Worksheet 4 th Topic : PROBABILITY TIME : 4 X 45 minutes STANDARD COMPETENCY : 1. To use the statistics rules, the rules of counting, and the characteristic of probability in problem solving. BASIC COMPETENCY:
More informationChapterwise questions. Probability. 1. Two coins are tossed simultaneously. Find the probability of getting exactly one tail.
Probability 1. Two coins are tossed simultaneously. Find the probability of getting exactly one tail. 2. 26 cards marked with English letters A to Z (one letter on each card) are shuffled well. If one
More informationWEEK 7 REVIEW. Multiplication Principle (6.3) Combinations and Permutations (6.4) Experiments, Sample Spaces and Events (7.1)
WEEK 7 REVIEW Multiplication Principle (6.3) Combinations and Permutations (6.4) Experiments, Sample Spaces and Events (7.) Definition of Probability (7.2) WEEK 87.3, 7.4 and Test Review THE MULTIPLICATION
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
6. Practice Problems Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find the probability. ) A bag contains red marbles, blue marbles, and 8
More informationPermutations: The number of arrangements of n objects taken r at a time is. P (n, r) = n (n 1) (n r + 1) =
Section 6.6: Mixed Counting Problems We have studied a number of counting principles and techniques since the beginning of the course and when we tackle a counting problem, we may have to use one or a
More information6) A) both; happy B) neither; not happy C) one; happy D) one; not happy
MATH 00  PRACTICE TEST 2 Millersville University, Spring 202 Ron Umble, Instr. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Find all natural
More informationName. Is the game fair or not? Prove your answer with math. If the game is fair, play it 36 times and record the results.
Homework 5.1C You must complete table. Use math to decide if the game is fair or not. If Period the game is not fair, change the point system to make it fair. Game 1 Circle one: Fair or Not 2 six sided
More informationConditional Probability Worksheet
Conditional Probability Worksheet EXAMPLE 4. Drug Testing and Conditional Probability Suppose that a company claims it has a test that is 95% effective in determining whether an athlete is using a steroid.
More informationBasic Probability. Let! = # 8 # < 13, # N ,., and / are the subsets of! such that  = multiples of four. = factors of 24 / = square numbers
Basic Probability Let! = # 8 # < 13, # N ,., and / are the subsets of! such that  = multiples of four. = factors of 24 / = square numbers (a) List the elements of!. (b) (i) Draw a Venn diagram to show
More informationName: Section: Date:
WORKSHEET 5: PROBABILITY Name: Section: Date: Answer the following problems and show computations on the blank spaces provided. 1. In a class there are 14 boys and 16 girls. What is the probability of
More informationStat210 WorkSheet#2 Chapter#2
1. When rolling a die 5 times, the number of elements of the sample space equals.(ans.=7,776) 2. If an experiment consists of throwing a die and then drawing a letter at random from the English alphabet,
More informationMost of the time we deal with theoretical probability. Experimental probability uses actual data that has been collected.
AFM Unit 7 Day 3 Notes Theoretical vs. Experimental Probability Name Date Definitions: Experiment: process that gives a definite result Outcomes: results Sample space: set of all possible outcomes Event:
More informationCHAPTERS 14 & 15 PROBABILITY STAT 203
CHAPTERS 14 & 15 PROBABILITY STAT 203 Where this fits in 2 Up to now, we ve mostly discussed how to handle data (descriptive statistics) and how to collect data. Regression has been the only form of statistical
More informationABC High School, Kathmandu, Nepal. Topic : Probability
BC High School, athmandu, Nepal Topic : Probability Grade 0 Teacher: Shyam Prasad charya. Objective of the Module: t the end of this lesson, students will be able to define and say formula of. define Mutually
More informationRANDOM EXPERIMENTS AND EVENTS
Random Experiments and Events 18 RANDOM EXPERIMENTS AND EVENTS In daytoday life we see that before commencement of a cricket match two captains go for a toss. Tossing of a coin is an activity and getting
More informationQuiz 2 Review  on Notebook Paper Are You Ready For Your Last Quiz In Honors Math II??
Quiz 2 Review  on Notebook Paper Are You Ready For Your Last Quiz In Honors Math II?? Some things to Know, Memorize, AND Understand how to use are n What are the formulas? Pr ncr Fill in the notation
More informationApplications of Probability
Applications of Probability CK12 Kaitlyn Spong Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive
More informationCHAPTER 2 PROBABILITY. 2.1 Sample Space. 2.2 Events
CHAPTER 2 PROBABILITY 2.1 Sample Space A probability model consists of the sample space and the way to assign probabilities. Sample space & sample point The sample space S, is the set of all possible outcomes
More informationProbability MAT230. Fall Discrete Mathematics. MAT230 (Discrete Math) Probability Fall / 37
Probability MAT230 Discrete Mathematics Fall 2018 MAT230 (Discrete Math) Probability Fall 2018 1 / 37 Outline 1 Discrete Probability 2 Sum and Product Rules for Probability 3 Expected Value MAT230 (Discrete
More informationGrade 7/8 Math Circles February 25/26, Probability
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Probability Grade 7/8 Math Circles February 25/26, 2014 Probability Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Probability is the study of how likely
More information